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Chemistry | Q | R |
Table of Contents
Chemistry Q
Quantity of chemical to be used in experiments: 3.4.2
Quartz, SiO2: 35.14.0 (Geology)
Quartzite, SiO2: 35.23.5,(Geology)
Quercetin, C15H10O7
Quicklime, CaO, calcium oxide
Quicksilver, liquid mercury
Quillaia, Quillaic acid
Quinacrine, C23H30ClN3O, antimalarial
Quinaldine red, C21H23IN2: 31 (indicator)
Quinazoline derivatives: 16.3.31
Quinhydrone electrode: 33.3.0
Quinidine, C20H24N2O2
Quinine, C20H25N2O2:
Quinol, C6H4(OH)2:, See: 5. Hydroquinone
Quinoline, C9H7N
Quinoline yellow
Quinoline derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.23
Quinolizidine, C9H17N
Quinolizidine derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.24
Quintozene: 16.6.8 (fungicide)
Quisqualic acid, C5H7N3O5

Chemistry R
Table of Contents
Racemic acid, Tartaric acid, C4H6O6
Radiation, radioactivity, radioactive elements
Radical: 7.9.46
Radical, Tests for metallic radicals:
Radium, Ra
Radon, Rn
Raffinose, Oligosaccharides
Rain, Calcium carbonate dissolves in rain water:
Rain, Cations and anions in rain, rivers and sea water: 18.2.7
Rain smells, Geosmin, C12H22O
Rainbow reactions, Butyl chloride rainbow reactions: 12.1.11
Rainbows, visible spectrum
Raoult's law (vapour pressure): 24.1.03
Raphanin (C6H9NOS2)
Raphides (calcium oxalate monohydrate)
Rare earth elements, lanthanides: 2.11.0
Rare gases, Noble gases: 1.9.0
Raspberry ketone, C10H12O2
Rate of reaction: 17.1.0
Rates of solution: 7.7.12
Ratio and proportion, concentration, 3.7.0
Rayon polymer
Razor blades and knives: 2.10
RDX explosive, C3H6N6O6, Nitrosamines:
Reactions, Chemical reactions, types of chemical reactions: 12.2.0
Reactions of:
Reactivity series of metals as reducing agents (reactivity series, electrochemical series): 12.14.0
Reagent, chemicals standards
Reagents, Prepare reagents: Table 10.0
See: Reagents (Commercial)
Realgar mineral, As4S4, Arsenic, minerals containing arsenic: (Geology)
Rebaudioside, C44H70O13
Recording timer, "ticker timer": 14.2.3
Rectifier, Simple chemical rectifier: 33.3.5
Recycle chemicals
Red cabbage, Prepare red cabbage acid-base indicator: 5.6.9
Red lead, Pb3O4, Lead (II/IV) oxide
Red phosphorus: 7.33.1
Red phosphorus, safety matches: Matches
Redox (reduction-oxidation reactions)
Reduce, reducing, reductants, reduction
Reductants, List of chemical reductants: 1.22
Reduction reactions, reduce: 12.2.2
Refractometers, (Commercial)
Refrigerants: 14.2.7
Relative atomic mass of magnesium: 5.1.14
Relative density, RD, Density of liquid, density bottle: 11.2.0
Relative density, RD, Hydrometers: 10.2.0
Relative density, Specific gravity: 5.1.12
Re-lighting candles
Renewable energy, biomass, hydroelectric, solar, wind: 9.0.1
Renewable Energy, (Commercial)
Rennet (rennin or rennilase) (cheese-making)
Reproductive toxicity: 5.6
Resazurin, C12H7NO4: 32 (indicator)
Rescinnamine, C35H42N2O9
Reserpine, C33H40N2O9
Residuals (bitumen, "tar", asphalt, waxes):
Resistance to pesticides: 16.18.5
Resorcinol, C6H4(OH)2
Resorcinol, Prepare formaldehyde-resorcinol resin:
