School Science Lessons
Topic 03
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Laboratory safety

See: Safety, (Commercial)

Table of contents

3.0.0 Animal care and protection

3.5.13 Autoignition temperature

3.2.5 Biology experiments, live animals

22.6.3 Bunsen burner gas

3.3.5 CO2, soda siphon bulbs

15.5.1 Cooking safety

15.10.0 Chemicals Not permitted in schools

3.4.0 Chemicals safety

15.9.0 Cryogenic substances

3.9.5 DEA list of chemicals

3.9.7 DETE, Managing Chemical Risks

15.1.1 Dust explosions

3.2.0 Duties of a teacher

3.3.7 Electrical safety rules

12.4.7 Escape from submerged car

3.3.3 Eye-washing, safety showers

3.5.0 Fire safety and fire equipment

15.7.0 Flammable organic chemicals

3.5.14 Flash point

2.4 Fume cupboards, fume hoods

3.3.6 Glass wool

3.0 Health effects of chemicals

High risk substances

Laboratory safety

4.0 Laboratory safety and hazardous chemicals

7.0.0 Laboratory safety, physics teaching

7.5.0 Laser safety

2.1.0 Microbiology safety

16.18.0 Pesticides safety

4.0.0 Physical hazards

3.10.0 Poisons, First Aid

List 1D Protective clothing and equipment

7.2.0 Radiation hazards

9.242.0 Resuscitation

3.5.0 Science Education Laboratory Procedures

3.3.8 Sharps safety

Smoke alarms

See: Fire Safety Smoke alarms (commercial) Smoke alarms, electroscope, Ionization by radioactivity

16.19.0 Sprayers and dusters

3.4.13 Storing chemicals

3.9.2 Swimming pools, checklist

3.3.1 Test-tubes, microscope slides

4.0H Toxicity

3.1.0 Workplace Health and Safety Act

3.2.0 Duties of a teacher
3.2.3 Experimental procedures
3.1.5 Laboratory organization
3.2.2 Protective clothing and equipment
List 1D Protective clothing and equipment
3.2.1 Supervision of students
3.2.4 Teach manipulative skills

3.4.0 Chemicals safety
See: FIRST AID, (Commercial)
3.4.0 Chemicals safety
3.4.12 Chemicals spill kit
3.4.7 Chemicals swallowed
3.4.8 Chemical vapours and smelling chemicals
3.4.1 Correct names of chemicals
3.4.4 Corrosive substances
3.4.11 Disposal of waste chemicals
3.4.6 Gas or vapour inhalation, EAR, CPR
3.4.10 Handling and transferring chemicals
3.4.3 Prepare dilute acids and bases (Safety instructions)
3.4.2 Quantity of chemical to be used in experiments
3.4.5 Skin contamination
3.4.13 Storing chemicals
3.4.9 Tasting chemicals

3.4.12 Chemicals spill kit
3.4.12 Chemicals spill kit Hydrogen sulfide waste bottle Copper residues Lead residues Mercury residues Organic liquid residues Silver residues Zinc residues

3.4.13 Storing chemicals Storing chemicals, rules Storing acids, acetic acid Storing alkalis, ammonia solution Storing chromium (VI) oxide Storing flammable liquids Storing hygroscopic and deliquescent substances Storing organic chemicals Storing oxidizing agents Storing sodium and potassium Storing sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate

3.1.0 Workplace Health and Safety Act
3.1.1 Department of Education
3.1.4 Hazard classification and experiments
3.1.5 Laboratory organization
3.1.2 Risk Assessment
3.1.3 Teacher Responsibility

4.0 Laboratory safety and hazardous chemicals
15.10.0 Chemicals Not permitted in schools
15.9.0 Cryogenic solids and liquids
15.1.1 Dust explosions
15.7.0 Flammable organic chemicals
15.8.0 Flammable organic chemicals with low flash point below 32oC
3.1.4 Hazard classification and experiments
15.1.0 Hazards: Explosive, Flammable, Oxidizing, Poison, Harmful, Corrosive, Irritant (Table 15.1.0)
15.5.0 Hazard classifications used by NSW Department of Education and Training (DET), Australia
3.8.0 Hazards of gases
3.7.0 Hazards of anion compounds
3.8.0 Hazards of gases
3.9.6 Hazardous, toxic
18.2.4 Hazardous wastes, Tests for contamination of groundwater by refuse
3.0 Health effects of chemicals
15.6.0 High toxicity chemicals, Dr Hugh Cartwright, Chemistry Department, Oxford University
5.0.0 Health hazards (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
4.0.0 Physical hazards (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
27.30 Radiation hazards

3.1.0 Workplace Health and Safety Act, 1995
State of Queensland, Australia
3.1.1 Department of Education, State of Queensland, Australia
The Department of Education is committed to providing and maintaining a healthy and safe work and earning environment for all
employees, students and others.
The department has a statutory responsibility under the Workplace Health and Safety Act (2005), to ensure the risk of disease or
injury from the school or workplace is minimized for all persons in contact with the school or other departmental workplace.
Principals, teachers, and all other employees and persons at the school have an obligation for ensuring workplace health and safety at
the school.
In particular, the Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995 places a statutory obligation on employees and other persons at the school
to follow instructions for workplace health and safety, use personal protective equipment and behave responsibly in regard to
workplace health and safety while at school or involved in school activities.
Obligations for workplace health and safety should be ensured by:
1. identifying hazards,
2. assessing risks that may result because of the hazards,
3. deciding on control measures to prevent, or minimize the level of, the risks,
4. implementing control measures, and
5. monitoring and reviewing the effectiveness of the measures.

3.1.2 Risk assessment
See: Risk Assessment (Commercial)
Once a hazard has been identified, the consequences associated with it need to be determined.
In schools, the most likely effects to consider would be those that involve direct injury, e.g. cuts, burns, electrocution and poisoning.
Less likely effects might also include those arising from longer term exposure, e.g. exposure to materials containing asbestos.
Risk assessments may vary in complexity depending on the nature and location of the hazardous situation, the personnel and equipment
available, and the age and number of students present.
The underlying principle of all risk assessments is the consideration of consequences of the hazardous outcome and the probability or
frequency of the occurrence.
In general, when a learning / teaching activity occurs in the teaching of science, the risk is related to the probability of an injury or
illness occurring, the duration and frequency of exposure to the hazard, and the consequence or outcome of something going wrong.
The two major types of risk assessment
1. The potential effects of hazards that are immediate or acute.
These include hazards that are mechanical, electrical, penetrating injuries and some forms of manual handling.
2. The potential effects of hazards that are chronic or long-term hazards.
These include hazards that involve noise, hazardous substances / chemicals, repetitive movements and constrained postures.
Teachers of science should refer to the relevant risk assessment details in HS-10: Workplace Health and Safety.

