School Science Lessons
Prepare
2017-11-20 SP MF
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Table of contents
Prepare chemical substances
3.0.0 Prepare gases
10.0 Prepare reagents
5.2.0 Prepare serial dilutions
5.4.0 Prepare solutions of known concentration:
5.3.0 Prepare stock solutions

Prepare chemical substances
Preparation instructions, calculation: 5.1.6
Prepare acetic acid, (ethanoic acid), ionization reaction: 16.4.2
Prepare acetic alcohol biology fixative: 3.1
Prepare aceto-alcohol biology fixative: 4.1
Prepare aceto-carmine microscopy stain: 3.3.0
Prepare aceto-orcein microscopy stain: 3.2
Prepare acetylene, (ethyne): 16.1.1.3.1
Prepare acid-base indicators: 37.0
Prepare acid alcohol: 1.1
Prepare acids and bases: 7.0
Prepare acids, dilute acids and bases, (Safety instructions): 3.4.3
Prepare acids, dilute acids: 5.3.1
Prepare agar, mediums and nutrient solutions: 9.1
Prepare alcohol using immobilized yeast cells: 4.3.8
Prepare alizarin solution: 3.3.1
Prepare alizarin red S indicator solution: 3.3.3
Prepare aluminium oxide, Heat aluminium foil to form aluminium oxide: 8.2.11
Prepare aluminium hydroxide precipitate: 7.6.4
Prepare ammonia gas: 3.33.0
Prepare ammonia, Haber process: 3.33.01
Prepare ammonium chloride, Prepare sunbeam mists: 7.8.2.1
Prepare ammonium iron (II) sulfate, Mohr's Salt: 12.14.3
Prepare ammonium iron (III) sulfate solution: 12.1.6.1
Prepare ammonium molybdate solution: 5.4.1
Prepare ammonium nitrate: 3.33.7
Prepare ammonium sulfate by neutralization: 12.14.1
Prepare amyl acetate, (pear oil): 16.5.6
Prepare apple juice gel: 4.2.8
Prepare aspirin crystals: 3.1.4
Prepare Bakelite plastic, phenol / methanal polymerization: 3.4.9
Prepare baking powder, chemical leavening agent: 19.1.9
Prepare baking soda, Prepare sodium bicarbonate with sodium carbonate: 12.1.27
Prepare BAP solution: 9.2.24
Prepare basal agar solution: 9.2.14
Prepare basal broth solution: 9.2.15
Prepare basal salt solutions: 1.8
Prepare bases, Prepare dilute bases: 5.3.2
Prepare bath salts: 12.1.28
Prepare bean curd, (tofu, soya bean): 7.8.3.6
Prepare beeswax candles: 8.1.11
Prepare Benedict's solution: 9.141.1
Prepare Benedict's reagent, Benedict's solution: 1.3
Prepare biology fixatives: 4.0
Prepare biology media and solutions: 1.0
Prepare boric acid crystals: 12.10.1
Prepare bromine water: 12.19.9.1.1
Prepare bromocresol green solution: 5.0
Prepare bromophenol blue solution: 7.0
Prepare buffer reagent solution: 9.2.25
Prepare buffer solutions: 12.10.7.0
Prepare buffer solutions: 39.0
Prepare calcium hydroxide solution: 5.4.2
Prepare calcium oxide, Heat calcium metal: 8.2.14
Prepare calcium oxide by heating lime: 34.3.2
Prepare calcofluor white solution: 6.1
Prepare camphor oil: 19.6.7
Prepare candles, Prepare beeswax candles: 8.1.11
Prepare carbol xylol: 1.4
Prepare carbon dioxide, alum with baking soda: 13.7.9
Prepare carbon dioxide gas: 3.34.2.0
Prepare carbon dioxide, heat carbonates: 13.7.6
Prepare carbon dioxide, heat hydrogen carbonates: 13.7.7
Prepare carbon dioxide, sodium bicarbonate with vinegar: 19.1.7
Prepare casein plastic from milk: 3.100
Prepare chemical gardens: 12.1.36
Prepare chlorine gas: 13.4.1.0
Prepare chlorine water: 13.4.2
Prepare chloroform, (trichloromethane): 16.1.14
Prepare chrome alum: 12.14.4.0
Prepare chromium trioxide: 12.5.2
Prepare cider from apple juice: 4.2.5
Prepare citric acid crystals with lemon juice: 12.6.1
Prepare colloids and crystalloids: 7.8.1
Prepare copper from brass: 12.7.10
Prepare copper from copper oxide: 12.7.11.1
Prepare copper, iron with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.15.3
Prepare copper (I) chloride: 12.7.7
Prepare copper (I) oxide: 12.7.6
Prepare copper (I) oxide with golden syrup: 12.7.11.7
Prepare copper (II) ammonium sulfate crystals: 12.7.4
Prepare copper (II) carbonate and copper (II) oxide: 12.15.4
Prepare copper (II) carbonate: 10.01.2
Prepare copper (II) oxide, Heat copper foil to form copper (II) oxide: 8.2.12
Prepare copper (II) sulfate crystals with copper oxide: 12.7.11.2
