School Science Lessons
Primary Science Lessons
2014-07-23
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au
History

Table of contents
Topics
Years
Year 1 Lessons
1.38 Air games
1.39 Air in bags
1.44 Area game
1.02 Animals and plants
1.21 Balanced mobiles
1.40 Blow soap bubbles
1.22 Compare different shapes
1.03 Different animals
1.06 Different leaves
1.04 Different plants
1.32 Different rocks
1.46 Different seashells
1.47 Different seeds
1.22 Different shapes game
1.23 Different new shapes game
1.27 Drink-can garden
1.42 Drinking straw game
1.37 Examine soil with magnifier
1.41 Falling parachutes
1.18 Feelie bag game
1.15 Five senses
1.45 Float different objects
1.34 Good soil and bad soil
1.35 Green leaves for a healthy diet
1.28 Grow plants from seeds
1.16 Hearing sounds game
1.07 Knocking sounds
1.19 Length game
1.01 Living and non-living
1.20 Measure distance in paces
1.11 Mirror game
1.26 Plant names
1.05 Plant pictures
1.33 Plants need soil
1.30 Plants need sunlight
1.31 Plants need water
1.36 Protect topsoil
1.13 Same and different
1.24 Seeds and seed pods
1.14 Stones in water
1.08 String sounds
1.09 Shadow game
1.10 Spinning picture
1.12 Spinning top
1.17 Touch and feel game
1.48 Watching seeds germinate
1.25 Water pouring game
Year 2 Lessons
2.26 Balanced bottle tops
2.11 Balanced parrot
2.28 Beam balance
2.01 Bird feathers
2.02 Bird sounds
2.03 Bird beaks and feet
2.16 Blindfold description game
2.07 Bottle sounds
2.44 Candle flame
2.06 Care for birds
2.32 Collect seeds
2.22 Copy with a rubber band
4.22 Cowpea
2.04 Different birds
2.31 Different flowers
2.34 Different kinds of food
2.43 Different metals
2.37 Different soils
2.29 Drinking straw balance
2.08 Dull and bright in the sun
2.36 Examine rocks with magnifier
2.17 Examine our eyes
2.19 Examine our skin and hair
2.13 Examine our teeth
2.21 Heat different substances
2.30 Leaf pictures
2.10 Magnetic pin chain
2.14 Measure our body in hand spans
2.15 Measure with your body
4.23 Mung bean
2.27 Nail balance
2.35 Paint with plant juices
2.05 Protect birds
2.25 Ruler balance
2.23 See-saw balance
3.71.5 School chalk, solubility
2.38 Shake soil in water
2.46 Simple wind detector
2.12 Siphon and water spray
2.18 Smelling game
2.20 Spirit burner, alcohol lamp
2.24 Steelyard balance
2.39 Water through soil
Which water?, QSA
4.25 Winged bean
Year 3 Lessons
3.41 Air and water change places
3.37 Air takes up space
3.01 Ant life cycle
3.42 Burn different substances
3.07 Burn with a magnifier
3.03 Butterfly life cycle
3.06 Care for cats
3.04 Cockroach, grasshopper
3.39 Convection disc, heat snake
3.13 Different bones
3.09 Different colours
3.28 Different stems and roots
3.14 Make a model insect
3.38 Float pins on water
3.27 Leaf classification
3.26 Leaf collection
3.14 Make a model insect
3.18 Measure our fist volume
3.15 Measure our height
3.24 Measure our weight
3.21 Measure with a trundle wheel
3.20 Measure with wheels
3.02 Mosquito life cycle
3.16 Move your arms
3.40 Paper aeroplane
3.31 Plant foods in the soil
3.25 Plant parts
3.17 Plumb bob (vertical test)
3.30 Prepare plant dyes
3.10 Rainbow colours
3.29 Seeds and fruits
3.19 Single pan balance, kitchen scale
3.32 Soil animals
3.33 Soil water
3.34 Soil air
3.35 Soil contents
3.43 Solid, liquid and gas
3.11 Spinning colour disks
3.44 Squeeze different materials
3.12 String telephone
3.22 Throw up and fall down
12.3.2.1 Transfer air under water
3.05 Uses of animals and plants
3.23 Volume of a liquid
3.08 Water waves
3.36 Waterlogged soil
Year 4 Lessons
4.16 Air resistance
4.11 Air temperature
4.01 Animal legs
4.02 Animal friends
4.27 Care for children with diarrhoea
4.25 Care for dogs
4.24 Catching the ruler
4.41 Cool water, melt ice
4.21 Beans, common bean
4.18 Diameter of a thread
4.03 Examine live fish
4.08 Flying kites