Respiration in organisms: 9.10.0
Restore bronze coins, Corrosion of alloys: 15.3.14
Resuscitation: 9.242.0
Resveratrol, C14H12O3
Retene, C18H18
Retinal, C20H28O, Vitamin A:
Retinol, C20H30O, Vitamin A:
Retort stand, retort clamp: 1.19
See: Retort Stands (Commercial)
Retronecine, C8H13NO2
Reverse osmosis, Osmosis, osmotic pressure, reverse osmosis: 9.14.0
Reynolds' dilatancy: 13.6.3
Rhamnazin, C17H14O7
Rhamnetin, C16H12O7
Rhein, C15H8O6, cassic acid
Rhenium, Re
Rhodamine dyes, Rhodamine B, Toxic From condensation of phthalic anhydride with m-dialkylaminophenols
Rhodinol, C10H20O
Rhodionin, C15H10O7
Rhodium, Rh
Rhodizonic acid, dihydrate: C6H2O6.2H2O, sodium salt (CO-CO.C.ONa)2
Rhodizonic acid, Tests for lead:
Rhodochrosite, MnCO3, manganese carbonate (Geology)
Rhododendrol, C10H14O2
Rhodonite, MnSiO3, manganese silicate (Geology)
Rhodopin, C40H58O
Rhodoxanthin, C40H50O2
Rhyolite: 35.21.5 (Geology)
Ribonucleic acid, bakers yeast: 4.4.0
Rice grain slopes, Prepare: 6.11
Ricinine, C8H8N2O2
Ricinoleic acid, C17H32(OH)COOH, Castor oil:
Riddelline, C18H23NO6
Ringer solution, Prepare: 1.7
Risk assessment: 3.1.2
See: Risk Assessment (Commercial)
RNA, DNA and RNA: 4.4.0
Roasting meat: (Cooking)
Rochelle salt, KNaC4H4O6.4H2O
Rochelle salt, Piezoelectricity:
Rock crystal, Quartz: 35.14.0 (Geology)
Rock salt, Halite, rock salt, NaCl: 35.20.19, (Geology)
Rocks: 35.7.0 (Geology)
Rocks and minerals, general properties: 35.4.0
RODP, relative ozone depletion potential: Table
Roentgenium, Rg
Rofecoxib, "Vioxx"
Roman alphabet
Rorifone, C11H21NO2S
Rosaniline hydrochloride (C19H17N3. HCl), Basic fuchsin, microscopy stain: 3.5.2
Rosarin, C20H28O10
Rose bengal sodium salt, C20H2Cl4I4Na2O5
Rose oxide, C10H18O
Rose petal, Prepare rose petal acid-base indicator: 5.6.7 (indicator)
Rose quartz, Quartz: 35.14.0 (Geology)
Rosmarinic acid, C18H16O8
Rotenone, C23H22O6, derris: 16.1.2
Rotundine, C15H21NO
RU-486, Mifepristone
Rubeanic acid, Tests for copper:, (See: 2.)
Rubber, latex, caoutchouc
Rubbing alcohol, surgical spirit: 16.5.10
Rubidium, Rb
RuBisCO, C5H12O11P2
Rubixanthin, C40H56O
Ruby, Corundum: (Geology)
Rusting: 15.3.0
Rutaecarpine, C18H13N3O: 16.7.6
Ruthenium, Ru
Rutherfordium, Rf
Rutile, TiO2: 35.20.37 (Geology)
Rutin, C27H30O16
Rutin hydrate, C27H30O16.xH2O: (Geology)

Boiling, test the cooking water: 19.3.3
Cocoa "beans" contain riboflavin.
Flavonoids (Bioflavonoids), plant polyphenols, phytochemicals:
Food additive E10, 1 Riboflavin, Riboflavin-5'-phosphate (vitamin B2), (In green vegetables, eggs, milk, liver), colour: orange to
yellow) (in margarine)
Freezing, thawing and cold storage of meat: 19.3.06
Lost nutrients in food: 19.3.03
Pasteurization and UHT (Ultra High temperature) of milk: 19.3.12
Peeled cassava tubers may contain riboflavin 0.03 mg.
Poultry composition: 22.4
Regular cows milk, whole milk: 16.2.1
Uses of bananas: 18.0

Quartz, SiO2
Silica, SiO2, silica gel, silicon dioxide
Quartz (agate, amethyst, cornelian onyx (carnelian onyx), chalcedony, jasper, onyx, opal, rock crystal, rose quartz, smoky quartz)
Quartz, SiO2, silicon dioxide, quartz sand