Prepare copper (II) sulfate algicide: 9.9.18.0a
Prepare cresol red indicator solution: 12
Prepare crystals: 3.1.0
Prepare culture media for identification of fungi: 6.0
Prepare cup of tea: 12.13.15
Prepare cuprammonium sulfate: 12.7.5
Prepare detergent, alcohol-based detergent: 12.13.9
Prepare dilute acids: 5.3.1
Prepare dilute acids and bases, (Safety instructions): 3.4.3
Prepare dilute bases: 5.3.2
Prepare dilute buffer solutions: 12.10.7.1
Prepare dinitrogen oxide, (nitrous oxide): 3.45
Prepare di-sodium hydrogen phosphate solution: 5.4.4
Prepare dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate solution: 5.4.3
Prepare Domestos solution, NaOCl: 9.2.26
Prepare double salt crystals: 3.54.01
Prepare DRBC solution: 9.2.32
Prepare drinking water test solution: 18.7.1
Prepare electrolyte for a lead cell accumulator: 3.87
Prepare ethanal with potassium dichromate: 16.3.2.3
Prepare ethanal with potassium manganate (VII): 16.3.2.2
Prepare ethane gas, "wet asbestos method": 16.6.1.0
Prepare oxalic acid, ionization reaction: 16.4.3
Prepare ethanoic acid, (acetic acid), ionization reaction: 16.4.2
Prepare ethanoic acid solution: 5.4.5
Prepare ethene gas, (ethylene): 16.1.1.2.1
Prepare ethane gas: 16.6.1.1
Prepare ethyl acetate, (ethyl ethanoate): 16.5.2
Prepare ethyl acetate, (ethyl ethanoate): 16.5.8
Prepare ethyl butyrate, (pineapple oil): 16.5.7
Prepare ethyl chloride, chloroethane: 16.5.1
Prepare ethyne gas, (acetylene): 16.1.1.3.1
Prepare face cream emulsion: 7.8.3.2
Prepare Fehling's solution: 9.142.1
Prepare ferric tannate with tea leaves: 16.8.2
Prepare fibrous plaster board with plaster of Paris: 3.2.6
Prepare fixatives, (biology fixatives): 4.0
Prepare flour glue: 9.1.1
Prepare fluorescein solution: 1.5
Prepare formaldehyde-resorcinol resin: 3.4.6.1
Prepare fruit salts, health salts: 16.7.13
Prepare gases by destructive distillation of coal: 10.6.5
Prepare gases from wood: 3.99
Prepare gases: 3.0.0
Prepare gel, gelatine gel: 7.8.5.2
Prepare gel, silica gel: 7.8.5.1
Prepare glass, coloured glass: 7.2.4.2
Prepare glucose nutrient agar solution: 9.2.16
Prepare glucose nutrient agar solution: 9.2.31
Prepare glucose with starch: 12.7.15
Prepare glucose with sugar: 12.7.18
Prepare glues and pastes, adhesives, gums: 9.0.0
Prepare glycerine jelly: 2.1
Prepare Gram's iodine solution: 1.6.2
Prepare halogens 12.19.1.0
Prepare hard water: 12.13.2
Prepare herbal tinctures: 17.0.0
Prepare hydrochloric acid: 3.42.01
Prepare hydrogen bromide: 12.19.9.3
Prepare hydrogen chloride: 3.42.0
Prepare hydrogen fluoride: 12.19.7.1
Prepare hydrogen iodide: 12.19.6.1
Prepare hydrogen peroxide solution: 5.4.7
Prepare hydrogen sulfide: 3.43
Prepare hydroxides by precipitation: 12.1.33
Prepare hydroxides with ammonia solution: 3.33.2.1
Prepare immersion oil: 1.14
Prepare ink, invisible ink: 3.2.5.0
Prepare insect fixing solutions: 4.1
Prepare iodic acid and potassium iodate: 12.19.6.3
Prepare iodine crystals from tincture of iodine: 12.19.6.8
Prepare iodine solution, tincture of iodine: 12.19.6.5
Prepare iodine solution, Electrolysis of potassium iodide solution: 15.5.27
Prepare iodine solution: 1.6.1
Prepare iron (II) ammonium phosphate: 12.14.2
Prepare iron (II) ammonium sulfate: 14.8.14
Prepare iron (II) oxide: 14.8.7
Prepare iron (II) oxide, Heat iron, nail, wire, filings: 8.2.13
Prepare iron (II) sulfate crystals with iron filings: 12.1.5
Prepare iron (II) sulfate, iron with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.15.3
Prepare iron (III) ammonium alum: 12.14.3
Prepare iron (III) chloride: 12.19.8.3
Prepare iron (III) hydroxide: 12.1.7
Prepare iron (III) oxide: 12.1.7
Prepare iron (IlI) oxide: 14.8.9
Prepare jelly with fresh and tinned pineapple: 16.7.9.1
Prepare lactic acid with milk: 12.7.10
Prepare lactic acid with sourdough: 4.2.3
Prepare lead-acid battery electrolyte: 32.5.3.6
Prepare lead-tin alloys in a casting mould: 3.61
Prepare lime, quicklime: 34.3.2
Prepare lime water, ionization of calcium hydroxide: 5.3.5
Prepare liquid broth media: 9.2.12