3.1.3 Teacher responsibility
In accordance with the Department of Education Manual module HS-07: Occupational Health and Safety, teachers are responsible for
the health and safety of students while on school premises and participating in official school activities, wherever these may take place.
Teachers should take care to ensure that appropriate use is made of all safeguards, safety devices, personal protective equipment and
other appliances provided for health and safety,
(a) maintain healthy and safe procedures and practices,
(b) collaborate with Regional Occupational Health and Safety Consultants, employees of Education Queensland, workplace health and
safety representatives or workplace health and safety committees to assess hazards, which exist in the school or workplace, and to
eliminate or reduce the associated risks as required,
(c) identify hazards and minimize risks in science teaching areas,
(d) ensure that employees, students and other users of educational facilities receive appropriate workplace health and safety
information and training (see your School Health and Safety Officer or Principal),
(f) manage behaviour of students (including school ground and excursion activities),
(g) ensure all work injuries, work related illnesses and dangerous occurrences at the workplace are recorded.
Such records are to be completed and dispatched to the appropriate authorities within the designated period (see your Principal or
(h) ensure special needs groups, e.g. people with disabilities and persons from non-English speaking backgrounds, are considered in
regard to workplace health and safety issues.

3.1.4 Hazard classification and experiments
1. The experiments in this document do not require the use of any chemicals with the following hazard classifications:
Explosive, Oxidizing, Toxic, Radioactive, Highly flammable or Extremely flammable (flash point 21oC), or any chemical specified in
the Schedule 1 of the Poison Rules, UK.
However, some experiments requiring the use of propanone, acetone, as a solvent are included.
2. Preparations of small amounts of some dangerous gases are included on the assumption that only experienced science teachers do
the experiment and direct observation of these gases has educational value.
These experiments contain the warning:
This experiment must be done in a fume cupboard.
3. Another criterion for including some limited handling of dangerous substances by experienced teachers is that students may
experience these substances in their daily lives.
Propanone (acetone), was used for nail polish remover but is being phased out in the modern cosmetic industry.
Chlorine compounds are used for bleaches and water disinfectants.
Sulfuric acid is used in a motor car battery.
4. The warning "Be careful" is used in this document where experiments or procedures require special care.
However, the experiments described have been selected on the basis that a trained science teacher practises them before deciding
whether to include them in the teaching programme.
The trained science teacher who has the duty of care must decide which students are allowed to do the experiments themselves and
under what conditions.

3.1.5 Laboratory organization
1. Equipment and chemicals are stored in a systematic, orderly and a neat manner.
2. Equipment and chemicals borrowed from a preparation room or storage area is returned to the assigned place.
3. Teaching and storage rooms are uncluttered with no equipment protruding over benches, no dangling wires and no equipment
stored on the floor.
4. Bench tops are always clean.
Any spillage is wiped up immediately.
5. Reagent bottles are clearly labelled and filled regularly.
Reagent solutions and solids must be constantly checked and replaced where necessary from stock bottles.
The reagent bottles should be labelled with the name of the substance and the concentration of the solution.
Unused reagents should never be returned to the stock bottles.
6. Sinks are clean and not blocked with waste.
7. Separate waste bins are used for broken glass (which must be wrapped), for paper, for cloth and for solid chemical residues.
8. Water outlets, gas turrets on the benches, power outlets and electrical switches are in good working order.
9. The laboratory and storeroom doors are locked when not occupied.
10. Keep the laboratory safe and sealed! Before leaving the laboratory for the day:
1. Close the windows,
2. Lock away all the equipment,
3. Turn off lights, equipment and computers,
4. Lock all doors.

3.2.0 Duties of a teacher
Teachers should select school science lessons and laboratory experiences that are appropriate to the student group and the level of
When selecting laboratory experiences the teacher must check that school authorities approve the activity.
This document contains suggestions for practical teaching by a trained science teacher.
After choosing an experiment, the teacher should practise it in the preparation room before demonstrating it to students or before
requiring students to do it.
The teacher has the duty of making the decision about whether the experiment is safe for the children in the classroom or laboratory.
The level of risk of injury to students and teacher will vary from school to school, depending on:
1. expertise of the teacher,
2. size of the student group,
3. diversity of students, and
4. the facilities and equipment.

3.2.1 Supervision of students
Supervision of students must be continuous and vigilant so that unauthorized or inappropriate behaviour does not lead to accidents
resulting in physical injury, fires or other dangers.
Teachers must choose a set of laboratory rules to be prominently displayed and with copies given to students.
Students must know the rule and understand them.
Teachers must pay particular attention to the following rules:
1. Students do not enter any laboratory or storeroom unless a teacher is present.
2. Students do not eat or drink in the laboratory or storeroom.
3. Students do not taste chemicals.
4. Students must behave in a careful and businesslike manner.
5. Students are safely seated and not crowded, with fellow students, chemicals and glassware not within "elbow width".

3.2.2 Protective clothing and equipment
See: Clothing, (Commercial)
1. Students in chemistry classes should wear strong shoes and take care of unbuttoned long sleeves and long hair.
Students must wear protective clothing, e.g. aprons, safety glasses and nitrile chemical-resistant gloves when chemicals are being
Teachers should be aware of students who wear contact lenses.

2. Safety spectacles, | safety goggles
Students should wear safety spectacles or safety goggles if the experiment could propel chemicals into the eyes.
Students wearing prescription glasses should change to use safety glasses.
There is always the danger of hot or caustic materials being splashed into the eyes.

3. Safety gloves
See: Gloves (Commercial)
Many schools require students to wear heavy gloves, safety spectacles or safety goggles, and closed shoes for all experiments.
The four kinds of gloves are as follows:
3.1 Disposable surgical gloves, which are used during dissections, handling animal tissue and blood products, but not for chemicals,
3.2 Rubber washing-up gloves, which are not designed to protect against concentrated chemicals or organic solvents, e.g. acetone,
3.3 Nitrile chemical-resistant gloves, which are designed for handling concentrated acids and organic solvents,
3.4 Insulated heat-proof gloves.