Force of friction, QSA
4.04 Frog life cycle
4.40 Heat water, cool water vapour
4.10 Heat, conductors and insulators
4.09 Heat from rubbing
4.31 How seedlings grow, bean, maize
4.07 How sound travels
4.13 Inertia tricks
4.0.0 Legumes for school gardens
4.38 Liquids in the sun
4.05 Lizards and snakes
4.33 Make sedimentary rocks
4.20 Measure our chest expansion
4.39 Melt different solids
4.22 Memory games
4.28 Mixing and dissolving
4.29 Mixing liquids with water
4.12 Movement of smoke
4.21 Movement of the sun
4.24 Peanuts, (groundnuts)
4.35 Protect trees
4.14 Prepare crystals
4.19 Prepare invisible inks
4.34 Protect soils
4.06 Snake bite
4.37 Soil water bottle
4.30 Spinning propellers
4.42 Sundials
4.26 Temperature during the day
4.23 Test your reflexes
4.36 Water climbs up soil
4.43 Water from the air
4.32 Weathering rocks
Year 5 Lessons
5.26 Air pressure in all directions
5.17 Body temperature
5.15 Breathing in and out
5.43 Burn to make carbon
5.33 Different rocks
5.45 Cocoa
5.03 Coral, sea anemone, jellyfish
5.36 Cover crops
5.28 Seed depth
5.24 Describe clouds
5.20 Digestion of food
5.19 Eyesight test
5.18 Feel your pulse
9.233 Fingerprints
5.06 Fish life cycle
2.45 Floating and sinking
5.07 Food chains in the sea
5.29 Germinate bean seed
5.29.1 Germinate maize grain
9.122 Germination test
5.42 Heated air expands
5.12 Image with a lens
5.41 Keep water clean
5.31 Leaves lose water
5.10 Light travels in straight lines
5.39 Make clay pots
5.11 Mirror reflects light
5.38 Mulch protects soil
5.14 Pinhole camera
5.40 Prepare potash from ash
4.2.2 Prepare sauerkraut
4.2.1 Prepare yoghurt
5.32 Protect mangroves
5.02 Protect sea animals
5.25 Push and pull forces
5.22 Rain gauge
5.37 Rain on slopes
5.30 Roots absorb water
5.01 Sea animals and plants
5.04 Molluscs, shellfish, land snails
5.44 Soil fertilizer trial
5.34 Soil profiles
5.05 Starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber
5.09 Steam wheel
5.08 Water wheel
5.13 Water drop magnifier
5.21 Water finds its own level
5.23 Wind speed and direction
Year 6 Lessons
6.18 Atmospheric pressure
6.44 Birth & care for baby
6.35 Burn candles in closed containers
6.34 Chemical fertilizers
6.03 Chicken life cycle
6.11 Coins on a slope
6.36 Cooling candle wax
6.31 Describe soils
6.6.1 Different bacteria
6.05 Different fungi
6.31 Examine soils
6.37 Electric circuit
4.57 Electric torch (flashlight)
6.38 Electricity conductors
6.41 Electromagnets
6.21 Estimating
6.28 Ferns and mosses
6.33 Fertilizing soil
6.12 Float clay boats
6.01 Food chains in the forest
6.13 Forces of friction
9.9.1 Germination test
6.26 Grasses
6.40 Hanging magnets
6.08 Heated liquids expand
6.15 How far you can see
6.19 Moon and tides
6.36 Mulch saves water
6.27 Palms
6.22 Pendulum tells the time
1.6.1 Pig life cycle
6.23 Plants take in water
6.39 Plasticine sinking and floating
6.29 Protect coral reefs
6.30 Leaves in a plastic bag
6.25 Soil fertilizers
6.02 Protect turtles
6.10 Pull with pulleys
6.17 Relative humidity
6.43 Reproduction organs, female
6.42 Reproduction organs, male
6.14 Shakir strip, malnourished child
6.32 Soil texture
6.20 Southern Cross constellation
6.24 Trees, shrubs, palms and ferns
6.24 Trees, palms and ferns
6.16 Volume of air breathed out
6.09 Water climbs up
Topics
1.0 Air
16.1 Animal life cycles
3.0 Animals
5.0 Astronomy
20.1 Beans, peas, legumes
7.0 Balances
6.6.1 Bacteria
2.0 Birds
8.0 Burn
2.1 Care for
9.0 Chemistry
5.45 Cocoa
9.1 Colour
9.2 Different
10.0 Electricity
10.1 Floating
10.2 Food
11.0 Force
6.5 Fungi
13.0 Heat and temperature
16.0 Light
17.0 Magnets
18.0 Measurement
19.0 Our body
19.1 Our senses and reactions
22.0 Protect animals and plants
20.0 Plants
23.0 Rocks
21.0 Seeds and germination
24.0 Shapes
2.1 Scientific
25.0 Soils
26.0 Sound
28.0 Water
29.0 Weather