Quartz: 35.14.0
Colour of opaque objects: 4.140
Expanding quartz and glass: 23.3.11
Make molecular models (quartz): 3.5.1
Separate by densities, quartz: 3.27
Silicon reactions: 12.15.0
Voltage produced by mechanical stress to crystals, piezoelectricity:

Radiation, radioactivity, radioactive elements
Ultraviolet, Pyranometer, (Commercial)
Nuclear physics, Geiger counter, (Commercial)

Antimony properties:
Chlorine lost by ultraviolet radiation: 18.7.13 (Swimming pools)
Crookes' radiometer: 20.4.2
Electromagnetic spectrum (diagram): 28.133
Electromagnetic waves, spectrum: 27.4.0
Feel radiation through glass: 4.35
Focus radiant heat waves: 4.33
Force, fundamental forces: 16.01
Hazard classification and experiments: 3.1.4
Heat radiation: 23.1
Heat of:
Infrared rays source (IR): 4.135
Ionization by radioactivity, smoke alarms, electroscope:
Ionizing radiation, Geiger counter: 2.9.0
Photolysis: 7.9.42
Radiation, ionizing radiation, Geiger counter: 2.9.0
Radiation hazards: 7.2.0
Radiation pressure, "light pressure": 27.10.0
Radio waves, radio station: 38.6.0
Radioactive carbon dating: 2.10.1
Radioactive decay of bismuth-214: 7.2.5
Radioactive element, stable isotope, half life: 2.10.0
Radioactive substances: 7.1.1
Radioactivity, radiation units, curie:
Radiopharmaceuticals, Technetium 99m: 7.2.4
Smoke alarms
Solar ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer: 37.34
Transfer heat by radiation: 4.32
Uranium properties:
Uraninite, UO2: 35.20.46
Rainbows, visible spectrum
See: Light Newton's colour disk, (Scientrific)
"Rainbow Glasses, Multi Axis", diffraction grating (toy product)
"Rainbow Glasses, Single Axis, 500 lines / mm diffraction grating (toy product)
"Rainbow Peepholes", diffraction gratings (toyproductl)

27.180 Rainbows, spectrum
27.107 Primary colours, rainbow
27.193 Visible spectrum, rainbow
37.46 Weather sayings (See: 2. Rainbow)
27.94 Barber pole, circular polarization, (See: 2.)
4.132 Colours of sunlight, rainbow
27.34 Diffraction of light, diffraction grating, spectroscope (See: 2, 6)
12.1.11 Butyl chloride rainbow reactions
27.80 Oil on water, petrol on water, thin film interference
3.10 Rainbow colours (Primary)
4.134 Spectroscope, diffraction grating, (See: 1, 5)
4.114 Spectrum, with a ray box, dispersion

Radium, Ra, Table of Elements
Radium (Latin radius, spoke), alkaline earth metal.
Radium is a radioactive alkaline earth metal, used in some cancer therapy, extracted from pitchblende, uraninite, used as a radioactive
Radiation dose from entry of radioactive materials into the body: 7.2.2
Atomic number: 88, Relative atomic mass: 226.025, r.d. 5.0, m.p. = 700oC, b.p. = 1140oC.
Specific heat capacity: 121 J kg-1 K-1

Radon, Rn, Table of Elements
Radon, Rn (from Ra radioactive decay), in former health spas, Rn-222, Group 18, last noble gas found.
Radon is a non-metal noble colourless water-soluble gas at room temperature and pressure.
Rn2 is formed by decay of radium-226, usually under granite, where it may be a health habit to people living in granite houses.
Radon has few compounds and is used in radiotherapy.
Atomic number: 86, Relative atomic mass: (222), r.d. 4.4 (211 K), m.p. = -71oC, b.p. = -61.8oC.
Specific heat capacity: 92 J kg-1 K-1

Rayon polymer: 3.8.14
Burning tests for synthetic fibres: 4.3.0
Electrostatic series, insulators: 31.1.02
Organic builders:
Prepare rayon:
Prepare rayon "artificial silk":