3. Students must use safety glasses and nitrile chemical-resistant gloves if the school allows them to dilute concentrated acids or bases
and when heating chemicals to avoid the danger of hot or caustic materials being splashed into the eyes.
Students must wear insulated heat-proof gloves and aprons if the activity could result in damage to their hands or body.
Pay attention to unconfined long hair, jewellery, ties, unbuttoned long sleeves and loose clothing.
Synthetic garments that may be a fire hazard.
Students in chemistry classes should wear strong shoes that completely cover the feet and protect them from spilt corrosive or hot
Students may not wear sandals.

3.2.3 Experimental procedures
1. Read the label on reagent bottles twice to avoid errors.
2. Always follow exactly the instructions for chemical experiments.
3. Do not substitute another chemical for chemicals specified in the experiment instructions.
4. Always add a solid to a liquid reagent to achieve better control of gases that form in the reaction.
5. Do not let students do unauthorized experiments.
Some chemicals are safe by themselves, but they may form explosive mixtures when mixed with oxidizing agents, e.g. sulfur, sucrose,
(cane sugar), and powdered zinc.
6. This document does not recommend the use of gas generators, e.g. Kipp's apparatus.

3.2.4 Teach manipulative skills
Teachers should teach the necessary manipulative skills by demonstration before asking students to use the skills in an experiment.
These skills include heating of liquids or solids in test-tubes, heating large volumes of liquids, handling glassware containing hot liquids,
carrying glassware, handling of reagent bottles.
Diluting concentrated acids and inserting glass tubing or thermometers in rubber stoppers should be done by the teacher in the
preparation room before the experiment.

3.3.1 Test-tubes, microscope slides
See: Test-tubes, (Commercial)
1. Never look down a test-tube and never point the open end of a test-tube at a student while a reaction occurs.
Hold the test-tube up to the light and look from the side.
Put the test-tube in a test-tube rack before putting chemicals in it.
When heating substances in test-tubes, move the test-tube back and forth across the flame.
Heat substances in wide test-tubes or boiling tubes.

2. When transferring materials from one container to another, hold the containers at arms length.
Check glassware for cracks before use.
Put broken glass metal pieces and unused chemicals in a specially marked container and bury them.

3. Microscope slides and coverslips are easily broken.
Do not leave broken pieces on the desk.
After each class where microscopes are used, wipe the benches with a damp cloth to remove broken glass, especially broken

3.3.3 Eye washing, safety showers
Doors in and around preparation rooms are usually locked for security reasons.
However, to enable access to safety shower and eye washing facilities, ensure that connecting doors to preparation rooms are
unlocked and open at the beginning of science classes.
The first 30 seconds are critical in the treatment of chemical splashes in the eye.
The minimum recommended time for continuation of eye washing is 20 minutes.
Remove contact lenses.
For permanent eye washing fixtures, the water stream should allow continual irrigation of the eye without harmful pressure being
placed on it.
You can squeeze an eyewash bottle to irrigate the eye for a short period but a continuous supply of water may still be needed when
the eyewash bottle becomes empty.
Regularly empty and refill eyewash bottles to prevent contamination by algae and micro-organisms.
Wearing safety glasses lessens the possibility of eye injury.
Check the water pressure of safety showers or the nearest tap or hose.
Where safety showers are installed, the person affected by a chemical spill should stand in the appropriate place and be thoroughly
Where safety showers are not installed, use the nearest tap or hose.
Check periodically the permanent eye washing and safety shower facilities.
Also, check the water pressure of safety showers or the nearest tap or hose.

3.3.5 CO2, soda siphon bulbs
See diagram: 3.3.5: Soda chargers
Do not use carbon dioxide soda syphon bulbs in science teaching activities, e.g. demonstration of rocketry.
In a recent report, 2014, a student stole a carbon dioxide cylinder from a school laboratory, threw it into a fire at home and was killed
by the resulting explosion.
In the nine years between 1989 and 1998, the Australian Bomb Data Centre has revealed that there were 1, 011 reports of
"soda bombs" being used as explosive devices, often causing injuries and some deaths.
Soda siphon (syphon), bulbs are small metal canisters containing roughly 10 cubic centimetres of either carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide
under pressure, carbon dioxide to produce soda water and nitrous oxide to aerate cream.

3.3.6 Glass wool
Glass wool, Irritant (glass wool, silane-treated)
Glass wool is not recommended for use in school laboratories.
Students should not handle glass wool.
Thin pieces of glass wool can get into cuts and then into the bloodstream.
Do not touch glass wool with the fingers, wear protective gloves.
Do not breathe in glass wool fibres.
Teachers and laboratory assistants may use glass wool in the preparation room but they should wear an appropriate respiratory mask.
Do not reuse damaged glass wool because it may release glass fibre particles into the air.
Glass wool is sold as "Glass wool for laboratory use", with suggestions for eye shields, gloves and respirator filters.

3.3.7 Electrical safety rules
1. The apparatus in use has an up to date electrical safety tag (tag n test), label attached to the power lead.
2. The apparatus is connected to a Residual Current Device (Safety Switch).
Earth leakage detectors detects quite small currents to earth and turn of the supply very quickly to prevent electrocution.
3. The apparatus is only operated by the lecturer or trained personnel.
Never interfere with the mains.
Leave it to qualified persons.
4. Always carry-out a visual inspection of the apparatus before performing the demonstration.
5. Be aware of any tripping hazards due to leads on the floor.
6. Do not use electrical equipment if something has been spilled on or near the equipment.
7. Do not attempt to service any electrical apparatus unless you are qualified.
8. One is hand safer than two, because using two hands allows a current path across the chest.
The back of the hand is safer than the front of the hand, because the muscles that contract the hand are stronger than the muscles that
flatten it.
9. Dry, rubber soled shoes can insulate you from the floor.
10. Even small shocks can be dangerous to a person on a metal ladder.
11. Power saws and electric mowers may cut their own cable and electrocute the user.
12. Dry skin is not a very good conductor, but people with electrodes attached to them, or metal catheters in their veins, or salty gels
or bathing solution: have a low resistance pathway to their tissue and so are vulnerable.
Even static electric charges might be dangerous to them.
13. The master switches should be off before changing fuses.
14. Water is a conductor of electricity, so wet floors and baths are dangerous, because they provide a low resistance pathway from
body tissues to the ground.
15. If there is an accident act quickly.
First ensure you will not be put in danger of electrical shock by attempting to help the victim.
Switch off the electrical supply before removing the casualty.
If breathing has stopped, begin artificial respiration at once, if possible by the FIRST AID officer.