1.0 Air
1.38 Air games
1.39 Air in bags
1.40 Blow soap bubbles
1.42 Drinking straw game
3.41 Air and water change places
3.37 Air takes up space
3.40 Paper aeroplane
4.16 Air resistance
4.08 Flying kites
5.26 Air pressure in all directions
5.42 Heated air expands
6.18 Atmospheric pressure

16.1 Animal life cycles
3.1 Ant life cycle
3.3 Butterfly life cycle
6.3 Chicken life cycle
5.6 Fish life cycle
4.4 Frog life cycle
3.2 Mosquito life cycle
1.6.1 Pig life cycle

3.0 Animals
1.02 Animals and plants
1.03 Different animals
1.46 Different seashells
1.01 Living and non-living
1.6.1 Pig life cycle
2.03 Bird beaks and feet
2.01 Bird feathers
2.02 Bird sounds
2.06 Care for birds
2.04 Different birds
3.32 Soil animals
4.02 Animal friends
4.01 Animal legs
16.1 Animal life cycles
3.01 Ant life cycle
3.03 Butterfly life cycle
3.06 Care for cats
3.04 Cockroach, grasshopper
3.14 Make a model insect
3.02 Mosquito life cycle
3.05 Uses of animals and plants
4.25 Care for dogs
4.03 Examine live fish
4.04 Frog life cycle
4.05 Lizards and snakes
4.06 Snake bite
5.03 Coral, sea anemone, jellyfish
5.20 Digestion of food
5.06 Fish life cycle 5.07 Food chains in the sea
5.04 Molluscs, shellfish, land snails
5.02 Protect sea animals
5.01 Sea animals and plants
5.05 Starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber
6.03 Chicken life cycle
6.01
Food chains in the forest@@@
6.29 Protect coral reefs

5.0 Astronomy
2.08 Dull and bright in the sun
3.07 Burn with a magnifier
4.38 Liquids in the sun
4.21 Movement of the sun
4.42 Sundials
6.19 Moon and tides
6.20 Southern Cross constellation

7.0 Balances
1.21 Balanced mobiles
2.26 Balanced bottle tops
2.11 Balanced parrot
2.28 Beam balance
2.29 Drinking straw balance
2.27 Nail balance
2.25 Ruler balance
2.23 See-saw balance
2.24 Steelyard balance
3.24 Measure our weight
3.19 Single pan balance

20.1 Beans, peas, legumes
4.21 Beans, common bean
4.22 Cowpea
4.31 How seedlings grow, bean, maize
5.29 Germinate bean seed
4.0.0 Legumes for school gardens
4.23 Mung bean
4.24 Peanuts, (groundnuts)
1.24 Seeds and seed pods

2.0 Birds
2.03 Bird beaks and feet
2.01 Bird feathers
2.02 Bird sounds
2.06 Care for birds
2.04 Different birds
2.05 Protect birds

8.0 Burn
2.20 Spirit burner
3.42 Burn different substances
3.07 Burn with a magnifier
5.43 Burn to make carbon
6.35 Burn candles in closed containers

2.1 Care for
2.06 Care for birds
3.06 Care for cats
4.02 Animal friends
4.27 Care for children with diarrhoea
4.25 Care for dogs
4.06 Snake bite
5.41 Keep water clean
6.44 Birth & care for baby
6.14 Shakir strip, malnourished child

9.0 Chemistry
2.43 Different metals
2.21 Heat different substances
3.71.5 School chalk, blackboard chalk
3.31 Plant foods in the soil
3.30 Prepare plant dyes
4.28 Mixing and dissolving
4.29 Mixing liquids with water
4.14 Prepare crystals
4.19 Prepare invisible inks
4.2.2 Prepare sauerkraut
4.2.1 Prepare yoghurt
5.43 Burn to make carbon
5.40 Prepare potash from ash
5.39 Make clay pots
6.34 Chemical fertilizers
6.25 Soil fertilizers
5.45 Cocoa
1.1 History and Importance of cocoa
1.2 Cocoa shade trees
1.3 Cocoa planting
1.4 Care of cocoa plants
1.5 Harvesting and fermenting cocoa
1.6 Pests and diseases of cocoa
2.0 Where cocoa will grow

9.1 Colour
3.09 Different colours
3.10 Rainbow colours
3.11 Spinning colour disks

9.2 Different
1.03 Different animals
1.06 Different leaves
1.04 Different plants
1.46 Different seashells
1.47 Different seeds
1.22 Different shapes game
1.23 Different new shapes game
1.13 Same and different
2.04 Different birds
2.31 Different flowers
2.34 Different kinds of food
2.43 Different metals
2.37 Different soils
3.13 Different bones
3.09 Different colours
3.28 Different stems and roots
5.33 Different rocks
6.6.1 Different bacteria
6.05 Different fungi