Prepare lithium oxide, Heat lithium metal: 8.2.10
Prepare litmus solution: 3.0
Prepare Lugol's iodine solution: 3.15
Prepare magnesium carbonate precipitate: 7.6.5
Prepare magnesium oxide, Heat magnesium ribbon: 8.2.16
Prepare malt extract agar solution: 9.2.17.0
Prepare malt extract broth solution: 9.2.17.1
Prepare manganates: 12.8.2
Prepare mannitol yeast extract agar solution, (MYEA): 9.2.30
Prepare mayonnaise and salad dressing emulsions: 16.7.12
Prepare methyl cellulose solution: 3.27
Prepare methyl salicylate, (oil of wintergreen): 16.5.5
Prepare microscopy adhesives: 2.0
Prepare microscopy stains: 3.0
Prepare microcosmic salt: 12.13.5
Prepare milk agar solution: 9.2.19.2
Prepare milk glue: 9.1.2
Prepare minimal agar solution: 9.2.18
Prepare molar solutions: 5.1.1
Prepare molecular models: 3.5.1
Prepare monoprotic acid solution from unknown molarity acid: 12.8.7.1
Prepare MS agar solution: 9.2.23
Prepare naphthalene crystals from mothballs: 12.8.3
Prepare natural buffer: 12.10.7.2
Prepare nitre, potassium nitrate, from manure: 3.9.1
Prepare nitric acid, sulfuric acid with sodium nitrate: 12.5.1
Prepare nitric oxide, (nitrogen monoxide, NO): 3.44
Prepare nitrous acid: 12.7.1
Prepare nitrogen-free mineral salts agar solution: 9.2.27
Prepare nutrient agar solution: 9.2.19.0
Prepare nutrient agar solution: 9.2.33
Prepare nutrient broth solution: 9.2.20
Prepare nutrient gelatin solution: 9.2.29
Prepare nylon polymer: 3.4.7
Prepare organic compounds: 16.1.00
Prepare oxalic acid, ionization reaction: 16.4.3
Prepare oxalic acid solution: 5.4.14
Prepare oxides by direct oxidation: 12.12.1
Prepare oxides by indirect oxidation: 12.12.2
Prepare oxides, heat metals in air to form oxides: 8.2.0
Prepare oxygen absorbent: 13.3.5
Prepare pectinase: 4.2.9
Prepare permanent crease solution: 19.5.6
Prepare phenylamine: 16.2.4.3.02
Prepare phenylthiourea solution, PTU: 1.13
Prepare phosphorus trichloride: 12.13.2
Prepare phosphorus pentachloride: 12.13.3
Prepare phosphorus pentoxide: 12.13.3.1
Prepare plant dyes: 3.30
Prepare polymers and plastics: 3.4.1
Prepare potash alum with aluminium foil: 12.14.2
Prepare potash alum from its constituent salts: 12.14.1
Prepare potash from ash: 5.40
Prepare potassium bromide: 12.19.9.5
Prepare potassium dichromate: 12.5.6
Prepare potassium nitrate from manure: 3.9.1
Prepare potassium perchlorate crystals by fractional crystallization: 12.19.8.5
Prepare potassium permanganate: 12.8.3
Prepare preserving agents for cut flowers: 19.6.5
Prepare protein solutions: 16.6.3
Prepare quicklime, CaO: 34.3.2
Prepare quicklime, by slaking: 34.3.3
Prepare rayon, copper (II) sulfate with ammonia solution: 3.4.8.0
Prepare Ringer solution: 1.7
Prepare rock candy crystals, sugar crystals: 12.8.4
Prepare reagents, (Table): 10.0
Prepare salt solution: 9.2.28, (Biolology media and solutions)
Prepare salt solutions: 8.0
Prepare salts by chemical reactions: 12.2.1a
Prepare salts by different methods: 12.10.2
Prepare salts by neutralization of sodium hydroxide: 12.1.8
Prepare salts, fruit salts, health salts: 16.7.13
Prepare sauerkraut: 4.2.2
Prepare seawater crystals: 3.54.1
Prepare seawater substitute solution: 1.10
Prepare self-leavened flour, "self-raising flour": 19.1.8.1
Prepare serial dilutions: 5.2.0
Prepare Scott's blueing solution: 1.9
Prepare silica and silicon: 12.15.1
Prepare silica gel: 7.8.5.1
Prepare silicate gardens: 7.2.5
Prepare silicic acid and pure silica: 12.1.37
Prepare silicon glass: 7.2.4
Prepare silicon glass, coloured glass: 7.2.4.2
Prepare silicon glass in a furnace: 7.2.4.1
Prepare silicon tetrafluoride: 12.19.7.2
Prepare slime, PVA slime: 3.4.11
Prepare soap: 12.12.1
Prepare soda lime: 12.2.1.10
Prepare sodium bicarbonate with sodium carbonate: 12.1.27
Prepare sodium carbonate, LeBlanc process: 12.16.8
Prepare sodium carbonate, Solvay process: 12.16.7
Prepare sodium carbonate with baking soda: 12.1.22
Prepare sodium carbonate with caustic soda: 12.1.34
Prepare sodium chlorate solution: 5.4.16
Prepare sodium hydroxide: 12.1.14
Prepare sodium chloride crystals: 12.1.32