3.3.8 Sharps safety
If a demonstration requires any syringes or glass, there may be a broken glass or sharps hazard.
1. A dustpan and brush must be on hand in case of any breakage.
2. Any sharps must be disposed in a special sharps container.
3. Any broken glass must be disposed in a special broken glass container.
4. Gloves must be used when handling broken glass.
5. Goggles must be worn if broken glass fragments occur.
6. Should an injury occur, contact the appropriate authority.

3.4.0 Chemicals safety
If a demonstration requires any chemicals, there may be a risk of spilling hazardous materials.
1. Ensure that you are familiar with the relevant MSDS for the chemicals used or have discussed with the lecture demonstration
technician the relevant safety issues involved with any chemical used.
2. Be sure to have a chemical spill kit available with the demonstration.
Use Spill kits as instructed.
3. Be sure all chemicals are in labelled containers with a lid.
4. Do NOT pour chemicals until the moment they are required for the demonstration.
5. Be sure all unwanted chemicals are disposed of in the proper fashion.
6. Do NOT pour used chemicals down the sink.
7. Wear safety goggles where there is the possibility of eye contact.
8. Use spill trays if spillage is likely.
Follow the following general precautions:
1. Chemicals should be treated with caution.
Do not allow chemicals to come in contact with skin or clothing.
Remove contaminated clothing and bag it.
2. Spillage on the skin: Immediately wash affected area with water for several minutes.
3. For chemicals in the eyes, wash the eyes with running water for at least 10 minutes.
Inform safety officer and seek medical treatment.
4. Always report any accidents to the safety officer who may recommend seeking medical advice.

3.4.1 Correct names of chemicals
Usually, the chemical name used in this document is the standard name followed by synonyms.
These names were checked with names in the document "Education Queensland, (Australia), Aspects of Science management: A
reference manual for Schools" 1997 and the catalogue of Philip Harris, UK.

3.4.2 Quantity of chemical to be used in experiments
See: Chemistry, Chemicals (Commercial)
1. In this document, "dilute solution" refers to a 2 M solution, or a 10% solution, unless otherwise specified.
2. In this document, "concentrated acid", or any other substance, refers to the concentration supplied by chemical suppliers,
e.g. concentrated hydrochloric acid is 36% w / w, unless otherwise specified.
3. For all experiments, unless otherwise instructed, use either:
3.1 a 5 mL of solution, or
3.2 a test-tube filled to the depth of a finger width, or
3.3 the powder on a little finger nail, or
3.4 a piece of solid chemical the size of half a dried pea, or
3.5 no more than one third of a test-tube of any solution.
4. Do not make gas jars full of gas for demonstration purposes.
Use test-tubes with stoppers to collect gases.

3.4.3 Prepare dilute acids and bases (Safety instructions)
1. Prepare dilute acids by slowly adding ACID TO WATER.
2. Keep concentrated mineral acids, e.g. hydrochloric sulfuric or nitric acids, in a special container on the floor of a locked cupboard.
Only the teacher or a laboratory assistant may handle concentrated acids or strong bases.
3. Wear safety glasses to protect the eyes when handling concentrated acids.
Students may handle dilute mineral acids and bases, but if they spill them on the skin or in the eyes, wash immediately with plenty of
4. Organic acids are not so dangerous as mineral acids, but phenol (carbolic acid), and ethanedioic acid-2-water (oxalic acid), are
5. Strong bases, e.g. sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and potassium hydroxide (caustic potash), can cause burns.
6. Weaker bases, e.g. calcium hydroxide (lime water, slaked lime), can cause burns if they are left in contact with the skin.

3.4.4 Corrosive substances
1. Corrosive substances are those that cause severe skin damage.
How corrosive a substance is depends on the length of time taken for the damage to occur.
2. Splashes to the eyes present a far greater risk of severe injury than splashes to skin.
3. Indicators of corrosiveness
3.1 Highly corrosive substances cause visible severe skin damage at the site of contact in less than three minutes.
3.2 Corrosive substances cause visible severe skin damage at the site of contact in a period of three to sixty minutes.
3.3 Irritating substances cause visible severe skin damage at the site of contact in a period of up to four hours.

3.4.5 Skin contamination
1. The following sequence of procedures should be observed for skin contamination by substances other than phenolics:
Remove contaminated clothing and simultaneously irrigate thoroughly the affected area with water.
Continue drenching for five minutes and then wash the skin gently with a little soap and a lot of water.
Irrigate again with water and cover the affected area with gauze or lint.
2. The following sequence of procedures should be observed for skin contamination by phenolic substances:
Swab off the phenol using swabs soaked in glycerine or vegetable oil.
Discard each swab and continue with a new swab.
Care must be taken to avoid spreading the burn.

3.4.6 Gas or vapour inhalation, EAR, CPR
The following sequence of procedures should be observed for the inhalation of a poisonous substance, e.g. a gas:
1. Carry or drag the patient into fresh air.
Loosen clothing, check breathing, pulse and pupils of the eyes.
If the patient is not breathing, pulse is absent and eyes are dilated,
start Expired Air Resuscitation (EAR) / Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation, (CPR).
2. If patient is not breathing, but pulse is present, start Expired Air Resuscitation (EAR).
3. If patient is breathing but unconscious, place patient flat on the floor, roll the patient onto the right side, remove any dentures and
clean the mouth of mucus and vomitus.
Keep the patient's chin well up and forward by pushing on the angle of the jaw.
Keep the patient warm.
Do not give the unconscious patient anything by mouth.
If the patient is conscious, encourage the patient to take a series of rapid and deep breaths, then gradually bring the patient into a
sitting position.
Make certain the patient does not get up and walk around.
Make the patient lie flat if he or she feels faint.
4. If the heart has stopped beating, CPR can restore blood flow and ventilation.
The compression to the rib cage over the sternum reduces the volume of the thoracic cavity, squeezes the heart and pushes blood into
the aorta and pulmonary trunk.
With removal of the pressure, the thorax expands and blood moves into the main veins.
The cycles of compression must be interspersed with cycles of mouth-to-mouth breathing that maintain pulmonary ventilation.
It is difficult to practise CPR on a living person without causing injury, e.g. broken ribs.

