School Science Lessons
Food Gardens 1
2017-01-31 SP MF LI
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Food gardens

1.0.0
Agriculture websites


Table of contents
Preface

6.1.0 Administration and planning

16.0 Agricultural chemicals

6.6.0 Agricultural crops

7.0.0 Artichokes

3.3.0 Beetroot

3.4.0 Capsicum, chilli

9.14.0 Composting, C/N ratio, humus, worm farms

9.12.0 Crop care, fertilizing, mulching, watering, weeding, harvesting

3.0 Herbs

16.8.6 "Grow Your Own Herb Garden", by Annette McFarlane

4.0.0 Legumes, peas & beans

5.0.0 Maize, (Zea mays, Indian corn)

6.0.0 Mangoes in subtropical winter

9.10.0 Multiplying plants, vegetative reproduction, seeds, sexual reproduction

16.1.0 Pests and diseases, pesticides, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

6.17.0 Plant fertilizers, organic gardening

9.8.0 Planting crops, potting mix

6.20.0 Records

6.0.0 Soil science

6.6.8.1 Sprouts and microgreens


6.1.0 Administration and planning
6.1a How to use school food gardens
6.2a Aims and goals
6.4a Organizing school food gardens
6.5a Duties of a supervisor of school food gardens
6.1 Planning school food gardens
6.2 Choosing land
6.3 Choosing crops
5.24 Crop management
3.2 Crop rotation
6.6.3.1 Food crop families
3.1 Garden Calendar
6.4 When to grow crops
6.5 Clearing land
6.6 Preparing ground
3.0 Three types of gardens, kitchen gardens, field gardens, perennial tree crop gardens
6.20.0 Records

6.6.0 Agricultural crops
6.6.12 Calculate food crop production
6.6.5 Grain crops
3.0.0 Herbs
6.6.8 Leafy crops
4.0.0 Legumes, peas and beans
5.0.0 Maize,(Zea mays, Indian corn)
6.6.11 Pasture, Tropical grasses
6.6.11.1 Pasture legumes
6.6.3 Planting guide
6.6.1 Rotations for raised beds
6.6.2 Rotations for field crops and perennial crops
6.6.4 Starchy root crops
6.6.7 Tap root crops and bulb crops

3.1 Garden Calendar
Teach the students to draw up a garden calendar for the school gardens.
When to grow a crop depends on five points:
1. Suitable climate
If there are wet and dry seasons in your area when is the best time to plant?
2. Growing period
When do you want to start harvesting your crop?
Count back the number of weeks of the growing period to decide the best time to transplant and/or plant.
3. Harvest period
Most crops planted all at once can be harvested over some weeks.
To make the harvesting period longer you can use succession planting, plant a few rows every week.
After completely harvesting a crop it is best to wait at least two weeks before replanting to allow you to clean the field of old crops
and weeds, and to give time for compost or fertilizer to mix in the soil.
Keeping the land bare of crops is called "bare fallow".
4. Deciding on growing crops depends on:
4.1 Climate, wet season or dry season.
What is the best time for growing a crop?
4.2 Growing period, how long from planting seed to harvest, or from planting seed to transplanting to harvest?
4.3 Harvest period, how long can we keep picking the crop?
4.4 Fallow period, this is when we rest the ground before planting a new crop.
During the fallow period we can clean out all the plants from the last crop, pull out all the weeds, and dig in compost and fertilizer.

6.1 Planning school food gardens
Goals
1. To get the students interested in the vegetable project
2. To involve the students in the planning of the project by discussion
Principles of teaching
Students will want to learn if the teacher can get them interested, and make them feel that they are doing something they really want
to do.
The problem here is to get the students interested in growing their own food.
Students learn better if they learn by doing instead of just looking or listening.

Tell the students that you want them to help you plan the school food gardens, and tell them about the seven steps of planning.
Tell the students about the aims of your school food garden programme.
The aim of the school food gardens is to learn how to grow vegetables for the school kitchen.
The vegetables grown should be:
1. suitable for school kitchen use and liked by the students,
2. part of a balanced diet,
3. a mixture of local and introduced vegetables.
What advice do agriculture field officers give about the following?
1. Which part of the land to use and how to use it?
2. How should you prepare the land for crops?
3. Which crops are suitable?
Before starting the school vegetables project, answer the following questions:
1. What amounts of vegetables do you need for the school kitchen?
2. Who will plant, look after, and harvest the crops?
3. When will they do it?
How much money can be spent on the gardens?
1. What tools, equipment, and chemicals are available in the school?
2. What do you need to buy in the town or get from the Department of Agriculture?
3. Where will you store tools, equipment, and chemicals?
4. Who will look after the students and issue them the tools?
5. Which part of the school land can you use for gardens?

6.2 Choosing land
Gardening, garden products (commercial websites)
1. Teach the students to choose land suitable for gardens.
The choice of the land to to use for school gardens will depend on the following eight points:
1.1 Which parts of the school are safe from land disputes, claims from villagers who may want part of the crop, safe from stealing by
villagers and school boys?
1.2 What are the best places for raised beds and fields?
The raised beds (1. 2 metres x six metres) should be near the classrooms, to be convenient for practical agricultural teaching.
For the fields you need large area of land.
These fields should be no further than 15 minutes from the school.
1.3 What parts of the school land have the best soil for gardens?
1.4 What type of vegetation is already growing in the different parts of the school land, e.g. old school gardens, old village gardens,
coconut stands, regrowth, bush land, swampy land?
How much clearing and cleaning will be needed in these places to prepare the ground for crops?
Are there large tree growing in or near the gardens which can damage crops by shading or root competition?
1.5 Which parts of the land will need draining, fencing or contouring to prevent soil erosion?
1.6 How much equipment and planting materials will be available?
1.7 How much labour and time will be available for clearing, planting, managing and harvesting?
For example, how big can your gardens be if school maintenance time is one hour per student per day?
1.8 What total area of land will be needed to achieve the goal set for vegetable production?
The land you choose should be approximately square or rectangular.
The students should measure the boundaries in metres and calculate the area of each garden in hectares.
(a) length (metres) x breadth (metres) = area (square metres)
(b) length (metres) x breadth (metres) = area (hectare ha) 10, 000
(c) 100 metres x 100 metres = 10, 000 sq. metres = one ha.
You can mark metres on the classroom floor and let the students practice pacing them.
1.9 Discuss with students the points to be considered in choosing the land as set out.
You may do this while walking with them about the school grounds.
Show the students the land you have chosen for the gardens and give your reasons.
The reasons should include as many of the eight points as possible.
Do the students agree with the reasons for the choice demonstrate to the students how to pace one metre, and calculate the area in
hectares pacing around the land?
1.10 Maps of gardens
The students can do this at the end of the lesson or for homework.
On the map of each garden you should note length, breadth, area, the direction of slope and position of gates and fences.
2. Calculate how much land you need to plant crops to feed the students, and how many students you can feed for how many days
using the crops planted.
2.1 Amount of sweet potato to feed to each student per day? Let K = 1.5 kg.
2.2 Number of students to feed in the school? Let S = 120 students.
2.3 Amount of sweet potato needed per day = K × S or 1.5 × 120 = 180 kg
2.4 How many days to feed sweet potato to the students? Let D = 30 days.
2.5 Total amount of sweet potato needed = K × S × D or 180 × 30 = 5 400 kg
2.6 What is the expected yield of sweet potato? Let Y = 2 000 kg sweet potato per hectare (per ha).
2.7 Amount of land needed = K × S × D / Y = 5 400 / 2 000 = 2.7
To feed 120 students, plant about three hectares of sweet potato every month.
3. If you have five hectares of sweet potato growing, how many days can you feed the students?
3.1 Area of the crop? Let A = 5 hectares, 5 ha.
3.2 Expected yield of the crop? Let Y = 2 000 kg per hectare
3.3 Total expected yield = A × Y or 5 × 2 000 = 10 000 kg sweet potato
3.4 How many students? Let N = 120.
3.5 Amount of sweet potato to feed to each student per day? Let K = 1.5 kg
3.6 The total amount of sweet potato eaten by the students per day = K × N or 180 kg sweet potato per day.
3.7 The number of days you can expect to feed sweet potato is equal to the total amount of the harvest,
divided by the amount that they will eat per day = A × Y / K × N = 10 000 / 180 = 56 days.
So if you have five hectares of sweet potato to harvest you can expect to eat them for 56 days.
4. The daily diet of the students should contain about 0.5 kg per student per day of vegetables other than root crops and maize.
Each day have one good meal of legumes.
Climbing beans can be picked from raised beds and field beans can be picked from the root crop legume rotations in the fields.
4.1 One meal with both leafy vegetables, e.g. Chinese cabbage, and fruiting vegetables, e.g. eggplant.
4.2 One meal with aibika or pumpkin leaves or local vegetables.
4.3 One meal with banana or coconut.
5. The land you choose should be square or rectangular
The students can measure the boundaries in metres and calculate the area of each garden in hectares.
5.1 length, (metres) × breadth, (metres) = area, (square metres)
5.2 length, (metres) × breadth, (metres) = area, (hectares, ha), 10 000
5.3 100 metres × 100 metres = 10 000 square metres = 1 ha
5.4 You can mark metres on the classroom floor and let the students practice pacing them.