Prepare sodium citrate crystals: 12.6.4
Prepare sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution: 5.4.17
Prepare sodium ethoxide: 16.1.3.1.2
Prepare sodium hydrogen carbonate: 12.16.2
Prepare sodium hydrogen sulfate: 12.10.6
Prepare sodium hydrosulfite solution: 5.4.9
Prepare sodium hydroxide: 12.1.14
Prepare sodium hydroxide 2M solution: 5.4.10
Prepare sodium hypochlorite: 12.1.13
Prepare sodium hypochlorite, Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution: 15.5.12.6
Prepare sodium metabisulfite (permanent crease) solution: 19.5.6
Prepare sodium nitrate: 12.1.16
Prepare sodium polyacrylate gels, (ghost crystals): 3.4.2.5.1
Prepare sodium silicate: 12.1.35
Prepare sodium sulfate crystals: 12.1.38
Prepare sodium thiosulfate crystals, "hypo": 12.18.6.1
Prepare sodium thiosulfate solution: 1.11
Prepare solutions, hydrogen ion concentrations 12.10.8.1
Prepare solutions of known concentration: 5.4.0
Prepare solutions, pH 3 to 11: 12.10.8.0
Prepare standard buffer solutions: 39.0
Prepare starch nutrient agar solution: 9.2.19.1
Prepare starch solution, 1%: 5.4.11
Prepare starch solution: 3.95
Prepare sterile media solutions: 9.2.11
Prepare stock solutions, standard solutions: 5.3.0
Prepare streptomycin using Streptomyces griseus: 4.1.7
Prepare sugar crystals from brown sugar: 3.1.10
Prepare sugar crystals from sugar cane juice: 3.1.10.1
Prepare sugar, white sugar from brown sugar: 10.1.3
Prepare sulfates, iron with copper (II) sulfate solution: 12.15.3
Prepare sulfides: 12.18.2
Prepare sulfur, forms of sulfur, allotropes of sulfur: 7.1.5
Prepare sulfur dioxide, Heat sulfur to form sulfur dioxide: 8.2.15
Prepare sulfur dioxide by burning sulfur: 3.51.0
Prepare sulfur dioxide with sulfuric acid and copper: 3.51.1a
Prepare sulfur dioxide with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfite: 3.51.1b
Prepare sulfur monochloride: 12.18.3.1
Prepare sulfuric acid with iron (II) sulfate: 12.2.4
Prepare sulfuric acid 2M solution: 5.4.12
Prepare sunbeam mists, (ammonia with hydrochloric acid): 7.8.2.1
Prepare thionyl chloride: 12.18.3.2
Prepare tin (II) chloride 0.1 M: 5.4.18
Prepare tin (IV) chloride: 12.20.2
Prepare toffee candy, sucrose: 7.7.9.2
Prepare triodomethane, (iodoform): 16.1.13
Prepare turpentine copying fluid: 9.1.4
Prepare urea agar solution: 9.2.21
Prepare urea-formaldehyde resin: 3.101
Prepare verdigris with copper and vinegar: 12.11.1
Prepare vinegar bacteria solution: 9.2.22
Prepare vinegar with Acetobacter aceti: 4.2.6
Prepare vinegar from wine: 19.1.4
Prepare volcanos with baking soda: 12.16.6
Prepare wallpaper paste: 9.1.3
Prepare Weigert's haematoxylin solution: 3.13.6
Prepare white sugar from brown sugar: 10.1.3
Prepare xylene and methylbenzoate solution: 1.12
Prepare yoghurt: 4.2.1
Prepare yoghurt, test milk quality: 4.3.17
Prepare zinc sulfate crystals: 12.2.4.2

3.0.0 Prepare gases
16.6.4.1 Prepare butane gas
10.6.5 Prepare gases by destructive distillation of coal
3.99 Prepare gases from wood
3.32.0 Prepare gases with gas generation apparatus
3.42.01 Prepare hydrochloric acid
12.1.30 Prepare hydrochloric acid gas with sodium chloride
3.42.0 Prepare hydrogen chloride
3.41.2.0 Prepare hydrogen gas
12.1.1 Prepare hydrogen gas, Aluminium with acids
3.41.2.1 Prepare hydrogen gas bubbles
12.6.3 Prepare hydrogen gas with citric acid
3.41.2.0 Prepare hydrogen gas, zinc with hydrochloric acid
12.19.6.1 Prepare hydrogen iodide
3.43.0 Prepare hydrogen sulfide
12.6.3 Prepare hydrogen with citric acid
16.5.1.1 Prepare methane gas
16.5.9 Prepare methyl chloride gas:
3.44 Prepare nitric oxide, (nitrogen monoxide, NO)
3.47 Prepare nitrogen dioxide, [nitrogen (IV) oxide, NO2]
3.46 Prepare nitrogen gas
3.45 Prepare nitrous oxide, (dinitrogen oxide) N2O
3.49.3 Prepare oxygen gas with bleach
3.49.0 Prepare oxygen gas with hydrogen peroxide
3.49.1a Prepare oxygen gas with potassium manganate(VII)
3.30.17 Prepare oxygen gas, Decomposition of manganates
Prepare oxygen gas with manganese dioxide and potassium chlorate - dangerous experiment!
3.50 Prepare ozone
3.51.0 Prepare sulfur dioxide by burning sulfur
16.1.14 Prepare trichloromethane gas, (chloroform)
16.10.4 Prepare wood gas and wood tar

5.2.0 Prepare serial dilutions
100% solution: Prepare 100 mL of saturated solution, then filter.
0.5% solution: 0.5 mL of saturated solution, add water to 100 mL .
0.1% solution: 20 mL of 0.5% solution, add water to 100 mL .
0.05% solution: 50 mL of 0.1% solution, add water to 100 mL.
0.01% solution: 20 mL of 0.05% solution, add water to 100 mL.
0.005% solution: 50 mL of 0.01% solution, add water to 100 mL.
0.001% solution: 20 mL of 0.005% solution, add water to 100 mL.

5.3.0 Prepare stock solutions
5.3.3 Alkalis: Potassium hydroxide (caustic potash) sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), Safety Instructions
5.3.4 Ammonia solution (10% ammonia solution), Safety Instructions
5.3.0.1 Dilute acids with alkalis, Safety Instructions
5.3.10 Heat-sensitive paper, cobalt (II) chloride, ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac)
15.0 Prepare litmus solutions
12.19.9.1.1 Prepare bromine water
5.3.1 Prepare dilute acids
5.3.2 Prepare dilute bases
5.3.5 Prepare lime water, ionization of calcium hydroxide
5.3.6 Prepare standard sodium carbonate solutions
8.2.2 Tests for water, cobalt (II) chloride paper, Heat cobalt chloride crystals

Prepare stock solutions, standard solutions, of solutes dissolved in water:
Weigh the calculated quantity of solid on a watch glass.
Tip the solid into a clean, dry glass beaker.
Use a wash bottle of deionized water to rinse the watch glass into the beaker.
Stir the mixture until the solid has dissolved.
If heat is used, the solution should be cooled before dilution.
Pour the solution into a measuring cylinder or volumetric flask.
Use a wash bottle to rinse the beaker several times with deionized water.
Then pour the washings into the graduated container.
Carefully add deionized water up to the desired level for the final volume of solution.
Use a small quantity of the solution to rinse out a cleaned stock bottle.
Pour the solution through a clean, dry filter funnel into the stock bottle.
Use a stopper, then label the solution.
A standard solution is a solution with accurately known concentration.

5.4.0 Prepare solutions of known concentration
5.4.1.0 Prepare solutions of known concentration, (Table)
Experiments
5.4.1 Ammonium molybdate
5.4.2 Calcium hydroxide, lime water
5.4.3 Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate
5.4.4 di-Sodium hydrogen phosphate
5.4.5 Ethanoic acid, (acetic Acid)
5.4.6 Hydrochloric acid
5.4.7 Hydrogen peroxide
1.6 Iodine solution, test for starch, biology solution
5.4.14 Oxalic acid (ethanedioic acid)
5.4.15 Phenolphthalein indicator
5.4.16 Sodium chlorate (V)
5.4.17 Sodium dihydrogen phosphate
5.4.9 Sodium hydrosulfite
5.4.10 Sodium hydroxide
5.4.11 Starch solution
5.4.12 Sulfuric acid
5.4.18 Tin (II) chloride



7.0 Prepare acids and bases
molarity 1 × volume 1 = molarity 2 × volume 2, M1V1 = M2V2
Dilute acids
Acetic acid 3 M: Dilute 172 mL of 17.4 M acid to 1 litre of water, (99-800 px acetic acid, ethanoic acid)
Hydrochloric acid 3 M: Dilute 258 mL of 11.6 M acid to 1 litre with water, (35% hydrochloric acid)
Hydrochloric acid 4 M: Dilute 400 mL of 10 M acid to 1 litre of water - for normal class use.
Nitric acid 4 M: Dilute 240 mL of 15 M acid.
to 1 litre water - for normal class use.
Nitric acid 3 M: Dilute 195 mL of 15.4 M acid to 1 litre of water, (69% nitric acid)
Sulfuric acid 6 M: Dilute 168 mL of 17.8 M acid to 1 litre of water, (95% sulfuric acid)
Sulfuric acid 2 M: Dilute 112 mL of 35 M in 800 mL water, then add water to 1 litre - for normal class use.