3.4.7 Chemicals swallowed
The following sequence of procedures should be observed after ingestion of a poisonous substance.
Treatment for an unconscious patient
1. Do not give anything by mouth.
Place patient flat on back and then roll him / her onto the side.
Put your finger in the patient's mouth and remove dentures and any obstructions to breathing.
Hold the patient's jaw well up and forward.
2. Check breathing.
If not breathing, turn casualty on to back and apply E.A.R.
3. Check pulse.
If pulse absent, apply C.P.R.
Loosen clothing around neck, abdomen and chest.
4. If the patient vomits, clean out his / her mouth.
Arrange transport to hospital or doctor.

Treatment for a conscious patient
1. If the substance swallowed can be identified as a strong acid, a strong alkali or other corrosive, a phenolic substance, kerosene or a
petroleum product, or is listed under the poisons first aid list (which should be displayed in an appropriate location), as a substance for
which vomiting should not be induced, then do not induce vomiting but follow the first aid instructions.
2. Give fluids, water or milk only if indicated in the poisons first aid list for the specific poison.
Do not give more than 250 mL of any fluid because it may induce vomiting.
3. If vomiting is to be induced, use syrup of ipecac.
Do not give milk as this increases the risks if aspirated.
If advised by a doctor, or Poisons Information Centre, or if not contradicted above, induce vomiting by the appropriate dose of syrup
of ipecac: 30 mL for adult, 15 mL for children, followed by 200 mL of water.
If vomiting has not occurred in 30 minutes, the ipecac syrup may be repeated once only.
4. If in doubt about the identity of the poison, do not induce vomiting.
Keep the patient warm, comfortable and calm while waiting and being transported to a hospital.

3.4.8 Chemical vapours and smelling chemicals
See diagram 1.13: Smelling chemicals
1. Isolate chemical vapours by doing experiments in a fume cupboard or use very small quantities of chemicals near an open window
with good ventilation.
2. Do not inhale gases directly from the test-tube.
Fill the lungs by breathing in deeply.
Close the mouth then fan the gas towards the nose with the hand and sniff cautiously.
If you detect no odour, move closer and try again.
When you detect the odour, breathe out through the nose again.

3.4.9 Tasting chemicals
Never taste a chemical or any substance in the laboratory except for a few experiments where you are specifically told to taste the

3.4.10 Handling and transferring chemicals
See: Pipettes (commercial websites).
When adding chemicals to a reaction or container:
1. Students should not touch any chemical, but use a spatula or gloves, except for a few experiments when students are told to feel the
texture of chemicals or minerals to determine whether they are crystalline or amorphous.
If students do touch any chemical, they should immediately wash their hands with soap and water.
2. The best way to add chemical to a container is to pour the powdered or crystalline chemical into a creased rectangle of clean paper
then tip the chemical from this paper held in a V- shape.
3. When taking chemicals from a container, after removing the stopper, keep holding the stopper in one hand so that you can replace it
immediately afterwards.
This method ensures that the chemical does not have unnecessary exposure to air and that the correct stopper is replaced.
4. Transfer liquids through a funnel or pour the liquid slowly down a glass rod.
5. Fill pipettes with a pipette-filler and not by sucking by mouth.

3.4.11 Disposal of waste chemicals
1.0 Do not keep any chemicals that do not have labels or are not on a list of chemicals approved by the Ministry of Education.
Ask officials in the Ministry of Education chemists or chemists in a government chemistry laboratory how to dispose of these unwanted
1.1 Avoid waste by using chemicals only in those quantities necessary for the learning experience.
1.2 Avoid using the more expensive chemicals, e.g. silver chloride.
1.2 Re-use chemicals not affected by the chemical process, e.g.
metals and metal carbonates + acids usually leave residues of unaffected metal and carbonate that may be washed clean and reused.
1.3 Recycle chemicals produced by chemical processes, but only when the process of recycling is simple and not hazardous.
For example, recrystallize copper sulfate crystals from solutions by evaporation or by placing steel wool in the solution overnight,
but do not recycle lead or mercury salts.
1.4 Do not burn unwanted chemicals because they may form carcinogenic gases.

2.0 Methods of disposal may include the following:
2.1 Wash down the sink
2.1.1 Waste solutions of most chemicals used in school science experiments may be disposed of down the sink to the sewer.
In some countries the effluent must comply with specific limits for disposal of chemicals to the sewer, e.g. ammonia, limit of
40 grams / day or 29 L of 0.1 M solution / day.
2.1.2 Dilute wastes miscible with water or already in solution with a large volume of water, then neutralize with sodium carbonate or
dilute hydrochloric acid, then wash down the sink, e.g. salt solutions, ethanol
2.1.3 Treat heavy metal wastes with sodium hydroxide until pH 8-10, then wash down the sink.
2.2 Dispose with normal refuse.
2.2.1 Wrap solid wastes in paper and place in the garbage, e.g. iron filings.
2.2.2 Absorb wastes not miscible with water onto paper or vermiculite or perlite or cat litter, then seal in a plastic bag and place in the
2.3 Add water or strong alkali and let evaporate in a fume cupboard.
2.4 Waste bottles can be used to store heavy metal wastes and other waste chemicals, to be later taken away by a waste contractor.
2.5 Deliver to a government chemistry laboratory.