1. Discuss with students the points to be considered in choosing the land.
Do this while walking with the students about the school grounds.
2. Show the students the land you have chosen for the gardens and give your reasons.
The reasons should include as many of the eight points as possible.
Do the students agree with the reasons for the choice?
3. Show the students how to pace 1 metre and calculate the area in hectares pacing around the land.
4. Show the land selected for school vegetable gardens
5. Make a map of the school food garden.
On the map note the length, breadth, area, the direction of North and position of nearby trees and buildings,
water supply, direction of drainage, and position of gates and fences.

6.3 Choosing crops
Discuss the needs of the school kitchen and what students like to eat.
When deciding which crops to grow, consider the following five points:
1. What are the needs of the school kitchen?
How much of each kind of vegetable do you need each week?
How much food are students expected to get for themselves, and not from the school kitchen, e.g. coconut, fruit, and the produce of
the students' own weekend gardens?
If your school is well organized, all the food that the students gather should go through the kitchen.
2. Which vegetables do students like to eat?
It is no use growing a new kind of crop, e.g. okra if the kitchen staff do not know how to cook it and the students will not eat it.
However, it is a good idea to try some new vegetables to widen the experience of the students.
3. The vegetables should be part of a balanced diet.
Each day the students' diet should be two parts grain and root crops and one part legumes or meat and one part a mixture of leafy
vegetables and coconut and fruit.
Students eat 1.5 to 3.0 kg of food per day.
Which planting materials will be available when it is time to plant?
Do not plant the same crop again in the same soil.
Grow following crops in an arranged order, crop rotation.
These lists show what can be grown next after you harvest the present crops.
4. Try to get examples or pictures of vegetables that the students may not know.
Commercial seed packets often have good pictures, so save these for teaching aids.
Make sure that students use the names of vegetables as in these teaching notes, e.g., sweet potato, (not "potato"), aibika,
(not "cabbage").
5.1 Tell the students about the five points to think about when deciding when to grow crops: needs of the school kitchen, what students
like to eat, balanced diet, planting materials, and rotations.
5.2 Ask the students to help you make a list on the chalkboard of the vegetables they eat in the mess and in other places.
Next to each vegetable show the amount eaten by: eat a lot, eat some, eat only a little, or not at all or like a lot, like a bit, not like at all.
5.3 Next to each vegetable write one of the following:
S = grain, starchy food, e.g. maize, or root vegetable, e.g. cassava, yam, taro.
P = legume, protein food, (e.g. winged bean, pigeon pea, mung bean, cow pea),
L = leafy vegetable, healthy food, (e.g. hibiscus cabbage, pumpkin tips, Chinese cabbage)
F = fruit, healthy food, (e.g. papaya, banana)
5.4 Tell the students that for a balanced diet they should grow some of each of these types of food.
5.5 Suggest another food crop they could grow to make a balanced diet and write these on the chalkboard.
Explain that rotation tables list what can be grown after each type of crop.
Think of what is already growing in each garden and decide which vegetables are needed for the kitchen to be grown next.

6.4 When to grow crops
When to grow a crop depends on the following:
1. Suitable climate
If there are wet and dry seasons in your area when is the best time to plant?
2. Growing period, planting to harvest
When do you want to start harvesting your crop?
Count back the number of weeks of the growing period to decide the best time to transplant and plant.
Fallow period, when you rest the ground before planting a new crop, clean out all the plants from the last crop, pull out all the weeds,
and dig in compost and fertilizer.
3. Harvest Period
You can usually plant crops all at once and later harvest them during some weeks.
To make the harvesting period longer, you can use succession planting, i.e. plant a few rows of sweet potato every week.
How long can you keep picking the crop?
4. After completely harvesting a crop, wait at least two weeks before replanting to allow you to clean the field of an old crop and
weeds, and to give time for compost or fertilizer to mix in the soil.
Keep the land bare of crops (bare fallow).
5. Crop Rotation
6. Garden calendar
Use a garden calendar to help you decide when to plant crops.
The example included in the lesson should either be duplicated or drawn on the chalkboard.
Before the lesson make a crop calendar for using the crops chosen by the teacher and the students in the last lesson.
Use one column for each raised bed or field.
Work backwards from the time of first harvest to planting.
Work forwards to end of harvest and fallow period.

3.2 Crop rotation
It is not easy to follow crop rotation and get the crops harvested when you want them.
For example, you do not want any of your crops to be ready for harvest during the long school holidays.
It is best to time your planting so that crops, e.g. root crops or legumes are growing during that holiday time and are ready to be
harvested, or turned in as green manure, after the first term starts.
Use a garden calendar to help you decide when to plant crops.
Before the lesson, work out a crop calendar for using the crops chosen by the teacher and the students in the last lesson.
Use one column for each raised bed or field.
Work backwards from the time of first harvest or planting.
Work forward to end of harvest and fallow period.
The advantages of crop rotation are as follows:
3.1. Pests and diseases that infect a particular kind of plant or a particular family of plants cannot be passed on from one crop to the
next crop.
Root crops or leafy crops are examples of kinds of plants.
Tomato, chilli, capsicum, and European potato are all in the tomato family.
3.2. Different kinds of crops take in different amounts of plant nutrients from the soil.
Legumes add nitrogen plant nutrient to the soil.
3.3. Different kinds of crops have different depths of roots and affect the way the soil holds together in different ways.
3.4 Different food crop families have different effects on the soil and attract different pests and diseases.
So a crop rotation my be based on using a sequence of different food crop families.
4. Crop rotation for your school food gardens
See diagram 9.72.1: Mung bean, pigeon pea, winged bean
4.1 Raised beds: e.g. (1). Chinese cabbage then (2). tomato then (3). winged bean then (4). maize
4.2 Fields: e.g. (1). sweet potato then (2). cowpea then (3). cassava then (4). mung bean
4.3 Garden calendar for your school food garden
4.4 Date Bed 1 Bed 2 Field 1 Field 2
4.5 Planting: cabbage,  bean,  maize, sweet potato
5.24 Crop management
Show students some examples from your garden of: care of the crop, interplanting, need for control of pests and disease.
Show them how to control by hand.
Keep a record of their garden visits and observations in their note books.
Care of the crop: Keep soil cultivated between plants, well drained and free of weeds.
This will allow the crop to grow strongly and not lose any water and plant nutrients to weeds.
Use mulch to protect the soil but do not let it touch the plant stems because some disease may be in the mulch.
Add some compost or artificial fertilizer to provide plant nutrients to keep the crop healthy.
Interplanting can help plants to help each other so use a mixture of different kinds of plants in a garden, for example:
Table 5.24
Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4
sweet potato maize sweet potato maize
climbing bean maize pumpkin .
If the same kinds of plants are separated from each other by other kinds of plants, it is harder for pests and disease to spread from
one plant to another.
Also some plants can help each other by shading weeds or repelling insects, e.g. marigolds will protect other plants from nematode
worms.
Raphanus sativus, radish, is a pungent companion plant to many species but not hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis..
Control by hand: Insects such as caterpillars, diseased plants and parts of plants can be removed by hand and burnt.
Crops should be looked at every day for signs of pests and disease.
Garden hygiene: Do not leave diseased plants in the garden - pull them all out and burn them.
Also look at compost heaps and mulch for signs of insects that attack plants, e.g. Rhinoceros Beetle, mole crickets.
Control by spraying and dusting: Chemical sprays and dusts called pesticides can be used.
However, they are expensive and have to be handled with care because they are poisonous to people.
Use sprays or dusts only if it is essential, e.g. Carbaryl, Maldison, Dimethoate, Captan, Mancozeb, Acephate.