10.0 Electricity
4.57 Electric torch (flashlight)
6.37 Electric circuit
6.38 Electricity conductors
6.41 Electromagnets

10.1 Floating
1.45 Float different objects
2.45 Floating and sinking
3.38 Float pins on water
6.12 Float clay boats
6.39 Plasticine sinking and floating

10.2 Food
1.35 Green leaves for a healthy diet
2.34 Different kinds of food
4.2.2 Prepare sauerkraut
4.2.1 Prepare yoghurt
5.20 Digestion of food

11.0 Force
1.41 Falling parachutes
1.12 Spinning top
2.11 Balanced parrot
2.45 Floating and sinking
3.17 Plumb bob (vertical test)
3.43 Solid, liquid and gas (in a plastic drink bottle)
3.44 Squeeze different materials
3.22 Throw up and fall down
4.13 Inertia tricks
4.30 Spinning propellers
5.25 Push and pull forces
5.09 Steam wheel
5.08 Water wheel
6.11 Coins on a slope
6.13 Forces of friction
Force of friction, QSA
6.22 Pendulum tells the time
6.10 Pull with pulleys

13.0 Heat and temperature
8.0 Burn
2.44 Candle flame
2.21 Heat different substances - candle
2.20 Spirit burner (alcohol lamp)
3.39 Convection disc, heat snake
4.11 Air temperature
4.41 Cool water, melt ice
4.40 Heat water, cool water vapour
4.10 Heat, conductors and insulators
4.09 Heat from rubbing
4.38 Liquids in the sun
4.39 Melt different solids
4.12 Movement of smoke
4.26 Temperature during the day
5.17 Body temperature
5.42 Heated air expands
6.35 Burn candles in closed containers
6.36 Cooling candle wax
6.08 Heated liquids expand
6.14.0 Oven temperatures

16.0 Light
1.11 Mirror game
1.09 Shadow game
1.10 Spinning picture
2.44 Candle flame
2.08 Dull and bright in the sun
3.07 Burn with a magnifier
3.09 Different colours
3.10 Rainbow colours
3.11 Spin a colour disk
4.38 Liquids in the sun
4.42 Sundials
5.19 Eyesight test
5.12 Image with a lens
5.10 Light travels in straight lines
5.11 Mirror reflects light
5.14 Pinhole camera
5.13 Water drop magnifier
6.15 How far you can see

17.0 Magnets
2.10 Magnetic pin chain
6.41 Electromagnets
6.40 Hanging magnets

18.0 Measurement
1.44 Area game
1.19 Length game
1.20 Measure distance in paces
1.13 Same and different
2.14 Measure our body in hand spans
2.15 Measure with your body
3.18 Measure our fist volume
3.15 Measure our height
3.24 Measure our weight
3.21 Measure with a trundle wheel
3.20 Measure with wheels
3.17 Plumb bob, vertical test
3.23 Volume of a liquid
4.11 Air temperature
4.18 Diameter of a thread
4.20 Measure our chest expansion
6.21 Estimating
6.16 Volume of air breathed out

19.0 Our Body
1.18 Feelie bag game
1.15 Five senses
1.35 Green leaves for a healthy diet
1.16 Hearing sounds game
1.17 Touch and feel game
2.16 Blindfold description game
4.24 Catching the ruler
2.34 Different kinds of food
2.17 Examine our eyes
2.19 Examine our skin and hair
2.13 Examine our teeth
2.14 Measure our body in hand spans
2.15 Measure with your body
2.18 Smelling game
3.13 Different bones
3.18 Measure our fist volume
3.15 Measure our height
3.16 Move your arms
3.24 Measure our weight
4.27 Care for children with diarrhoea
4.20 Measure our chest expansion
4.22 Memory games
4.06 Snake bite
4.23 Test your reflexes
5.17 Body temperature
5.15 Breathing in and out
5.19 Eyesight test
5.18 Feel your pulse
9.233 Fingerprints
5.41 Keep water clean
6.15 How far you can see
6.44 Birth & care for baby
6.43 Reproduction organs, female
6.42 Reproduction organs, male
6.14 Shakir strip, malnourished child
6.16 Volume of air breathed out

19.1 Our senses and reactions
1.15 The five senses
2.16 Blindfold description game
1.42 Drinking straw game
2.17 Examine our eyes
2.19 Examine our skin and hair
5.19 Eyesight test
1.18 Feelie bag game
2.18 Smelling game
4.23 Test your reflexes