3.4.12 Chemicals spill kit
After a spill, open windows and doors to improve cross ventilation, and immediately inform school authorities.
1. A school science laboratory spill kit could contain the following items:
Cardboard box, Disposable rubber gloves, Dust pan and bucket, Mop and bucket, Nitrite rubber gloves, Paper towel,
Plastic bucket, 5L, Plastic scoop, Respirator, with P2 cartridge, Safety glasses and safety goggles
Sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, 2 kg Sodium carbonate, 2 kg, Sulfur, 2 kg, for mercury decontamination,
Vermiculite or perlite or cat litter, 5 kg
2. Industrial spill kit, colour-coded to ensure rapid identification, contains absorbent pads, spill containment booms,
sucker up 100% organic general purpose absorbent, personal protection equipment, contaminated waste bags and ties, adhesive
wall locator, laminated instruction sheets, 20 litre kit, 32 litre kit. Hydrogen sulfide waste bottle
Do not add acidified solutions to metal sulfides because the reaction produces hydrogen sulfide gas.
If a rotten egg smell indicates production of hydrogen sulfide gas in a waste bottle, add solid sodium hydroxide until the solution
pH >7 and leave in fume cupboard with the lid off until no smell occurs. Copper residues
Copper residues can be used to demonstrate recovery of the metal by displacement from solution by a more active metal, e.g. scrap
iron or steel wool.
Precipitate insoluble copper or zinc sulfide by adding sodium sulfide solution, filter off the insoluble sulfide, dry and dispose of as solid
Copper residues can be treated to recover copper sulfate by evaporation.
If disposal is intended, copper residues can be treated with iron to reduce copper ions to metallic copper.
Place copper residues in a large container and add sufficient steel wool to achieve discoloration of the blue solution.
Pour off the iron solution.
Wrap the solid reduced copper in newspaper and dispose in your solid waste bin.
Flush the iron solution with water to the sink or pour over the ground or school garden.
Recover iron salts by evaporation and later dispose in a solid waste bin. Lead residues
Lead residues may contain metallic lead, solid lead salts and lead ions in solution.
Do not recycle lead in the school laboratory but dispose them through a licensed waste contractor or government chemistry laboratory. Mercury residues
If using liquid mercury in the laboratory keep a special mercury residues bottle.
Mercury residues must be kept well-sealed, especially if mercury metal is present.
Do not clean waste mercury in the school laboratory, but store for removal by a licensed waste contractor or government chemistry
laboratory. Organic liquid residues
Keep halogenated and non-halogenated organic liquid residues separate.
Use the bottles for immiscible liquids only.
Keep them away from ignition sources and store them in a fume cupboard for removal by a licensed waste contractor or government
chemistry laboratory. Silver residues
Add solid sodium chloride to silver residues precipitate the silver as silver chloride.
Decant the clear solution and wash down the sink.
Store the precipitate for recycling or waste collection or give it to a professional photographer.
To recover silver, add sodium carbonate to waste solutions to form a silver carbonate precipitate, then collect and dry the precipitate.
Heat the precipitate with carbon powder, or on a carbon block, to form metallic silver.
Most metals will displace silver metal from soluble silver salt solutions to form attractive silver crystals. Zinc residues
Treat for recycling or dispose to garbage.
Precipitate insoluble zinc sulfide by adding sodium sulfide solution, filter off the insoluble sulfide, dry and dispose as solid waste. Storing chemicals - general rules
1. Check reagent solutions and solids regularly and replace used chemicals from stocks or stock bottles.
Label reagent bottles with the name of the substance and the concentration of the solution.
Never return unused reagents to the stock bottles.
2. Store flammable liquids at eye level in a well-ventilated area away from heat sources.
3. Store formalin (solution of formaldehyde (methanal), in water), in glass bottles away from hydrochloric acid.
4. Store organic chemicals inside self-sealing plastic bags.
5. Store strong oxidants and oxidizing agents away from flammable organic chemicals.
Powerful oxidizing agents, e.g. chlorates, peroxides, perchlorates, and perchloric acid, are not usually found in a school science
laboratory. Storing acids, acetic acid
Store concentrated acids in plastic boxes on the floor.
Store acetic acid (ethanoic acid), away from other acids, preferably in another room. Storing alkalis, ammonia solution
Store alkalis at floor level standing in a strong plastic tray large enough to contain the volume of the container if breakage or spill occurs.
Store concentrated alkalis away from concentrated acids and apart from metals.
Store ammonia solution (10% ammonia solution), as with acids but separate from them, not near oxidizing agents.
Ammonia solution produces dangerous irritating ammonia fumes.
Carefully unstopper bottles of ammonia solution in a fume cupboard to prevent damage to the eyes from the fumes.
Dilute ammonia solution by adding ammonia solution to water in a fume cupboard.
Store concentrated sodium hydroxide in plastic boxes on the floor but away from the acids.
Do not use glass stoppers. Storing chromium (VI) oxide
Chromium (VI) oxide may cause fire on contact with combustible materials and contact with skin may cause severe burns.
Spread soda ash over spillage of chromium (VI) oxide, and use plenty of water. Storing flammable liquids
Store flammable liquids at eye level in a well-ventilated area away from heat sources.
Flammable liquids may include methylated spirit, nail polish remover, (acetone), cleaning products, paints and glues.
Store strong oxidants away from flammable organic chemicals. Storing hygroscopic and deliquescent substances
Be careful! Hygroscopic and deliquescent substances may absorb moisture from human tissue and so should be treated as
potentially highly corrosive!
Both hygroscopic and deliquescent substances may absorb moisture from tissue so treat them as potentially highly corrosive.
Hygroscopic substances absorb water from the air, e.g. concentrated sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide, concentrated
sulfuric acid, glycerine and ethanol ("absolute alcohol").
Deliquescent substances are hygroscopic substances that absorb water to such an extent that they form a concentrated solution of the
substance, e.g. calcium chloride. Storing organic chemicals
Store organic chemicals inside self-sealing plastic bags.
This eliminates the smell associated with such chemicals it also gives early warning of any leaking bottle. Storing oxidizing agents
Store oxidizing agents in a desiccator away from other chemicals.
Powerful oxidizing agents, e.g. chlorates, peroxides, perchlorates, and perchloric acid, are not often used in a school science laboratory.
Oxidizing materials are chemicals that support combustion or burning.
If they are placed in contact with materials that act as fuels, there is danger of an explosion or fire.
Oxidizing materials include chlorates, peroxides, perchlorates, and perchloric acid. Storing sodium and potassium
Sodium and potassium react violently with water, and the heat produced can ignite the hydrogen gas evolved.
Contact with skin causes thermal and caustic burns.
Cutting heavily oxidized potassium may cause an explosion because of the combination of the dioxide with organic material.
Dispose of old stocks of potassium by dissolving the uncut lumps in propan-2-ol. Storing sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate
Store sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate away from strong acids and any substances that are easily oxidized, e.g. sulfur, sulfides,
phosphorus, sucrose (cane sugar), alcohols, organic solvents, ammonium compounds, powdered metals, oils or grease, and dust.