5.24 Management, revision questions
Give two reasons why it is good to interplant crops. [Less spread of disease, some plants can help each other]
If you interplant maize with climbing beans, how do the beans help the maize? [The beans shade weeds and give nitrogen plant
nutrients to the maize.]
How does the maize help the beans? [Shades weeds and provides something for the beans to climb up.]
What should you do if you see a few diseased leaves on a plant? [Pull them off and burn them.]
What should you do if the whole plant is diseased and using pesticides is not profitable? [Pull it out and burn it.]
What are the two disadvantages of spraying with pesticides? [They are expensive They must be handled with care because they are
poisonous to people.]
What must you do to your crops every day to guard against pests and diseases? [Look at them carefully.]
Why do you need to control pests and diseases? [Because they decrease the production of a crop.]

6.5 Clearing land
Teach the students to understand why we must clear the land.
1. Clearing land is mainly hard work and you must try to make sure that this work is not so hard that the students hate agriculture.
Most of this work should be done during school gardening time or school maintenance time.
You can make hard work more interesting by:
1.1 Always praise the best efforts rather than criticizing the lazy or careless work.
1.2 Have a definite well-organized work period, e.g. "all students will cut bush between 3. 00 pm and 4. 00 pm working with me".
1.3 Set a realistic goal for each work period, developing competition between classes.
1.4 Do not let boys compete against girls.
1.5 Do not do all the interesting pert of the work yourself.
1.6 Train groups of students to work by themselves with a student leader.
Give this lesson before the students clear the land so they know why they are doing this work.
2. To prepare land for vegetable gardens it must be cleared, drained and fenced.
Reasons for clearing:
2.1 To stop competition for plant foods from other plants called weeds,
2.2 To allow cultivation, no logs, trees, roots or stones,
2.3 To stop shading of the crop from trees.
3. Land should be cleared twice before planting:
3.1 First clearing: cut down bushes and trees, remove logs, roots, stones and weeds.
3.2 Second clearing: 3 weeks later pull out all new weeds.
Put all weeds on the compost heap.
4. Dig up some soil from badly drained land so students can smell it in the classroom.
It is often called "sour" or waterlogged land.
Reasons for draining:
4.1 To allow air to get into the soil for the roots to breathe,
4.2 To stop diseases living in the soil that can attack the roots and stem base of crop plants.
Soil with too much water is said to be waterlogged.
Land that is not drained properly has a bad smell.
The teacher should let the students smell the "sour" soil.
5. Reason for fencing:
5.1 To keep pigs and other animals out.
5.2 To keep people out
6. After you have cleared the land there is a danger that if the soil is left bare, wind, rain and water can carry away the soil and destroy
the gardens, (soil erosion).
Grow plants stop or slow the wind (windbreaks), e.g. Leucaena.
If you cover the bare soil with mulch or a leafy crop, this will stop raindrop erosion.
7. Water erosion can be stopped by:
7.1 good drains with grass growing in them,
7.2 putting ridges and beds across a slope and not up and down it.
8. The students should know the following tools and how to use them: spade, hoe, fork, trowel, bush knife, rake, pick, mattock.

6.6 Preparing ground
See diagram 6.0: Digging the ground, raised bed, ridges
1. Prepare ground with treatments before planting, which allows seeds to germinate easily and quickly, allow roots to penetrate the soil
easily, improve the plant nutrients in the soil, and help to control weeds and insects.
2. Dig deeply with a garden fork the rake the soil from different angles to make a soil with a fine tilth.
3. Be prepared to tell the students that good preparation of ground does need hard work, but later the crops will grow better and you
will need less work to look after them.
4. If beds and ridges run North South then all the plants in one row get the same amount of light.
Their shadows fall on the interwove area, and not on each other.
5. Clay soils needs deep digging with the addition of gypsum and compost.
1. Teach the need for good preparation of ground.
2. The objectives of preparation of ground are as follows:
2.1 to loosen the soil so roots can grow easily,
2.2 to make a fine even seed bed so seeds will germinate easily and quickly,
2.3 to control weeds and insect pests by digging them up,
2.4 to improve the soil by mixing in dead plants and compost.
This will increase the plant nutrients in the soil and make the soil easier to dig,
2.5 to form the soil into raised beds or ridges so it is ready for planting.
3. The steps in preparing ground are as follows:
3.1 Turn the ground over to a depth of 15-30 cm.
Work backwards using spades for turning and hoes for breaking up clods of earth.
For raised beds use the trench digging method:
3.2 Dig in compost or other fertilizers.
Check if the Department of Agriculture allows compost because in some countries compost can contain pests and diseases.
3.3. Use rakes and hoes to make the soil fine and even.
4. Raised beds should be 1.5 metres × 6 metres × 15 cm.
Put logs around the sides of the beds.
When beds are first made, you can pile the soil 30 cm high but it should settle down to about 15 cm.
Hoe fields into ridges 45-60 cm apart and 15 cm high.

6.1a How to use school food gardens
1. Wherever school food gardens are used for the teaching of agriculture.
There is always one big danger - if the gardens are too big, the students may think of school agriculture as just hard work.
This may make the students dislike school agriculture.
The amount of practical work in most of the agriculture teaching notes has been kept small, so that it will not make students tired by the
hard work.
However, in some places the schools must have big gardens because they must grow enough food for all the students.
These lessons have been written especially for schools that have to grow food for students.
Because the gardens must be big and there is much work for the students to do, you must think of ways of making the students like
this work:
2. All the students of the school must help in the garden work.
It must not be just the agriculture students that do the work.
3. Make the working time as short as possible.
It will probably be enough if each student works for one hour each day.
You can call this "food growing time" or "school maintenance time".
4. Allocate each class of students a special garden to work in.
This makes it possible for the students in a class to be proud of their own garden.
5. Work in the school food gardens should never be used as a punishment.
Teach each class of students to be proud of their work so they can grow some of their own food.
6. Praise students when they work hard or do a job properly.