20.0 Plants
1.02 Animals and plants
1.06 Different leaves
1.04 Different plants
1.47 Different seeds
1.27 Drink-can garden
1.28 Grow plants from seeds
1.01 Living and non-living
1.26 Plant names
1.05 Plant pictures
1.33 Plants need soil
1.30 Plants need sunlight
1.31 Plants need water
1.24 Seeds and seed pods - size
1.48 Watching seeds germinate
2.32 Collect seeds
2.31 Different flowers
2.30 Leaf pictures
2.35 Paint with plant juices
3.28 Different stems and roots
3.27 Leaf classification
3.26 Leaf collection
3.5 Planting seeds
3.30 Prepare plant dyes
3.25 Plant parts
3.29 Seeds and fruits
3.05 Uses of animals and plants
4.28 Bean life cycle
4.21 Beans, common bean
4.22 Cowpea
4.31 How seedlings grow, bean, maize
4.0.0 Legumes for school gardens
4.23 Mung bean
4.24 Peanuts, (groundnuts)
4.35 Protect trees
4.25 Winged bean
5.36 Cover crops
5.07 Food chains in the sea
5.29 Germinate bean
5.29.1 Germinate maize grain
5.27 Germination test
5.31 Leaves lose water
5.32 Protect mangroves
5.28 Seed depth
5.30 Roots absorb water
5.01 Sea animals and plants
6.28 Ferns and mosses
6.01 Food chains in the forest
6.26 Grasses
6.30 Leaves in a plastic bag
6.27 Palms
18.0 Palms. Coconut palm structure
6.23 Plants take in water
6.24 Trees, shrubs, palms, ferns

22.0 Protect animals and plants
2.05 Protect birds
5.32 Protect mangroves
5.02 Protect sea animals
6.29 Protect coral reefs
6.02 Protect turtles
23.0 Rocks
2.36 Examine rocks with magnifier
4.33 Make sedimentary rocks
4.32 Weathering rocks
5.33 Collect rocks
5.33 Different rocks

21.0 Seeds and germination
1.47 Different seeds
1.27 Drink-can garden
1.28 Grow plants from seeds
1.24 Seeds and seed pods - size
1.48 Watching seeds germinate
2.32 Collect seeds
3.5 Planting seeds
3.00 School gardens
3.29 Seeds and fruits
4.21 Beans, common bean
4.30 Bean seeds and pods
4.22 Cowpea
4.31 How seedlings grow
4.0.0 Legumes for school gardens
4.23 Mung bean
4.24 Peanuts, (groundnuts)
4.25 Uses of beans and peas
4.25 Winged bean
5.15 Bean seed germination
5.29 Germinate bean
5.29.1 Germinate maize grain
5.27 Germination test
5.28 Seed depth - for germination
6.26 Grasses

24.0 Shapes
1.23 Different new shapes game
1.22 Different shapes and order game
2.22 Copy with a rubber band

25.0 Soils
1.37 Examine soil with a magnifier
1.34 Good soil and bad soil
1.33 Plants need soil
1.36 Protect topsoil
2.37 Different soils
2.38 Shake soil in water
2.39 Water through soil
3.31 Plant foods in the soil
3.34 Soil air
3.32 Soil animals
3.35 Soil contents
3.33 Soil water
3.36 Waterlogged soil
4.34 Protect soils
4.37 Soil water bottle
4.36 Water climbs up soil
5.36 Cover crops
5.38 Mulch protects soil
5.37 Rain on slopes
5.34 Soil profiles
6.34 Chemical fertilizers
6.31 Examine soils
6.33 Fertilizing soil
6.36 Mulch saves water
6.32 Soil texture

26.0 Sound
2.02 Bird sounds
2.07 Bottle sounds
1.16 Hearing sounds game
4.07 How sound travels
1.07 Knocking sounds
1.08 String sounds
3.12 String telephone

28.0 Water
1.45 Float different objects
1.25 Water pouring game
2.12 Siphon and water spray
1.14 Stones in Water
2.38 Shake soil in water
2.39 Water through soil
3.38 Float pins on water
3.33 Soil water
3.08 Water waves
3.36 Waterlogged soil
4.41 Cool water, melt ice
4.36 Water climbs up soil
4.40 Heat water & cool water vapour
4.37 Soil water bottle
4.43 Water from the air
5.41 Keep water clean
5.21 Water finds its own level
6.36 Mulch saves water
6.12 Float clay boats
6.09 Water climbs up
Which water? (QSA)

29.0 Weather
5.26 Air pressure in all directions
4.11 Air temperature
6.18 Atmospheric pressure
5.24 Describe clouds
4.12 Movement of smoke
5.22 Rain gauge
5.37 Rain on slopes
6.17 Relative humidity
2.46 Simple wind detector
4.26 Temperature during the day
4.43 Water from the air
3.08 Water waves
5.23 Wind speed and direction

1.1 History and importance of cocoa
Teach children the history and importance of the cocoa tree.
Teaching Aids: Stories about the cocoa tree, cocoa products such as chocolate and cocoa butter cream.
1. The cocoa industry is so important that all children should understand something of its history and how cocoa plantations are managed. For these reasons the lessons on cocoa should be taught in all schools. If their school is near a cocoa project and cocoa fermentery then you should arrange to visit them. If their school is in a town show the children how cocoa is stored and handled there. Cocoa is a small tree with large dark leaves which bears seed inside hard pods attached to its stem. It comes from the dense forest in South America. The seeds were distributed when monkeys when you broke open the pods to eat the sweet, sticky material around the bitter tasting seeds which the monkeys spat out. The Aztec people of Central America liked the cocoa seed so much that you could buy a slave for one hundred seeds. Later people learned to grow the wild trees in plantations on the island of Trinidad in the West Indies. Most of our cocoa seeds came from there. Cocoa can be sold to people overseas for a high price because it is made into chocolate. You can make a lot of money from growing cocoa if you care for the trees properly. In the 18th century the Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus, renamed the cocoa tree giving it the Greek name Theobroma cacao, now its official botanical name, which literally means "food of the Gods".
2. The main stem or chupon of the tree grows to about one metre high. When it stops growing it forms a divided bulb called a jorquette. This can grow to form three to five fan branches. Flowers then pods grow from the older main stem or from fan branches. The tree can grow taller when a sucker called a chupon grows out of the stem below the jorquette and forms new fan branches above. The seedling tree grows a deep tap root to two metres in good soil. If you want to understand how to care for cocoa you must understand the strange way it grows.
What happens to the jorquette? [It grows into fan branches.]
What happens to the chupon? [It grows to form a new stem.]
Where are the pods formed? [On the old stem and fan branches.]
Why do you need deep soil? [Because of the long tap root.]
3. Visit a cocoa plantation. Can you see all the parts of the cocoa tree What sort of soil is needed for cocoa? What types or plants are planted around cocoa trees and what are their functions?

1.2 Cocoa shade trees
Teach children the importance of and use of shade trees for cocoa.
Teaching Aids: Some plant specimens and seeds of Leucaena or any shade trees in its group.
In this lesson concentrate on the importance of Leucaena. It is a special kind of Leucaena called Giant Leucaena or Ipil Ipil
(Leucaena leucophylla) which grows very fast and can be used for cattle feed, live fence posts, control of hill side erosion, firewood and shade.
1. Cocoa tree need some shade. Shade trees are planted first in the cocoa gardens and after you have grown big enough to give the right amount of shade the cocoa trees are planted.
2. There are two kinds of shade trees: 1. trees such as Leucaena, Gliricidia, Casuarina, Kamarere, 2. coconuts. Sometimes extra temporary shade is needed under old coconuts such as Crotalaria and pigeon pea.
3. Cocoa seed and seedlings are planted at a triangle spacing of three metres. Cocoa cuttings are planted at a square spacing of four metres. Before planting, clean lines of bush and stack between lines. Clear big trees.
4. There are two ways to plant Leucaena: stumps and seeds. Stumps can be taken from a nearby cocoa garden. Pull up trees about six months old with stems as wide as their thumb. Cut off the roots to 10 cm long and cut off the top keeping some leaves. Seeds are used if you can't get stumps. The seeds will grow better if mixed with an inoculum which you can get from an agricultural officer. Dig along the line five cm deep where the shade trees will be and drop in one seed every 30 cm or grow their Leucaena seedlings in a nursery and transplant when about one metre high as with stumps.
5. Keep weeds away from the young shade trees. If you planted seeds, after three months pull out the weak trees leaving one strong tree at each correct spacing. Mulch the seedlings with rotten bush.
6. Cocoa can be planted when the Leucaena is about two metres high. The best shade for cocoa is coconuts, especially hybrid coconuts. If coconuts are planted in 9 m triangle, plant cocoa three m apart.
7. Plant when the coconuts are five years old or when the fronds touch.
8. Visit a cocoa project to see Leucaena shade.
1.3 Cocoa planting
Teach children how to plant cocoa from seeds, seedlings or buds.
Teaching Aids: Some cocoa or other seedlings in polybags or other available nursery bags.
In this lesson you should emphasise that planting trees must be done properly. The method taught here for cocoa can apply to all other trees. The soil for cocoa should be a clay loam, well drained, one metre deep and had no garden on it for ten years.
If planted under coconuts you need the same soil.
1. There are two types of planting materials: 1. seeds, 2. seedlings or buds. You have to get hybrid seeds and buds from an agricultural officer. You can plant seeds directly. Plant two seeds 20 cm apart at each planting position. After six months pull out the weaker seedlings. It is safer to plant seed in a polythene bag nursery. Fill the bag with crumbly soil, plant one seed in each. Put them in rows
under 50 % shade and children every three days if there is no rain. The seedlings are ready to plant out when you have a stem thickness of 8 mm after 3-5 months. Transplant during rainy weather. Use only the strong and healthy seedlings. Dig a hole 30 cm wide and 40 cm deep at each planting position. Keep the dark top soil. Use a sharp knife to cut right through the nursery bag containing the seedling two cm from the bottom. Place in the hole so that the top of the nursery bag is level with the soil. Slit the side of the nursery bag and pull it out of the hole. Fill in the hole with topsoil and press down well to make the ground flat. Weed in a circle around each seedling.
2. A budding is made by agricultural officers when you attach the bud of an improved kind of cocoa to the seedling of a normal kind of cocoa. The bud develops into a tree. Hybrid seed is made by agricultural officers when you put the pollen of one kind of cocoa on the flower of another kind of cocoa. The flower then makes hybrid seed which has a mix of the features of the two kinds of cocoa.
3. Show the children how to plant seed and how to plant a nursery bag. You should plant so carefully that the soil in the nursery bag and the roots are not moved. A nursery bag planting is better than direct seedling because you can care for nursery bag seedlings better in a nursery and also you can select only the biggest seedlings for planting out.
4. Visit a cocoa project to observe planting out.

1.4 Care of cocoa plants
Teach children how to care for young cocoa trees.
The importance of this lesson is that children realise that tree crops must be cared for regularly. you
should be able to tell that cocoa trees look healthy and well pruned. Some new hybrid trees need special pruning on
advice from an agricultural officer. During the first years after planting you must visit the cocoa block each Week to
see what has to be done. There are four main jobs:
(a) Weeding, pull out all the weeds within a metre circle. Pile them around a tree to make a mulch.
(b) Thinning shade, as the cocoa trees get bigger you need less shade. An agricultural officer can show you how much
shade to leave so that their trees will bear the most cocoa pods.
(c) Insect and disease control, examine some trees closely every Week for damage. Put any insects or diseased leaves
into a jar of methylated spirits and show this to an agricultural officer.
(d) Pruning, in the first year the stem should grow straight up until it is 1-2 metres high. If the top of the stem divides into two cut one off.
The bud formed at the end of the stem will grow a fan of three side branches. Let those grow but look out for the side suckers or chupons growing from the main stem. Cut these off close to the stem, before you get too big, as in the diagram.
1. Explain the four types of care needed for young cocoa trees.
2. Show the children the diagrams. Can the children see the difference due to pruning What happens to the parts cut off? [They are on the ground for mulch.]
3. Can you recognise a well cared for cocoa block?
4.Visit to a cocoa block. Can you see any uncut chupons? Visit from an agricultural officer to tell the children about care of cocoa trees. Do this by inviting an agricultural officer for the lesson or a field trip.

1.5 Harvesting and fermenting cocoa
Teach children harvesting, fermenting, drying and grading of cocoa.
Teaching Aids: Cocoa pods, seeds, on the spot visit to places of interest connected with harvesting and fermenting of cocoa.
During fermentation bacteria and yeasts change sugars into alcohol and acids change the beans into chocolate. The first pods produced in about three years. Harvest only mature pods by cutting them off the tree. the colour of the mature pods depends on the kind of cocoa eg. green pods turn yellow and red pods turn orange. Open the pods the same day you are picked by knocking them together. Take out the wet seeds and send them to the fermentery. At the fermentery the wet beans are put in big boxes with holes in the bottom to let air in and juice run out. During fermentation bacteria attack the sticky white material around the beans which become darker in colour and develop the taste and smell of chocolate. The fermenting beans are moved from box to box every two days until fermentation is finished after about six days. The beans are then spread out on trays and dried in the sun or dried with
hot air. The dried beans are then cleaned and graded then stored for shipping overseas. Picking, fermenting and drying all need a lot of skill and attention to get the best price for cocoa beans.
1. Show the beans and pod or draw a diagram. Have you ever sucked fresh beans. Try to show both of them.
2. Explain how to harvest. How do people know when the pod is ripe? [By its change of colour.]
3. Explain fermenting. The main problems with fermenting are that the air holes in the boxes get blocked with the sticky stuff and the beans get stuck together. If this happens there will not be enough air to complete the fermentation and the beans will not have the proper chocolate taste. The problems can be solved by cleaning the air holes each day and turning all the beans over with a spade.
4. Explain drying. The main problem with drying is that the hot air drier runs for too long. This makes the beans wrinkle. to solve this problem dry the skins first, then stop drying for a day, then start drying again. Then you will get fat beans which are evenly dried.
5. Explain cleaning and grading. Before the beans can be sent overseas an agricultural inspector checks that the bags are clean and then he tests one hundred beans randomly selected to see if you have been prepared properly.
6. Visit a fermentery or chocolate warehouse. Make their own chocolate. Use fat round beans with a rich brown colour and a nice strong smell. Roast them in an oven for forty minutes. Let them cool then crack off the shells. Grind the beans as fine as you can using a mincer or coffee grinder until you have a stiff greasy paste.
You can use this paste in cooking. To make chocolate use half as much "Copha" or butter to the bean paste, mix
together over nearly boiling water. You can add an egg yolk to help them mix. Add finely ground sugar. It will
set to form a rough kind of chocolate.
1.6 Pests and diseases of cocoa
Teach children to identify pests and disease and how to control pests and diseases of cocoa.
Teaching Aids: Diseased cocoa tree parts and pods, examples of some of the chemicals used to control the pests and diseases.
Children can contribute to the control of Pantorhytes weevil and other pests of cocoa if you can learn to make nests of crazy ants. Before the lesson collect some crazy ants in a glass jar, some sections of bamboo and some dried leaves.
1. Diseases
Any sign of disease should be reported to an agricultural officer. If there are any signs of disease in the branches such as threads, swellings or wilting, the infected parts should be cut out and burnt. Paint some Ridomil or Bordox on the cut wood to stop more infection. Black pod disease is caused by a fungus called Phytophthora. It starts as black spots and spreads until the whole pod turns black. Also it can infect other parts of the tree. Check the trees each Week and remove any infected pods and burn them. The disease spreads most rapidly in the wet season.
2. Insect pests
The worst insect pest is the Pantorhytes weevil. It bores holes in the trunk and the branches and then diseases such as Phytophthora can infect the holes. The Pantorhytes weevil lays eggs in the main branches, the eggs hatch, the larvae burrow into the wood just beneath the bark. the damaged wood bleeds gum and the branch or even the whole tree may die. The larvae turns into a nesting pupa which becomes an adult who does not cause much damage. There are two ways in which children can help the control of Pantorhytes: 1. hand pick them off the trees and 2. make nests of crazy ants which eat Pantorhytes.
Crazy ants are light brown in colour, about four mm long and have long legs and antennae. you run around very quickly if you frighten them but you do not bite people. you make their nests under logs, stones and palm fronds. you like to make nests in hollow bamboo. Fill some pieces of bamboo with leaves and place them near crazy ant nests in such a way that rain cannot get in. After about two Weeks the crazy ants will move into their new home. Cover the ends of the bamboo with plastic to stop the crazy ants from running away. Then carry the bamboo tubes gently to the cocoa trees. Put all the bamboo tubes together facing a tree then the crazy ants can help each other to kill the Pantorhytes. This is an excellent example of biological control.

2.0 Where cocoa will grow
1. Cocoa needs rich, organic, well drained, moist, deep soils. Shallow soils are not suitable. It will not grow well on waterlogged soils, shallow stony soils, or soils with a hard stony layer near the surface. Also, cocoa will not grow on coral soils, so it cannot be grown on atoll islands.
2. Cocoa trees do not like wind or drought and need high humidity and high rainfall, 1 250 to 3 000 mm per year. The rainfall must be well distributed and any dry period should be no longer than 3 months. Annual rainfall greater than 2 500 mm may result in a higher incidence of fungal diseases. It requires annual temperature of 18.0oC to 28.5oC, with uniformly high temperatures mean of
26.6oC, diurnal temperature variation between 33.5oC and 18.0oC. It can be grown from 20-30 N to 20-30 S usually below 300 m above sea level. It must also have a high rainfall. It is very important also that the air should be moist or humid. Cocoa can live through a dry time with no rain if the soil it grows in holds water well, and the air is not too dry. If cocoa trees are grown among shade trees, these will help to keep the air moist.
3. Before they can be sold, the cocoa beans must be fermented in a special way. It is good if the cocoa is grown in a place close to a cocoa fermenter, so the beans can be processed. If this is not possible, the grower can make a small fermenting box.
4. The annual global output of three to four million tonnes of cocoa beans from Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 40%, Ghana 20% and Indonesia about 15%. It is also grown in Papua New Guinea and Solomon islands. A world shortfall is predicted by year 2020.
5. Investment in cocoa plantations is often inadequate because the plant is very resilient and once established always produces some pods. In some societies it is harvested only when extra income is needed. Farmers may lose 30% of the crop to disease and even lose the whole crop if the weather is poor. Few farmers have achieved possible yields of 300-500 kg per hectare. To achieve better yields farmers need to invest in composting, weeding, and crop sanitation to decrease disease and pests.
6. Survey your locality are for cocoa growing. Is the local temperature hot enough? Is there enough rain in the local area? What is the rainfall in mm. per year? Is the air moist enough for cocoa? Is any cocoa grown in the district? Have they seen cocoa growing? Is a cocoa fermenter near the school? Can cocoa beans be taken to a ship for sending it to other countries? Is this is a good place for growing cocoa? Could you use any of the soils near the school? Can cocoa be grown near the school?

History
These lessons were written by Dr J. Elfick in collaboration with teachers employed by the Solomon Islands Curriculum Development Project funded by The World Bank. The lessons were later revised at the University of Queensland.