3.5.0 Science Education Laboratory
Science Education Laboratory Procedures, School of Education, University of Queensland
Ordering Microteaching / Practical Equipment
1. Complete a Booking and Risk Assessment Sheet and submit it to the Laboratory Manager at least 24 hours before required.
The Booking and Risk Assessment Sheet can be downloaded / printed from the Blackboard site.
2. Attach a copy of the procedure or a photocopy of the practical outline if it comes from a textbook.
3. Please check the Safety Data Sheets (SDS) which outline the hazard the substance may present and the control measures to put in
Note this on the order form.
The SDS are held in the Preparation Room and can also be accessed from Chemwatch on the University site.
Borrowing Video and Camera Equipment
These are available from the Laboratory Officer after leaving your student card, and recording the details of the equipment.
Borrowing Books and Texts.
Please fill in your contact details and the book title, and return your borrowed materials promptly when finished.
Safety in the Laboratory
l. Where possible eliminate as much hazard as can be by selecting a less hazardous substance, equipment, or procedure.
2. When necessary always wear personal protective equipment, including covered shoes, safety glasses, lab coat.
3. Always walk in the laboratory and clean up any spills immediately.
4. Please ensure your supervisor is notified when you are doing practicals.
5. Where possible, wash up and clean up when finished.
6. Do not eat or drink in the laboratory.
7. Notify, your supervisor of any spill or accident.
Occupational Health and Safety in the Laboratory (Undergraduate Students)
Before you undertake laboratory work you must read these guidelines found at the following link, and complete and sign the student
declaration at the end of the document.
This declaration must be returned to the Laboratory Manager.

Booking and Risk Assessment Sheet
24 Hours Notice Required
Day & Date required:
Procedure name:
Date submitted:
Time required:
Procedure attached: yes / no
List of Materials and Equipment:
Tick as appropriate HAZARD CHECKLIST
Fire / flames
Hot objects
Cold objects
Long hair
Dust / vapour
Waste / Spills

Tick as appropriate CONTROL MEASURES
Warning signs
Fume cupboard
Disposable solves
Check SDS
Safety Glasses
Dissection safety instructions
See: Dissection, (Commercial)
Wash hands after activity
Read risk and safety details to all involved
Tick as appropriate RISK ASSESSMENT
Activities that do not involve heat, pressure, vacuums, hazardous chemicals, electricity, biological materials or animals.
Activities that involve heat, pressure, vacuums, fumes, hazardous chemicals, electricity, biological material, low-speed mechanical or moving devices / objects
Activities that involve high temperatures, very low temperatures, high
pressure, low vacuums, toxic fumes, corrosive substances, volatile / flammable
chemicals, high voltage electricity, radiation emitters, dangerous biological materials, high speed moving devices and objects
Very high
High risk of injuries that could be sustained during activity which could result in a permanent disability or death.
This activity must not be done.
Signature . .
Lab Manager's initial . .

15.5.0 Hazard classifications used by NSW Department of Education and Training (DET), Australia
Toxicity for substances that have been assessed by Worksafe Australia, the following scale is used to describe the level of toxicity
Allowed ingredient in human foods, human metabolite or known to be inert in the body, i.e. sodium chloride.
Intake of a small amount would probably not cause sickness, e.g. magnesium sulfate.
Slightly toxic
Intake of large amounts may cause sickness, i.e. copper sulfate.
Moderately toxic
Intake of a small amount may cause sickness, i.e. sodium tetraborate.
Highly toxic
Teacher must ensure effective controls are implemented.
Chemical must be used within DET (NSW Department of Education and Training) restrictions
Extremely toxic
Handle with great caution.
Teacher use only, i.e. sodium cyanide.
Where the chemical has not been fully assessed and detailed information is not available, the general term "toxic" is used to warn of a
possible hazard.
Toxic by all routes
The phrase toxic by all routes of exposure indicates the substance is toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin contact.
Packing group
I Extreme danger
II Medium danger
III Low danger
UN United Nations number (for Dangerous Goods only)
CAS Number assigned to the chemical in the Individual Chemical Abstracts.

15.5.1 Cooking safety
1. Trying to catch a knife when it's falling, especially a professionally-sharpened chef's knife that falls off your counter.
2. Throwing water on a grease fire.
3. Using hands to push meat through a meat slicer instead of using a using guard, or a metal chain glove.
4. Grabbing hot pans.
5. Not wearing nonslip kitchen shoes.
6. Not holding your knife right, which can make for a wobbly / uncontrolled cut.
7. Serving raw food, especially chicken, it is so easy to poison customers with raw meat, check temperatures and when chicken is well done.

16.18.0 Pesticides safety
1. Do not attempt to teach lessons on this until you have carefully read the following section on Resource Material on pesticides.
2. Do not teach this lesson until you have shown students how to use the spray using water only.
These notes will show you how to teach lessons on insecticides if you want to spray your hibiscus cabbage (aibika or bele or pele)
plants because they are badly attacked by leaf miners.
3. The main aim of these lessons is to teach students how to use carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate), insecticide safely.
You will need insecticide concentrate, a sprayer, a plastic bowl and mixing stick, a 5 g measure and 4 L of clean water.

Caution before using pesticides
1.0 Pesticides are chemicals that can kill pests.
1.1 Insecticide kills insects, Fungicide kills fungus and sometimes bacteria,
1.2 Miticide or acaricide kills mites and spiders,
1.3 Nematicide kills nematode worms,
1.4 Molluscicide kills slugs and snails,
1.5 Rodenticide kills mice and rats,
1.6 Herbicide or weedicide kills weeds.

2. Do not use any pesticides not mentioned in this chapter.
All pesticides are dangerous to humans, especially children, so they must be used and stored with great care if they are used in school
food gardening.
Use pesticides only if there is no other way of saving your crop.
If you want to use pesticides always tell the headmaster what you intend to do.

3.0 The rules for using pesticides are as follows:
3.1 Read the directions on the container before opening.
Make sure that you have the right pesticide for the particular pest.
Make sure that you understand how much pesticide to use.
Make sure that your sprayer and tank is clean and working.
Try it out with water first.
3.2 Do not breathe in pesticide or spill it on your skin don't smoke or eat when using pesticides.
If you spill pesticide on your skin wash it off with plenty of soap and water straight away.
3.3 Wear special protective clothing and wash yourself after spraying.
Always handle concentrates with rubber gloves used only for that purpose.
Wear a work shirt, buttoned down to the wrists, long trousers and boots.
3.4 Spray on a calm day.
3.5 After spraying dig a hole in the bush and pour down it any makeup spray left in the tank.
Wash out the sprayer and pump and pour the washing water down the hole.
3.6 Store the unused pesticides in a safe place where children cannot enter.
Always use the old container, do not store in a new container, e.g. a drink bottle.
Do not store pesticides near food.

4.0 The pesticide you will buy will often be in a concentrated form so you must follow a proper mixing procedure.
Always use a plastic measuring cylinder or the special measure some pesticide factories make so you do not guess amounts of pesticide.
Dusts are blown or sprinkled onto plants without using water.

5.0 Mixing procedure for a liquid pesticide:
5.1 Fill sprayer tank half way with water.
5.2 Add measured amount of chemical to sprayer.
5.3 Fill sprayer tank with water.
5.4 Shake the sprayer
6.0 Mixing procedure for a powder pesticide:
6.1 Put small quantity of water in bucket.
6.2 Put measured quantity of pesticide powder on top of water, leave until it is thoroughly wetted and then mix into a paste.
6.3 Add water, then add to half filled knapsack as per instructions for liquid pesticides.
If this is not done, some wettable powder will go lumpy and give mixing problems.

1. Show students the damage done by the leaf miners to aibika or bele.
Tell the students that you do not like to use pesticides, but in this case you must use a pesticide because it is the only way to save
your aibika or bele crop.
2. Show the students the tin of concentrate.
Let them read the label.
Note the name of the company that makes the insecticide, the trade name of the chemical, the common chemical name, the weight of
the contents.
3. Now let the students read from the label: "for the control of caterpillars, plant bugs, leaf-eating beetles and earwigs".
Ask them whether this is the right insecticide for the job.
4. Read out to the students from the label.
"This concentrate is dangerous if swallowed, breathed in or absorbed through the skin." Tell them what to do if these accidents happen.
5. Read the instructions: "apply 5 grams in 4 litres of water".
Show the students how you will measure 5 grams of the powder and how you will measure 4 litres of clean water.
6. Read the mixing instructions.
"Mix the required amount of insecticide with a small quantity of water to form a cream and pour into remainder of the water.
7. Measure out 5 grams of the powder into a plastic bowl, use some of the measured 4 litres of water to make a smooth paste, pour
about 2 litres of water into the spray, pour the insecticide paste from the bowl into the sprayer, use some water from your original
4 litres to wash out the plastic bowl and pour that into the sprayer, put the rest of the 4 litres of water into the sprayer, close the
sprayer tightly and shake it.
8. Tell the students to remember: 1.
what to read on the insecticide tin, 2.
how to make up the spray.
In the next lesson, you can show them how to use this spray.

16.19.0 Sprayers and dusters
1. The chemicals used in agriculture may be applied as granules, dusts, or sprays.
Granules are usually put into the soil, dusts are blown onto the crops and so do not need water, but sprays must be made up by
mixing the chemical concentrate with water and sometimes a wetting agent.
Granules can be spread by hand or you can buy a granule applicator or spreader.
The cheapest dusters are the plunger type, which look like a bicycle pump.
There are also larger and dearer rotary hand dusters.
The simplest duster is made by cutting the bottom out of an opened fish tin and then put it in an old sock.

2. The 3 types of sprayers:
2.1 Slide action sprayers
They are the cheapest.
They are similar to the common fly spray.
They contain up to 5 litres of spray.
It is very tiring to use them for a long time.
They do not control the pressure of the spray.
These sprayers can be used in school kitchen gardens.
2.2 Continuously pumped knapsack sprayers
They are worn on the back or over the shoulder.
They should give a continuous spray if you pump them slowly and evenly.
They usually contain 10-15 litres of spray.
They may be made of brass or plastic.
Brass sprayers are tough, but heavy.
Plastic sprayers are light, but can be damaged if dropped or left out in the sun.
Plastic knapsack sprayers are the best type to use in school field gardens.
2.3 Compression type sprayers
After filling these sprayers, they are pumped up to a high pressure.
Then they can be used without further pumping.
These sprayers are probably too expensive for schools.

3. Care and maintenance for a knapsack sprayer
3.1 Wash out the sprayer tank, hose and nozzle with clean water.
3.2 Clean the jet, which is the little hole at the end of the nozzle the spray passes through.
Check that it is the right sire for the job.
Be very careful not to lose this little jet!
3.3 Read the instructions on the chemical container carefully.
Then measure out the amount of chemical you need for the job.
3.4 Add clean water to the sprayer until it is half full.
3.5 Put the measured amount of chemical into the sprayer.
Use a special chemical measure or a graduated cylinder to do not guess the amount of chemical concentrate.
6. Wash the chemical measure and put this water into the sprayer.
Then fill the sprayer with water.
3.6 Do not spray in the wind or rain.
3.7 When spraying walk evenly at about one pace each second.
Give each plant an even covering.
3.8 When finished, dig a hole in the bush and tip out all the unused spray into it.
Wash out the sprayer, hose and nozzle and tip all this water down the hole.
Remove the hose and nozzle then hang them upside down on the wall inside a lock up shed.
1. Do not use real chemical, use clean water instead!
2. Show the students a knapsack sprayer containing water.
Briefly spray some plants with it so that all students know what it is used for.
3. Show the students a knapsack sprayer, which is used to spray plants with chemicals that kill insect pests and disease.
They must look after the sprayer very carefully because it is expensive, it is easily broken and it is used to spray poisons.
4.0 Let the students look closely at the sprayer and pick it up.
Ask them the following questions:
4.1 What is the name of the company that made the sprayer?
4.2 Ask students to point to the tank, pump, pump handle, hose, nozzle, jet, harness.
4.3 How much spray can you put in the tank, e.g. 13.6 litres or 16 litres]
4.4 What is the tank made of? [e.g. brass or plastic (polythene)]
4.5 Demonstrate the first 8 steps of looking after a knapsack sprayer as set out in the manual.
5.1 Let each student do some spraying.
Remember to even pumping, steady walk, wet all of plants evenly (including underside of leaves).
5.2 The students must NOT spray other people with the spray because the chemicals in sprays are poisons.
5.3 Demonstrates steps 9 and 10 of looking after a knapsack sprayer.