Recycle chemicals
Recycle chemicals, Disposal: 3.4.11
Plastics recycling code, recycling symbols: 3.5.3
Recycle copper: 12.7.8
Recycle heavy metals:
Recycle silver: 12.16.2

Redox (reduction-oxidation reactions)
8CH Redox reaction - Equipment for senior chemistry practicals (Commercial)
Redox indicators, List of redox indicators: 1.21
Redox reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions, electron transfer reactions):
Redox reactions, Disproportionation:
Redox titration for weight of iron (II) sulfate in capsule of iron supplement:
Redox titration, iron (II) sulfate:
Redox reactions, Oxidation and reduction, 15.2.0

Reduce, reducing, reductants, reduction
Reduction, in a cell, oxidation at the anode and reduction occurs at the cathode
Reduce carbon dioxide with burning Mg: 3.34.4
Reduce copper (I) oxide, to copper: 10.10.2
Reduce copper (II) sulfate to copper sulfide, 12.1.41
Reduce copper oxide with natural gas, methane:
Reduce iron (III) chloride with H2S: 3.43.3
Reduce iron (III) chloride with SO2: 3.51.3
Reduce iron (III) sulfate to iron (II) sulfate: 12.2.8
Reduce metal oxides to metals: 3.39.0
Reduce metal oxides to metals, red lead: 10.10.1
Reduce nitrate to ammonia:
Reduce KMnO4 with hydrogen sulfide: 3.43.2
Reduce KMnO4 with sulfur dioxide: 3.51.2
Reduce red iron oxide, or rust, to iron: 10.10.3
Reducing agent, activity of metals: 12.14.0
Reducing agent, separate metals: 10.10.0
Reducing agents, Oxidizing agents and reducing agents: 15.5.0
Reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars:
Reductants (reducing agents): 15.2B
Reductants, List of chemical reductants: 1.22
Reduction potential, E0: 3.84.6
Tests for reducing sugars, Benedict's test: 9.141

Rhein, C15H8O6, cassic acid, rhubarb yellow, rheic acid, glucorein (rhein-8-glucoside), yellow needles or powder, cathartic, in
Rheum species, rhubarbs, Polygonaceae

Resins and gums: 3.0.0
Resin Identification Code, plastics recycling: 3.5.3
Resin, ion exchange resin, anion exchange resin ("Permutit"), DOWNEX AGI-X8
Zeolite A, synthetic laundry detergent, Na12Al12Si12O48.27H2O
Zeolite, e.g. albite, Na(AlSi3O8)
Remove water hardness:
Prepare soap, household soap: 19.6.6
Resin, Latin: resina, resinum from a pine
Resins were originally any hard, sticky, inflammable substance, insoluble in water, usually collected by incisions into trees, e.g. pine trees.
They contained organic polymers and terpenoids.
Later, synthetic resins or plastics were invented, which at first looked like natural resins.

Igneous rocks: 35.21.0
Metamorphic rocks: 35.23.0
Sedimentary rocks: 35.22.0

Rhenium, Re, Table of Elements
Rhenium (Latin Rhenus Rhine river)

Rhodium, Rh, Table of Elements
Rhodium (Greek rhodos rose, from pink colour of Rh compounds), jewellery electroplating
Rhodium trichloride
Rhodium, Catalytic converter:

, Rg, Table of Elements
Roentgenium (William Roentgen, 1845-1923, Germany, discovered X-rays), radioactive, transuranic ( atomic number > 92)

, Rb, Table of Elements
Rubidium (Latin rubidus red, two red lines in spectrum), silver-white, very reactive, alkali metal, in pegmatites, lepidolite and pollucite

, Ru, Table of Elements
Ruthenium (Latin Ruthenia Russia), silver-white, rare similar to platinum, catalyst, hardens alloys
In electrical contacts, platinum alloys, jewellery electroplating for "high-tech grey-black look"
Ruthenium (III chloride
Ruthenium (III) chloride hydrate
Ruthenium carbonyl

, Rf, Table of Elements
Rutherfordium (Earnest Rutherford, 1971-1937, New Zealand, UK), Rutherfordium is radioactive, transuranic ( atomic number > 92)