6.2a Aims and goals
1. Following are some aims and goals for school food gardens.
You may have different aims and goals for your school but all teachers and students should know them.
1.1 Students will understand the different methods used to produce food.
1.2 Students can use the different skills needed to produce food.
1.3 Students will be interested in taking part in agricultural activities.
2. Long-term goals.
2.1 Students will want to grow some of their own food when living at home in a village or in a town.
2.2 Students will want to have a balanced diet both for themselves and for their families.
2.3 Students will want to try growing both local and introduced food plants using modern methods.

3.0 Three types of gardens, kitchen gardens, field gardens, perennial tree crop gardens
1. Kitchen gardens are near the kitchen and classroom.
The soil is dug to form raised beds.
Each bed may be 6. 0 x 1. 2 metres in area and it is 15 cm higher than the ground.
It is separated from the next bed by pathways 50 cm wide.
These gardens are used to grow vegetables that can be picked fresh:
1.1 Fruiting vegetables, e.g. tomatoes,
1.2 Leafy vegetables, e.g. Chinese cabbage and hibiscus cabbage.
Part of the kitchen gardens may be used for perennial vegetables that grow a long time, e.g. mint, rhubarb, parsley.
2. Field gardens are not near the kitchen.
They are large areas of land used for growing food crops, e.g. root crops, e.g. kumara, cassava or yams, and also for growing
maize and legumes, e.g. beans, cow peas, and peanuts.
These gardens are for annual crops.
3. Perennial tree crop gardens are separate gardens to grow long lasting or perennial crops, e.g. papaya, bananas, chillies, hibiscus
cabbage, pineapples coconuts and other tree crops, e.g. guava, star fruit, breadfruit, oranges, limes and soursop.
The three main methods of cultivation are as follows:
1. raised beds,
2. ridges,
3. mounds.
You will need to prepare for a visit to the gardens.
4. Take the class to school gardens or other gardens.
What types of gardens are there?
How are they cultivated?
Draw a map of the garden. draw examples of raised beds, ridges and mounds.
Soil is cultivated in these ways to improve drainage and to allow access to the plants without treading on their soil.
Make examples of raised beds, ridges and mounds using spades and hoes.

6.4a Organizing school food gardens
The work of the school food gardens can be done better if there are plans to make the work go well.
Here are some ideas for planning:
1. Food committee
You can form this to help the teacher with his work.
This committee can include the headmaster, the teacher in charge of gardens and one other agriculture teacher, a teacher of home
economics and one student from each form.
Having such a committee will help to make all the committee people interested in the gardens.

2. Involving teachers
Although only the agriculture teachers will do the classroom teaching in agriculture, all the teachers in the school should take an active
part in looking after the gardens and working with the students.
3. Time for growing time
All the students should do some work in the gardens during a special time each day called "food growing time", or "gardening time" or
"school maintenance time".
In some schools all students work in the gardens or one hour each weekday and there may be some garden work at the weekends.
However, on some islands no work will be done on Sunday.
4. Store room.
You must have a store room that can be locked up at the end of the day.
Lock all the tools, equipment and chemicals up in this room.
5. Stock record book
In the store room keep a stock record book or "inventory book".
In this write a list of all the things kept in the store, as follows:
Table 6.4.5
Item | Number | Date | Remarks
CP-sprayer | 1 | 2/2/00| handle broken 4/1/00
Fungicide | 200g | 2/2/00/ half missing 1/11/00
Spades | 20 | 2/4/00| one missing 2/11/00
The date tells you when the item was first put in the store or when the store was last closed and everything in it counted.
You call this counting a "stock take".
6. Borrowing book
Every day two students must work in the store.
They must look after everything in the store.
They must also issue tools or other things to the students who are going out to work in the gardens.
However, before they give anything to a student, they must write it in the borrowing book,
and the student who is taking it must write his name.
The borrowing book looks like this:
Table 6.4.6
No. items | Item | Student | Date out | Date in | Storekeeper
7. Records
The teacher in charge of the gardens should keep records so that the food committee will know:
1. How much food has been harvested and sent to the kitchen
2. The cost of producing this food
3. How much money received from any sales of crops
4. How to plan future food crop production
8. The Production Record Book is used to record the amount of a crop harvested, the amount of the crop sent to the kitchen or sold,
and the amount of money received if any of the produce was sold.
In some schools the value of the crop sent to the kitchen is worked out but no money is paid.
The production Record Book can be kept either as a separate book or as part of the school food gardens diary.
9. The Receipt Book is used so you can give a receipt to any person who pays you money.
The carbon paper duplicate is used as a record of how much money you have received.
If you sell any of the produce from the school food gardens always give the buyer a receipt for the amount of money.
10. The Cash Receipts Journal is a list of the dates of sales, what you have sold, who you sold it to, receipt numbers, how much you
received.
It is usually written at the end of each week by using the information recorded in the Receipt Book.
When you buy something for the school food gardens always get a receipt for the money you pay.
You can keep these receipts on an iron spike.
At the end of each week take the receipts off the spike and write up your Cash Payments Journal that lists the dates of payments, what
you have bought and how much you have paid.
If you keep a school food gardens cheque account this information should be on the cheque butts.
The cash receipts journal and cash payments journal can be written in the same exercise book:
Table 6.4.10 Cash Receipts Journal | - | Cash payments Journal
Date | Particulars, e.g. 5 chickens | Receipt No. | Amount, e.g. $10.00 | - l Date | Particulars, e.g. 1 sprayer nozzle | Amount, e.g. $4.95
Date | Total Receipts | - | Total Payments

6.5a Duties of a supervisor of school food gardens
See diagram: 61.8: Crop diary
Before taking over from a previous teacher or before starting new gardens, the supervisor of school food gardens should be able to
answer the following 8 questions:
1. What are the aims and goals of the school food garden programme?
Talk about these aims with the food committee.
2. How much labour is needed?
How many hours of work by all the students and staff can be used by you in the gardens?
3. How much money is there to spend on seeds, chemicals and tools?
Who can spend this money?
4. Which record books will be kept and who will keep them?
Is there an inventory book, Production Record book, Receipt book, Cash Receipts and Cash Sales Journal, Savings bank book or
cheque book?
Is there a borrowing book kept properly?
Is there any money owed to the school food gardens?
Does the school food gardens account owe any money to anybody or commercial enterprise?
Are there any items that they have not returned to the store?
Are there any items in the store that they should return to their owners?
Has a school food gardens diary been used?
5. What seeds, tools and equipment belong to the school food gardens?
Get some students to help you with stocktaking and making a new inventory.
6. What is the history of the school food garden land? Who owns the land?
Are there any claims from village people to the land or to the produce from it?
Do they dislike any use of the land, e.g. cutting down trees or digging drains?
What crops have been grown on this land before?
7. Have they described the land accurately?
If they have already made a map check the details on it or draw a new map.
Show the distance on the map in paces of about 1 metre.
On the map show direction of North, scale of paces, type of vegetation or crops grown,
direction of slopes, types of soil, position of trees and rocks, water supply, direction of drainage, fences, gates and buildings.
8. What do the field officers of the Department of Agriculture think about the possible use of the land?
Make an appointment to see the local agriculture field officers or invite them to visit the school.
Ask the field officers what help they can give on advice on:
1. what to grow,
2. supply from them of planting material, chemicals and technical literature,
3. help with spraying and ploughing, and receiving produce for sale.
Do not ask the agriculture field office to give lessons or demonstrations to students because that is the job of agriculture teachers.
Making Decisions
Students will work together more and learn more if the teacher lets the students do all the activities needed to run the school gardens.
These activities include planning who to do, ordering things, working in the gardens, harvesting and recording how much produce
harvested, and eating the produce.
The teacher must always first show how to do a job properly and then step back and watch the students do it.
The first 5 lessons suggest ways to decide with the students' help.

6.6.1 Rotations for raised beds
3 Beds Rotation
Table 6.6.1
Bed 1 leafy vegetables, then Bed 2 fruiting vegetables, then Bed 3 legumes
Use some space for:
1. Perennial herbs, e.g. rhubarb, garlic, parsley, mint, ginger
2. Local vegetables, e.g. amaranths, purslane, bitter cucumber, comfrey, fern, rungia, pit pit, sugar cane
3. Introduced vegetables: carrots, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, basella, kohlrabi, endive, rosella, parsnip, beetroot (beet),
zucchini. (courgette)
4. Some vegetables can be grown in running water, e.g. water potato, watercress.

6.6.2 Rotations for field crops and perennial crops
Bed 1 leafy vegetables, then Bed 2 fruiting vegetables, then Bed 3 legumes, then Bed 3 root crop or grain
Table 6.6.2.1 Perennial crops
Avocado, granadilla, oil palm, banana, guava, papaya, breadfruit, jackfruit, pineapple, citrus, litchi, passionfruit, coconut, malay apple,
custard apple, mango, rhambutan, five corners, mangosteen, sago palm, sugar cane.

6.6.3 Planting guide
Table 6.6.3
Crop | Planting depth (cm) | How planted | Distance between plants | Distance between rows | Time to harvest (weeks)
Amaranthus,sprinkle, direct planting, thin to15 cm between plants, 15 cm between rows, 6 weeks to harvest
Banana, 45 cm deep,suckers, 200 cm between plants,200 cm between rows, 40 weeks to harvest
Basella, 5 cm deep, direct planting,thin to 30 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 5 weeks to harvest
Bean, 5 cm deep, direct planting, 15 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows,10 weeks to harvest
Beetroot, 2 cm deep, direct planting,thin to15 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Broccoli, nursery, 45 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 14 weeks to harvest
Cabbage, nursery, 45 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Capsicum, nursery, 45 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Carrot, 1 cm deep, direct planting, thin to 5 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 12 weeks to harvest
Cassava, 10 cm deep, cuttings, 100 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 30 weeks to harvest
Cauliflower, nursery, 45 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows, 20 weeks to harvest
Celery, nursery, 15 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows,20 weeks to harvest
Chinese cabbage, nursery, 30 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Chilli, 10 cm deep, nursery, 75 cm between plants, 150 cm between rows, 20 weeks to harvest
Choko,5 cm deep, fruit, 30 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 12 weeks to harvest
Comfrey, 20 cm deep, cuttings, 75 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 50 weeks to harvest
Cowpea, 5 cm deep, direct planting, 15 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Cucumber,2 cm deep, thin to 30 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Eggplant, nursery, 60 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows,12 weeks to harvest
Ginger, 5 cm deep, rhizome, 15 cm between plants,45 cm between rows, 30 weeks to harvest
Haricot bean, 5 cm deep, direct planting, 15 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Hibiscus cabbage, 10 cm deep, cuttings 60 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Kohlrabi, nursery, 15 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Lettuce, nursery, 30 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 8 weeks to harvest
Maize, 2 cm deep, direct planting,  15 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows, 15 weeks to harvest
Marrow, 5 cm deep, direct planting,  100 cm between plants, 200 cm between rows, 12 weeks to harvest
Melon, 5 cm deep, direct planting, 100 cm between plants, 200 cm between rows, 12 weeks to harvest
Mung bean, 2 cm deep, direct planting,  15 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 9 weeks to harvest
Okra, 5 cm deep, direct planting, 30 cm between plants, 75 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Onion, 5 cm deep, direct planting,thin to 10 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 15 weeks to harvest
Parsley, 1 cm deep, direct planting, 15 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 12 weeks to harvest
Parsnip, 1 cm deep, direct planting,15 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 20 weeks to harvest
Papaya, transplant 200 cm between plants, 200 cm between rows, 16 weeks to harvest
Peanut, 2 cm deep, direct planting,  30 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 15 weeks to harvest
Peas, 5 cm deep, direct planting,  5 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Pigeon pea, 5 cm deep, direct planting, 60 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 24 weeks to harvest
Pineapple, shoots / slips, 30 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows, 60 weeks to harvest
Pit pit, Saccharum, 20 cm deep, cuttings 100 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 8 weeks to harvest
Pumpkin, 2 cm deep, direct planting,  100 cm between plants, 200 cm between rows, 15 weeks to harvest
Purslane, sprinkle direct planting,  15 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 6 weeks to harvest
Radish, transplant, 25 cm between plants, 25 cm between rows, 16 weeks to harvest
Rhubarb, 2 cm deep, seed / crowns 45 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 5 weeks to harvest
Silver beet, nursery,  15 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Snake bean, 5 cm deep, direct planting,  15 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 8 weeks to harvest
Snake gourd, 5 cm deep, direct planting,  30 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 8 weeks to harvest
Sorghum, direct planting,  15 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 15 weeks to harvest
Soya bean, direct planting,  15 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows, 12 weeks to harvest
Spinach, nursery,  15 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 8 weeks to harvest
Spring onion, 10 cm deep, direct planting, thin to 5 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 12 weeks to harvest
Sugar cane, cuttings, 100 cm between plants, 150 cm between rows, 50 weeks to harvest
Sunflower, 5 cm deep, direct planting,  45 cm between plants, 45 cm between rows, 16 weeks to harvest
Sweet potato 10 cm deep, cuttings 45 cm between plants, 75 cm between rows, 14 weeks to harvest
Tannia, 10 cm deep, corms, 100 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 120 weeks to harvest
Taro, 20 cm deep, tops, tubers, 60 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 80 weeks to harvest
Tomato, nursery, 60 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows, 14 weeks to harvest
Tumeric,5 cm deep, rhizome, 15 cm between plants, 30 cm between rows, 35 weeks to harvest
Watercress, 2 cm deep, root cuttings, 15 cm between plants, 15 cm between rows, 10 weeks to harvest
Winged bean, 2 cm deep, direct planting, 15 cm between plants, 15 cm between rows, 12 weeks to harvest
Yam, 10 cm deep, tuber cuttings, 100 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 40 weeks to harvest
Zucchini, 5 cm deep, direct planting, 100 cm between plants, 100 cm between rows, 8 weeks to harvest.

6-6-3-1 Food crop families
Rotations may be based on using a sequence of different food crop families
Amaryllidaceae, Onion family (Synonym: Liliaceae), garlic, leek, onion, shallot
Apiaceae, (Umbelliferae), Carrot family, carrot, celery, coriander, dill, fennel, parsley, parsnip
Arecaceae, Palm family (Palmae), Arum family, (aroids), arum, taro
Arecaceae, Palm family (Palmae), areca, coconut, oil palm (Elaeis), rattan (Calamus), sago palm
Asteraceae, (Compositae), Daisy family, chicory / endive, Jerusalem artichoke, lettuce, salsify, sunflower
Brassicaceae, (Cruciferae), Mustard family, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, radish, swede, turnip
Chenopodiaceae, Beetroot family, (Goosefoot family), beetroot, spinach
Convolvulaceae, Morning glory family, sweet potato
Cucurbitaceae, Cucumber family, cucumber, courgette, marrow, melon, pumpkin, squash
Dioscoreaceae, Yam family, yam
Euphorbiaceae, Spurge family, cassava, castor oil
Fabaceae, (Leguminosae), Pea family, alfalfa, broad bean, French bean, runner bean, clover, pea, tares trefoil
Malvaceae, (Hibiscus family), aibika, (Pacific cabbage), okra (gumbo)
Poaceae, Grass family (Gramineae),  bamboo, barley, maize, oats, rice, sugar cane.

6.6.4 Starchy root crops
This group contains four plant families.
Convolvulaceae,
1. Sweet Potato family (Convolvulaceae, dicotyledon)
Ipomoea batatas sweet potato ("potato", kau kau), produces starchy tubers.
Creeping plant with trumpet shaped purple flowers, near relatives are common tropical creepers, e.g. Convolvulus.

Araceae
2. Taro family (Araceae, monocotyledon)
Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta, (Arum esculentum, Caladium esculentum, Colocasia antiquorum), taro, ("taro tru", dalo,
dasheen), produces starchy corms.
Xanthosoma sagittifolium tannia, (tana, Chinese taro, "Kong Kong taro", taro tarua, taro futuna, daloni, yautia, cocoyam), has
daughter corms to be eaten, rather than main mother corm.
Alocasia macrorrhiza giant taro, (wild taro, kape, elephant's ear), is usually eaten as emergency food if no good taro is available,
but it is the main food in Tonga.
Cyrtosperma chamissonis, giant taro, (swamp taro, babai, puraka, via kana), are huge taro grown on coral atolls.

Dioscoreaceae
3. Yam family. (Dioscoreaceae, monocotyledon)
Dioscorea alata, (D. rubella), greater yam, (winged yam, water yam, "common yam"), is a large climber with winged stems from a
large single tuber. It climbs from left to right.
Dioscorea bulbifera aerial yam, (wild yam, bulbil yam, potato yam), is a climber with round stems bearing edible aerial tubers
(bulbils), in the leaf axils.
Dioscorea esculenta, lesser yam, (pan), is a small climber producing more than 1 small tuber.
It climbs from right to left.
Dioscorea pentophylla, leaf with 3.5 lobes, spiny stem.
It climbs from right to left,
Dioscorea numularia
, very spiny stem.
It climbs from left to right.

Euphorbiaceae
4. Cassava family (Euphorbiaceae, dicotyledon)
Manihot esculenta, cassava, produces many starchy tuberous roots.
Rubber tree and castor oil tree are in the same family.

6.6.5 Grain crops
Poaceae
1. Grain family (Poaceae) grass family, cereals
Maize, sweet corn, popcorn (Zea mays)
Produce many fruit (grains) in rows on a cob.
Sorghum, millet (Sorghum)
Produces a head of grain. Likes a dry climate. Mainly for animal food.
Sugar Cane (Saccharum) Sucrose sugar stored in stems.
There are local canes that are grown for the edible flowers, e.g. pit pit grass (Miscanthus floridulus)
Asteraceae, (Compositae)
2. Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae)
Sunflower (Helianthus) produces grain in a big flower. It is in the same family as pyrethrum and lettuce.

6.6.7 Tap root crops and bulb crops
These are small plants with the tap roots or leaf bases swollen mainly with stored sugars.
Apiaceae, (Umbelliferae), Carrot family
1. Apiaceae (Carrot family)
Carrot (Daucus) has a single swollen tap root that is rich in vitamin A.
It is hard to grow.
Parsnip (Pastinaca) has a long white root like a carrot.
It is hard to grow.
2. Cruciferae (Cabbage family)
Radish (Raphanus) has a long or round tap root with a hot taste.
It is easy and quick to grow.
3. Alliaceae (Onion family)
Spring onion (Allium sp.) is a thin plant with small bulbs that grow quickly and produce daughter bulbs.
It has a strong taste and is used in stews or eaten raw.
Garlic (Allium sp.) has a large bulb with very hot taste.
It has daughter bulbs that separate easily.
4. Chenopodiaceae (Beet family)
Beetroot (Beta) has a large red tap root.
It is cooked in stews.
The leafy crops spinach and silver beet are in the same family.

6.6.8 Leafy crops
1. Malvaceae (Hibiscus family)
Aibika, Pacific cabbage, Abelmoschus manihot, is a perennial bush producing edible leaves, that are an excellent vegetable with a
high protein content.
Okra or gumbo, Hibiscus esculentus, is really a fruiting vegetable.
It green fruits should be cooked in stews because of their sticky feel.
Brassicaceae, (Cruciferae),
2. Cabbage family (Cruciferae)
Cabbage, Brassica oleracea, has very large terminal buds but grows slowly and has little food value.
Similar to cabbage are kohlrabi, broccoli, also turnip and radish, Raphanus, tap root crops.
Chinese cabbage, Brassica Chinensis, has a large terminal bud and is easy and quick to grow.
The variety Pak Choi looks like spinach.
The variety Wong Bok looks like a tall cabbage.
Watercress, Nasturtium, is a perennial herb growing in running freshwater streams.
Its leafy stems are eaten raw or in soup.
Plant the cuttings.
3. Lettuce family (Compositae)
Lettuce, Lactuca, has a large terminal bud.
It is picked fresh for salad or quickly boiled or stir fried.
Sunflower, a grain, and Pyrethrum, that yields insecticide, are in the same family.
Silver beet and spinach have large edible leaves.
They are members of the beetroot family.
4. Parsley, Petroselinum crispum, is a perennial herb used to flavour soups.
It is a rich source of vitamin C.
5. Comfrey family, Boraginaceae, includes comfrey, e.g. Russian comfrey, Symphytum.
The leaves are cooked as vegetables and the dried leaves cooked in biscuits.
6. Melon family, Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbita, marrow, squash, melon, Cucumis, choko, Sechium, snake gourd, Trichosanthes, bitter cucumber, Momordica, and
watermelon, Citrullus.
6.6.8.1 Sprouts and microgreens
Sprouting and microgreens
For sprouting, use seeds purchased from a reputable seed specialist.
Wash  the seeds then initiate germination by soaking the seeds in warm water overnight.
Rinse the soaked seeds thoroughly to remove any discolouration.
Place the seeds in a jar and use a rubber band to attach a piece of fly screen to the top of the jar.
Invert the jar 45o and place the inverted jar in a dish on a windowsill.
Rinse the seeds three times each day.
Microgreens are an exciting, colourful, gourmet alternative to sprouts.
They are half way in size between sprouts and salad mix, and are usually grown in seedling trays.
Microgreens differ from sprouts in that they are grown in sunlight and harvested with scissors when there are 2 or more true leaves,
whereas sprouts are eaten much smaller.
Use the following for sprout or microgreens:
Adzuki Bean, Alfalfa, Amaranth, Basil (Greek), Basil (purple), Basil (sweet), Basil (Thai), Broccoli, Buckwheat (hulled), Cabbage (red),
Carrot, Celery, Chard (red), Chervil, Chickpea, Chive, Coriander, Dandelion, Dill, Kohlrabi, Lemon Balm, Lentil, Mung Beans, Mache
(Lamb's Letfuce), Mint, Mustard Cress, Onion, Pea tendrils, Quinoa, Red Garnet, Rockmelon, Mizuna (green), Mizuna (red), Mustard
(red), Parsley (continental), Parsley (curly), Radish (green), Radish (red), Rockmelon, Rocket, Salad Bumet, Shiso (green), Shiso (red),
Sorrell (red vein), Rocket, Sunflower, Tatsoi, Watercress, Wheatgrass.

6.6.9 Tomato family (Solanaceae)
1. Tomato (Lycopersicon) produces a large amount of fruit if looked after well.
It needs occasional watering for deep root growth, need staking and side dressings.
Four kinds of wilt affect tomatoes:
1.1 Verticillium wilt fungus and fusarium wilt fungus are persistent infections from the soil.
They cause withering from the base upwards and stems that are black or red brown inside.
1.2 Bacterial wilt causes rapid wilting and death of the plant.
1.3 Tomato spotted wilt virus on tomato, capsicum, dahlia, chrysanthemum causes brown leaf spots and rings.
Control these diseases with choice of resistant varieties, crop rotation and burning of infected plants.
2. Chilli, cayenne pepper, red pepper, green pepper, capsicum.
(Capsicum) are grown as a perennial cash crop.
Red pepper, green pepper or capsicum are grown as annuals and have large hollow fruit.
All these fruits contain a lot of vitamin C.
3. Eggplant or aubergine (Solanum) produce many large purple fruits that must be cooked.
A close relative is the European or Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum).
Other plants of the same family grown in the tropics are Tree tomato (Cyphomandra), and Tobacco (Nicotiana).

6.6.10 Pumpkin family, cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae)
3.28 Stems and roots, (Primary)
Soft rots occur mainly in the hearts of leafy vegetables and can be controlled by watering only in the mornings, and by not planting too
closely besides using copper oxychloride.
Leaf tip burn in leafy vegetables can be caused by soil with very low pH, which can be controlled by adding lime to the soil.
Other leaf burns can be caused by using pesticides or weedicides that are too concentrated.
1. Pumpkin, squash, marrow (Cucurbita) Both bushy and running varieties grown for large fruit, tips of shoots and young leaves.
2. Cucumber, rock melon (Cucumis) watermelon (Citrullus) Smaller and faster growing than most pumpkins.
Melons are too easy to steal. Bushy and running varieties.
Choko, choyote (Sechium) produces large number of green fruit and edible young shoots and leaves, strong climber.
3. Snake gourd (Trichosanthes).
It is sometimes called a "snake bean" or "New Guinea bean", but it is not a legume.
It produces many white fruits 10.20 cm long, which can be cooked in soups.
It is strong climber but needs strong support for such big fruit.
Other cucurbits, which grow in the tropics but are not well known are as follows:
4. Bitter cucumber or bitter gourd (Momordica) is like a climbing cucumber with a knobbly skin.
5. Vegetable sponge or loofah (Luffa) is a fruit that is dried and used to wash yourself.
6. Gourd (Lagenaria) is like a round pumpkin with a very hard shell used to make cups and dishes.

6.6.11 Tropical grasses
The contents below are for information only and do not constitute advice on how any particular grass or legume should be used in
any school garden.
Before purchasing grass or legume the supervisor should obtain advice from a Field Officer of the Department of Agriculture, and
should obtain permission from the school principal.
The information below may be incorrect in some countries.
Grasses
1. Batiki Blue grass (Smut grass) Ischaemum indicum, long narrow seed heads, tufts hairs from flowers, grows well in shade.
2. Bermuda Couch grass, Cynodon dactylon, restricted growth in dry seasons, widely used for lawn establishment.
3. Birdwood grass, Cenchrus setigerus, used in short season environment, used as erosion control species.
4. Buffel grass, Cultivar Biloela, Cenchrus ciliaris, drought resistant, cultivars adapted to wide range of conditions
5. Centrosema, Common, Belato Centrosema pubescens,
6. Columbus grass, Crooble, Sorghum almum, good pioneer species, drought and salt tolerant. short lived.
7. Green panic, Petrie, Panicum maximum, var. Trichoglume, palatable, shade tolerant, combines well with Siratro and Greenleaf
Desmodium, Bambatsi panic (Panicum coloratum)
8. Guinea grass, (Hamil grass), Panicum maximum, well adapted to high rainfall tropical lowlands, robust, erect.
9. Kikuyu grass, (Elephant grass), Pennisetum clandestinum, palatable, good autumn growth, erosion control.
10. Koronivia grass, Brachiaria humidicola, strong growing, forms thick mat on soil, grows well on coral soils.
11. Molasses grass, Melinis minutiflora, Pioneer grass in high rainfall areas. Carries fire.
12. Para grass, Brachiaria mutica, grows in waterlogged soil, high production on coastal lowlands, but not stand heavy feeding.
13. Paspalum grass (Paspalum)
14. Pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha subsp. decumbens)
15. Plicatulum, Rodd's Bay, Paspalum plicatulum, good legume compatibility, for coastal areas, very palatable.
16. Rhodes grass, Cultivar Callide, Chloris gayana, widely used in scrub lands, easy to establish, gives quick cover.
17. Sabi grass, Nixon. Urochloa mosambicensis, combines well with Townsville Stylo
18. Setaria grass, Nandi, Setaria anceps, for coastal areas, aggressive, early spring growth
19. Signal grass, Cultivar Basilisk, (Brachiaria decumbens), good ground cover, prefer to Pangola and Guinea in high rainfall areas
20. Humidicola (Brachiaria humidicola).

6.6.11.1 Pasture legumes
1. Axillaris, Archer, Macrotyloma axillare, combines well with many grasses and legumes
2. Calopo, Calopogonium mucunoides, pioneer, vigorous growth for weed control.
3. Centrosema, Common, Belato Centrosema pubescens
4. Crotalaria, rattlebox, sunnhemp, Crotalaria, juncea,suited to tropical lowland environments, slow growth, hard seeds take
long time to germinate
5. Cowpea, hairypod cowpea, Vigna luteola
6. Desmodium. Silverleaf, Desmodium uncinatum, more persistent than Greenleaf under hardier conditions
7. Hetero, Johnstone, Desmodium heterophyllum, for wet tropical coast, combines well with Pangola and Signal grass
8. Lablab, Rongai, Highworth, Lablab purpurens, cover crop, green manure, good for hay or silage
9. 4.26 Leucaena leucocephala
10. Lotononis, Miles, Lotononis bainesii, well adapted to acid soils, good palatability
11. Phasey bean, Murray, Macroptilium lathyroides, self-regenerating, annual, well.adapted to waterlogging
12. Puero, Pueraria phaseoloides, pioneer species, palatable and productive, grows well in shade, large rounded leaves, adapted
to coastal areas, aggressive, early spring growth
13. Siratro, bushbean, Macroptilium atropurpureum, easy to establish, prolific grower, persistent, makes thick mat
14 Stylo, (Schofield), Stylosanthes guyanensis, adapted to humid tropics, even poor soils
15. Stylo, (Townsville Stylo, Common, Patterson), Stylosanthes humilis, easy establishment, good reseeder
16. Stylo, (Pencil flower, cheesytoes. Carribean, Veran), Stylosanthes hamata, perennial under grazing
17. Stylo, (Shrubby Stylo, Seca), Stylosonthes scabra, adapted to seasonally dry tropics
18. Siratro (Phaseolus)
19. Gliricidia for fuel and cattle feed.

6.6.12 Calculate food crop production
Growing food for a balanced diet
If each student eats 3 kg of food each day then the following mixture of the 5 types of food would provide a balanced diet:
Type of Food, Amount eaten, g
1. Starches energy food, Potato (sweet potato) yam, cassava, taro, banana, maize or rice or wheat meal
2. Fats and oils, high energy foods, 30 g, Coconut oil, palm oil, peanut oil, beef or pork fat, dripping (oil in tinned fish)
3. Protein, bodybuilding foods, 150 g, Meat, fish, shellfish, bean seeds, eggs, milk (tinned meat, tinned fish)
4. Vegetables, health foods, 100 g, Aibika, pumpkin tips, amaranths, taro leaves, bean pods, leafy vegetables, cooked green papaya
5. Fruits, health foods, 200 g, Pineapple, papaya, banana, melon, pumpkin, eggplant, lime, orange, guava, chillies,
6. Coconut, which contains oil and sugars
Total amount of food, 2 980 g + 1 coconut
The school food garden should provide all these types of food and a variety of each type.
The students should not be fed the same mixture of food every day.
Expected yields
Banana, If planted 33 metres = 1 090 plants / hectare
If each plant yields 2 bunches / year and each bunch weight 23 kg, then the yield / hectare / year = 1 090223 =
50 tonnes / hectare / year
Bean, Up to 37 tonnes / hectare in 3 months
Cassava (tapioca), 12.5 tonnes / hectare in 6 months = 25 tonnes / hectare / year
Coconuts, If need one coconut for each student for each day, and if each palm yields 50 nuts / palm / year,
If planted 88 metres = 192 palms / hectare
If planted 77 metres = 196 palms / hectare
Yields 19650 = 9 800 nuts / year
If 270 days in a school year, 1 ha yields 9 800 / 270 = 36
Eggplant (aubergine), At planting distance of 9060 cm, yields 27 tonnes / hectare in 4 months
Aibika, At planting distance of 2.52.5 metres = 1 600 bushes / hectare
If pick 0.5 kg from each bush every 3 weeks, then yield / bush / year = 0.517 = 8.5 kg / bush year yield / hectare / year =
8.51600 / 1000 = 13.6 tonnes / hectare / year
Papaya, If planted 88 metres = 140 plants / hectare (18 males and 122 females) yield = 7.5 tonnes / hectare in second year of bearing
Peanut, 1.1 tonnes / hectare in 5 months
Pineapple, If planted 6060 cm = 19 tonnes / hectare / year
Pumpkin, At planting distance of 1.51.5 metres yields 37 tonnes / hectare in 5 months.
Sweet Potato, 12.5 tonnes / hectare in 6 months × 2 = 25 tonnes / hectare / year
Yams, 5 tonnes / hectare / year, 10 months to maturity.

6.20.0 Records
Preparation
1. Record books, e.g. the School Food Gardens Diary, Production Record Book and Receipt Book should be written up each
day when something occurs.
2. The Cash Receipts Journal and Cash Payments Journal should be written up at the end of each week.
3. At certain times read all these records again so that you can remember and think about all the information about each crop and
about the school food gardens as a whole.
Do this when each crop has been harvested and eaten or sold at the end of a period, e.g. a term or a school year when it is
convenient to think about the school food gardens as a whole.
Read all these records again to improve your knowledge about the school food gardens and to assist in further planning.
4.0 Collect 3 type of information, Yields, Profits, Comparative yields
4.1 Yields
Get this information from your Productions Record Book.
The information you will need are as follows:
1. Yield of each crop in kilograms per hectare (kg per ha) (or yield on a smaller area).
2. Yields of kitchen gardens in kilograms per garden
3. Yields of trial gardens, e.g. single cropping (potato) and intercropping (potato and maize) and also crops with fertilizer and crops
without fertilizer.
4. Yield of each crop as income (returns) per hectare.
How much money was received for each hectare or smaller area of the crop or for each kitchen garden?
5. Yield of each crop as kilograms per hectare divided by total number of student hours worked to produce that yield.
6. Yield of each crop as income per hectare divided by the total number of student. hours worked to produce that yield,
i.e. kilograms per hectare per student hour worked.
You can calculate yields in other ways that may be useful for further planning e.g. yields as the number of school meals per hectare.
Yield per hectare of all the school food gardens together for one year.
This is called the productivity of the school food gardens.
4.2 Profits
The second type of information to be collected is on profits.
1. "Returns" refers to the money you receive for a crop.
2. "Costs" refers to the money you pay for things to produce the crop.
Costs are divided into production costs and establishment costs.
3. "Production costs" refers to the costs of items used in producing a crop, e.g. seeds, fertilizer, insecticide, tractor hire and cost of
paid labour.
Production costs include cost of planting material bought, cost of tractor hire, cost of fertilizer used, cost of insecticide used.
4. "Establishment costs" refers to the cost of items needed to produce the crop, but which last a long time and can be used to produce
other crops e.g. nursery, tools, fencing materials, buildings.
For a lettuce project a special nursery had to be built for the lettuce seedlings so you may include this establishment cost for this crop
when calculating the profit of the lettuce project.
Assume that items of establishment costs will last for 5 years.
So for any one year, divide the establishment costs by 5.
Profit is the amount of money left when you take costs away from returns.
Profit = Returns to Production Costs to Establishment cost / 5
Try to calculate the profit for each agricultural project in your school food garden.
This is fairly easy to do for a project, e.g. a chicken project because the materials cannot usually be used for anything else.
However, this is not so easy if you want to find the profit of separate crops.
For example, how do you find the establishment cost to a potato project of a fence dividing it from other crops?
How do you find the establishment cost of tools used on many projects and on general school maintenance?
These costs can be found when you work out the profit of all the school food gardens over a year but it is best to ignore them when
finding the profit of individual crops unless only that crop uses the item.
At the end of the term or school year you can calculate the profit of all the school food gardens together.
In this case you can include items , e.g. cost of fences, tools, machinery and buildings in the establishment costs.
Be careful not to compare the profits from school food garden as a whole with those of real farms because there are important
differences between the two so you cannot find the profit in the same way.
A farm will have more costs than a school e.g. taxation, rent, cost of labour.
You can borrow things for use in the school food garden from the rest of the school, which the farmer would have to pay for e.g. cost
of electricity, use of school tractor, use of measuring tape from the maths department. You can even borrow things from the
Department of Agriculture.
In a school you have lots of free labour for short periods of time but the labour is not efficient because you are using students.
In a farm you would employ fewer labourers for whole days and the labour is more efficient. School projects are often too small to
make a real profit.
The cost of fencing alone may make small cattle or chicken projects unprofitable.
Not many schools can use a tractor enough to make this purchase lead to profitable projects.
4.3 Comparative yields
Compare the yield of the crops so that you can decide whether it is better to grow potato or cassava, or is it better to grow wing
bean or cowpea?
Calculate and compare yields as:
1. Kilograms per hectare (kg / ha)
2. Kilograms per hectare per student hour worked,
3. Meals per hectare or meals per kitchen garden.
With the above information and a knowledge of rotations decide which crops to plant first.
1. Explain the meaning of returns, costs and profit.
Tell the students why the profit of a vegetable project is calculated.
2. Let the students fill in this table using your records:
2.1 Returns $.
2.2 Production costs $
2.3 Seeds $
2.4 Fertilizer $
3. Establishment costs $
If you assume that the items will last 5 years then for any one year divide the establishment costs by 5.
3.1. nursery $
3.2 Miscellaneous, plastic bags $
4. The students can now calculate the profit of this project.
Profit = [Returns| Production costs | (Establishment costs / 5)]
5. Ask the students to suggest what can be done with the profits.
They can be used to buy things you need, e.g. food and clothing.
They can also be used to buy things you need for new projects, e.g. buy more seed and fertilizer.
This is called investing.
Tell them that it is not good to spend all the profits on things you need.
Some of the profits should be kept for investing in new projects.

Preface
Before teaching this project, discuss the content of the lessons with a field officer of the Ministry of Agriculture and get advice on
planting material, planting distances, site for planting, approved mulch, composting, and control of pests and diseases.
Use only the procedures, agricultural chemicals recommended by the local field officer of the Ministry of Agriculture.
If you cannot control insects by hand picking, ask the Ministry of Agriculture to recommend a chemical spray.
All insect sprays are dangerous. Show the students how to use them safely.
Do not get the spray onto your hands.
Do not breathe in the spray.
Wash your hands well after using spray.
Keep the spray container in a safe place where students cannot get it.
Spray on a day of no wind but if you must spray when there is a wind, spray downwind.
Make sure the spray does not blow on other people.