Dilute bases
Ammonia solution 4 M: Dilute 220 mL, (28% ammonia), 18 M concentrated solution to 1 litre of water, ("ammonium hydroxide")
Ammonia solution 3 M: Dilute 200 mL, (28% ammonia), 14.8 M concentrated solution to 1 litre of water.
Ammonia solution 2 M: Dilute 330 mL, (10% ammonia), 6 M concentrated solution to 1 litre of water for normal class use.
Potassium hydroxide 4 M: Dissolve 220 g KOH sticks in water, dilute to 1 litre of water for normal class use
Sodium hydroxide 3 M.
Dissolve 126 g the sticks, 95%, in water and dilute to 1 litre of water.
Sodium hydroxide 4 M Dissolve 160 g NaOH in 500 mL water, then dilute to 1 litre of water - for normal class use
Sodium hydroxide 8.5 M Dissolve 330 g NaOH in water, dilute to 1 litre of water, (For CO2 absorption)
Calcium hydroxide, (lime water) 1. 0.02 M.
Saturated solution, 1.5 g Ca(OH)2 per litre, use some excess, filter off CaCO3, and protect from CO2 of the air.
2. Add 125 g of slaked lime, Ca(OH)2, to 3 litres of water, shake, allow precipitate to settle,
siphon off clear liquid, and protect from CO2 of the air

8.0 Prepare salt solutions
Dissolve amount below then dilute to 1 L with water.
Aluminium chloride, AlCl3.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 24 g of hydrated salt in 1 L water
Aluminium sulfate, Al2(SO4)3.18H2O, For 0.l M solution, 66 g of hydrated salt in 1 L water
Ammonia, NH3 (aq) or NH4OH, For 2 M solution, dilute 330 mL of 10% solution in 1 L water
Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, For 5 M solution, 270 g in water
Ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3.3H2O, For 2 M solution, 300 g in 450 mL 10% NH3, then dilute in 1 L water
Ammonium iron (II) sulfate, For 0.1 M solution, 39.2 g in water, add 5 mL conc.
H2SO4 in 1 L water
Ammonium oxalate, C2O4(NH4)2.2H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 16 g in 1 L water
Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, For 0.1 M solution, 13.2 g in 1 L water
Barium chloride, BaCl2.2H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 24.4 g in 1 L water
Bismuth chloride, BICl3, For 0.17 M solution, 53 g in 1 litre of dilute HCl, 1 part conc.
HCl to 5 parts water
Bismuth nitrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2O, For 0.083 M solution, 40 g in 1 litre of dilute HNO3, 1 part conc. HNO3 to 5 parts water
Calcium chloride, CaCl2, anhydrous 0.l M solution, 11 g in 1 L water
Calcium chloride, CaCl2.2H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 14.7 g in 1 L water
Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, lime water, 10 g in 1 L water, shake, allow it to settle, decant clear liquid
Calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2, For 0.1 M solution, 16.4 g in 1 L water
Calcium sulfate, CaSO4.2H2O, For 0.1 M solution, Shake 10 g in 1 L water, leave to stand,
decant the clear liquid
Cobalt (II) chloride-6-water, CoCl2.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 23.8 g in 1 L water
Cobalt nitrate, Co(NO3)2.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 29 g in 1 L water
Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 29.6 g in 1 L water
Copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 25 g in 1 L water + 5 mL conc.
H2SO4
Iron (II) ammonium sulfate, Fe(NH4SO4)2.6H2O, For 0.5 M solution, 196 g in 1 L water + 10 mL conc.
H2SO4, dilute to 1 litre
Iron (III) chloride, FeCl3.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 27 g in 1 L water + 20 mL HCl
Iron (III) nitrate, Fe(NO3)3.9H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 40.4 g in 1 L water
Iron (II) sulfate, FeSO4.7H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 27.8 g in 1 L water + 1 mL conc.
H2SO4 to clear
Iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3.9H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 56 g in 1 L water
Lead ethanoate, (CH3COO)2Pb.3H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 38 g in 1 L water + dilute ethanoic acid to clear
Lead nitrate, Pb(N03)2, For 0.1 M solution, 33 g in 1 L water
Magnesium chloride, MgCl2.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 20.3 g in 1 L water
Magnesium nitrate, Mg(N03)2.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 25.6 g in 1 L water
Magnesium sulfate, MgSO4.7H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 24.7 g in 1 L water
Manganese sulfate, MnSO4.H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 16.9 g in water
Nickel chloride, NiCl2.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 24 g in 1 L water
Potassium bromide, KBr, For 0.1 M solution, 12 g in 1 L water
Potassium carbonate, K2CO3, For 0.1 M solution, 13.8 g in water
Potassium chloride, KCl, For 0.1 M solution, 7.5 g in 1 L water
Potassium dichromate, For 0.1 M solution, 29.4 g in 1 L water, (K2Cr2O7)
Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, For 0.1 M solution, 13.6 g in 1 L water, (KH2PO4)
Potassium hydroxide, KOH, For 2 M solution, 110 g of KOH sticks in 1 L water
Potassium iodide, KI, For 0.1 M solution, 16.6 g in 1 L water
Potassium nitrate, KNO3, For 0.1 M solution, 10.l g in 1 L water
Potassium permanganate, KMnO4, For 0.1 M solution, 15.8 g in 1 L water
Potassium sulfate, K2SO4, For 0.1 M solution, 17.4 g in 1 L water
Silver nitrate, AgNO3, For 0.1 M solution, 17 g in 1 L water
Sodium borate, Na2B4O7.l0H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 38 g in 1 L water
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3.10H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 28.6 g in 1 L water
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (anhydrous), For 0.1 M solution, 10.6 g in 1 L water
Sodium chloride, NaCl, For 0.1 M solution, 5.8 g in 1 L water
Sodium chromate, Na2CrO4.4H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 23.4g in 1 L water
Sodium dichromate, Na2Cr2O7.2H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 29.8 g in 1 L water
Sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa.3H2O, For 00.1 M solution, 13.6 g in 1 L water, (sodium acetate)
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3, For 0.1 M solution, 8.4 g in 1 L water
Sodium iodide, NaI, For 0.1 M solution, 15 g in 1 L water
Sodium molybdate, Na2MoO4.2H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 24.2 g in 1 L water
Sodium nitrate, NaNO3, For 0.1 M solution, 8.5 g in 1 L water
Sodium nitrite, NaNO2, For 0.1 M solution, 7 g in 1 L water
Sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4, For 0.1 M solution, 13.4 g in 1 L water
Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4.10H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 32.2 g in 1 L water
Sodium sulfide, Na2S.9H2O, For 0.5 M 120 g in 1 L water
Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 23.4 g in 1 L water
Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3, (anhydrous), For 0.1 M solution, 12.6 g in 1 L water
Sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3.5H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 24.8 g in 1 L water
Strontium (II) chloride, SrCl2.6H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 26.7 g in 1 L water
tri-Sodium phosphate, Na3PO4.12H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 38 g in 1 L water
Tin (II) chloride, SnCl2.2H2O, For 0.5 M solution, 113 g in 170 mL conc.
HCl, dilute to 1 L + add tin foil
Tin (IV) chloride, SnCl2.5H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 35 g in 1 L water
Zinc sulfate, ZnSO4.7H2O, For 0.1 M solution, 28.8 g in 1 L water

9.1.1 Prepare flour glue
Flour glues may be edible but they are not approved foods.
They are safe for use by children, but children should not be encouraged to consume them.
Combine 1 cup flour, 1.5 cups water, 1 / 3 cup sugar, 1 teaspoon vinegar. Remove any lumps and keep in a closed container.

9.1.2 Prepare milk glue
Combine 1 cup water, 8 teaspoons powdered milk, 4 teaspoons vinegar, removes curds with a sieve,
remove limps combine with 1 teaspoon baking soda solution.

9.1.3 Prepare wallpaper paste
1 cup flour,
3 teaspoons alum,
water to form appropriate consistence,
10 drops oil of cloves as preservative.
Remove any lumps and keep in a closed container.

9.1.4 Prepare turpentine copying fluid
Mix 4 parts of water with 1 part of turpentine.
Add a piece of soap the size of the thumb nail.
Shake the mixture until the soap is dissolved.
The soap forms a turpentine / water emulsion that keeps the turpentine and water mixture, which have different densities from
separating into separate layers.
Copy a newspaper picture or text by moistening the newspaper, placing a blank sheet of paper over it then rubbing with a smooth
convex object.
Ink from the newspaper dissolves in photocopy liquid to make a picture in reverse.

Table 10.0 Prepare reagents
("in water" = "dissolve in 1 litre of distilled water")
Substance, formula Concentration M, dissolve amount below then dilute to 1 litre with water.
Aluminium chloride, AlCl3.6H2O 0.1 M, 24 g of hydrated salt in water
Aluminium sulfate, Al2(SO4)3.18H2O 0.l M, 66 g of hydrated salt in water
Ammonia, NH3 (aq) or NH4OH 2 M, dilute 330 mL of 10% soln.
Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl 5 M, 270 g in water
Ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3.3H2O 2 M, 300 g in 450 mL 10% NH3, then dilute
Ammonium iron (II) sulfate 0.1 M, 39.2 g in water, add 5 mL conc. H2SO4
Ammonium oxalate, C2O4(NH4)2.2H2O 0.1 M, 16 g in water
Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4 0.1 M, 13.2 g in water
Barium chloride, BaCl2.2H2O 0.1 M, 24.4 g in water
Bismuth chloride, BiCl3
0.17 M, 53 g in 1 litre of dilute HCl, 1 part conc. HCl to 5 parts water
Bismuth nitrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2O 0.083 M, 40 g in 1 litre of dilute HNO3, 1 part conc. HNO3 to 5 parts water
Calcium chloride, CaCl2, anhydrous 0.l M, 11 g in water
Calcium chloride, CaCl2.2H2O 0.1 M, 14.7 g
Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 lime water, 10 g in water, shake, allow it to settle, decant clear liquid
Calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2 0.1 M, 16.4 g in water
Calcium sulfate, CaSO4.2H2O 0.1 M, Shake 10 g in water, leave to stand, decant the clear liquid
Cobalt (II) chloride-6-water, CoCl2.6H2O 0.1 M, 23.8 g in water
Cobalt nitrate, Co(NO3)2.6H2O 0.1 M, 29 g in water
Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2.6H2O
0.1 M, 29.6 g in water
Copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O
0.1 M, 25 g in water + 5 mL conc. sulfuric acid
Copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O 0.5 M, 124.8 g in water + 5 mL of conc. sulfuric acid
Iron (II) ammonium sulfate, Fe(NH4SO4)2.6H2O 0.5 M, 196 g in water + 10 mL conc. H2SO4, dilute to 1 litre
Iron (III) chloride, FeCl3.6H2O
0.1 M, 27 g in water + 20 mL hydrochloric acid
Iron (III) chloride, FeCl3.6H2O 0.5 M, 135.2 g in water + 20 mL conc. HCl, dilute to 1 litre
Iron (III) nitrate, Fe(NO3)3.9H2O 0.1 M, 40.4 g in water
Iron (II) sulfate, FeSO4.7H2O
0.1 M, 27.8 g in water + 1 mL conc. H2SO4 to clear
Iron (II) sulfate 0.5 M, 139 g in water + 10 mL conc. H2SO4, dilute to 1 litre
Iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3.9H2O
0.1 M, 56 g in water
Iron (III) sulfate 0.25 M, 140.5 g in water + 100 mL conc. H2SO4, dilute to 1 litre.
Lead ethanoate, (CH3COO)2Pb.3H2O 0.1 M, 38 g in water + dilute ethanoic acid to clear
Lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 0.1 M, 33 g in water
Magnesium chloride, MgCl2.6H2O 0.1 M, 20.3 g in water
Magnesium nitrate, Mg(N03)2.6H2O 0.1 M, 25.6 g in water
Magnesium sulfate, MgSO4.7H2O 0.1 M, 24.7 g in water
Manganese sulfate, MnSO4.H2O 0.1 M, 16.9 g in water
Nickel chloride, NiCl2.6H2O 0.1 M, 24 g in water
Potassium bromide, KBr 0.1 M, 12 g in water
Potassium carbonate, K2CO3 0.1 M, 13.8 g in water
Potassium chloride, KCl 0.1 M, 7.5 g in water
Potassium dichromate 0.1 M, 29.4 g in water, (K2Cr2O7)
Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate 0.1 M, 13.6 g in water, (KH2PO4)
Potassium hydroxide, KOH 2 M, 112 g in water. Use gloves.
Potassium hydroxide, KOH 2 M, 110 g of KOH sticks
Potassium iodide, KI 0.1 M, 16.6 g in water
Potassium nitrate, KNO3 0.1 M, 10.l g in water
Potassium permanganate, KMnO4 0.1 M, 15.8 g in water
Potassium sulfate, K2SO4 0.1 M, 17.4 g in water
Silver nitrate, AgNO3 0.1 M, 17 g in water
Sodium borate, Na2B4O7.l0H2O 0.1 M, 38 g in water
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3.10H2O 0.1 M, 28.6 g in water
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (anhydrous) 0.1 M, 10.6 g in water
Sodium chloride, NaCl 0.1 M, 5.8 g in water
Sodium chromate, Na2CrO4.4H2O 0.1 M, 23.4g in water
Sodium dichromate, Na2Cr207.2H2O 0.1 M, 29.8 g in water
Sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa.3H2O 00.1 M, 13.6 g in water, (sodium acetate)
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3 0.1 M, 8.4 g in water
Sodium iodide, NaI 0.1 M, 15 g in water
Sodium molybdate, Na2MoO4.2H2O 0.1 M, 24.2 g in water
Sodium nitrate, NaNO3 0.1 M, 8.5 g in water
Sodium nitrite, NaNO2 0.1 M, 7 g in water
Sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4 0.1 M, 13.4 g in water
Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4.10H2O
0.1 M, 32.2 g in water
Sodium sulfide, Na2S.9H2O 0.5 M 120 g in water and dilute to 1 litre
Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3.6H2O 0.1 M, 23.4 g in water
Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3, (anhydrous) 0.1 M, 12.6 g in water
Sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3.5H2O 0.1 M, 24.8 g in water
Strontium (II) chloride, SrCl2.6H2O 0.1 M, 26.7 g in water
tri-Sodium phosphate, Na3PO4.12H2O 0.1 M, 38 g in water
Tin (II) chloride, SnCl2.2H2O
0.5 M, 113 g in 170 mL conc. HCl, dilute to 1 litre + tin foil
Tin (IV) chloride, SnCl2.5H2O 0.1 M, 35 g in water
Zinc sulfate, ZnSO4.7H2O 0.1 M, 28.8 g in water