Reactions of:
Reactions of aluminium: 12.1.0
Reactions of ammonium salts and potassium salts with water: 14.2.1
Reactions of antimony: 12.2.1
Reactions of arsenic and arsenic compounds: 12.2.2
Reactions of aspirin (rate of reaction): 17.2.4
Reactions of barium compounds: 12.2.3
Reactions of benzene: 16.8.1
Reactions of bismuth compounds: 12.2.4
Reactions of bromides:
Reactions of bromine:
Reactions of bromine water (bromine solution):
Reactions of cadmium sulfate solution: 12.3.1
Reactions of calcium and calcium compounds: 12.4.1
Reactions of carbonates: 12.16.0
Reactions of chloramines in swimming pools: 18.7.23
Reactions of chlorine:
Reactions of chlorine with alkalis, bleaching powder: 13.4.15
Reactions of chlorine with benzene, 13.4.6
Reactions of chlorine with copper: 13.4.14
Reactions of chlorine with group 3 elements, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P:
Reactions of chlorine with sodium: 13.4.7
Reactions of chlorine with steel wool: 13.4.16
Reactions of chromium compounds, Cr: 12.5.0
Reactions of copper (I) compounds: 12.7.3
Reactions of copper (II) ions: 12.7.2
Reactions of copper (II) oxide, CuO: 12.7.1
Reactions of copper with iron:, (See: 2.)
Reactions of dichromates, potassium dichromate: 12.5.3
Reactions of dilute acids: 12.3.1
Reactions of dilute sulfuric acid as a acid:
Reactions of dilute sulfuric acid as a sulfate:
Reactions of hydrogen bromide, HBr:
Reactions of iodides:
Reactions of ions in solutions:
Reactions of iron:
Reactions of iron, Fe: 12.8.0
Reactions of iron (II) salts and iron (III) salts, Prussian blue: 14.8.1
Reactions of lead (II) salt: 12.9.1, (See 6.)
Reactions of lead (IV) salts: 12.9.2
Reactions of lithium:
Reactions of lithium with water: 12.9.3
Reactions of magnesium, burning or molten magnesium: 12.10.2
Reactions of magnesium compounds: 12.10.4
Reactions of magnesium oxide: 13.3.6
Reactions of magnesium with carbon dioxide, sparkler experiment: 3.77
Reactions of magnesium with water 12.10.1
Reactions of manganese (II) salts: 12.8.1
Reactions of mercury compounds: 12.8.4
Reactions of metals with air or oxygen gas: 12.14.02
Reactions of metals with concentrated oxidizing acids: 12.14.04
Reactions of metals with dilute acids: 12.14.03
Reactions of metals with ligands: 12.15.6
Reactions of metals with steam: 12.15.3
Reactions of metals with water: 12.15.0
Reactions of sodium with water: 3.73
Reactions of methane with steam: 3.39.1
Reactions of nickel:
Reactions of nickel compounds: 12.9.4
Reactions of nitrates: 12.11.2
Reactions of nitrites: 12.11.1
Reactions of non-metals with water:
Reactions of oxides: 12.17.0
Reactions of oxygen gas:
Reactions of permanganate ion: 15.4.0
Reactions of phosphites: 12.13.6
Reactions of phosphorus and phosphates: 12.13.1
Reactions of potassium nitrate with water: 14.2.5
Reactions of potassium salts with water: 14.2.1
Reactions of salts: 12.10.10
Reactions of salts with water: 3.75
Reactions of silver compounds: 12.16.1
Reactions of silver halides, photography:
Reactions of sodium chloride:
Reactions of sodium thiosulfate:
Reactions of sodium with water: 3.73
Reactions of strontium compounds: 12.17.1
Reactions of sulfamic acid: 12.18.7
Reactions of sulfuric acid: 12.18.5
Reactions of tin and tin compounds: 12.20.1
Reactions of two elements, Synthesis reactions (combination reactions):
Reactions of two elements, iron with sulfur:
Reactions of urea with nitrous acid: 16.6.15
Reactions of urea with soda lime: 16.6.16
Reactions of urea with sodium hypochlorite: 16.6.14
Reactions of zinc:
Reactions of zinc and zinc compounds: 12.21.1
Reactions of zinc with sulfur, synthesis: