School Science Lessons
Primary Science Lessons
Years 1 to 6
2016-03-21 SP MF
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Table of contents
22.0 Five challenges for science in Australian primary schools
Year 1 Lessons

Year 2 Lessons

Year 3 Lessons
Year 4 Lessons

Year 5 Lessons

Year 6 Lessons

Topics
1.0 Air

2.0 Animals

3.0 Astronomy

4.0 Balances

6.0 Burn

7.0 Chemistry
9.0 Colour

10.0 Electricity

11.0 Floating

12.0 Force

13.0 Heat

14.0 Light
14.1 Magnets

15.0 Measurement

16.0 Our body

17.0 Plants

18.0 Soils and rocks

19.0 Sound
20.0 Water

21.0 Weather

2.1 " What makes an
activity scientific?
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1.0 Air
3.41 Air and water change places
1.38 Air games
1.39 Air in bags
5.26 Air pressure in all directions
4.16 Air resistance
3.37 Air takes up space
6.18 Atmospheric pressure
1.40 Blow soap bubbles
1.42 Drinking straw game
4.08 Flying kites
5.42 Heated air expands
3.40 Paper aeroplane
2.0 Animals
4.02 Animal friends
4.01 Animal legs
1.02 Animals and plants
3.01 Ant life cycle
3.03 Butterfly life cycle
2.03 Bird beaks and feet
2.01 Bird feathers
2.02 Bird sounds
2.06 Care for birds
3.06 Care for cats
3.1.0 Care for goats
4.25 Care for dogs
6.03 Chicken life cycle
3.04 Grasshopper
5.03 Coral, sea anemone
1.03 Different animals
2.04 Different birds
1.46 Different seashells
5.20 Digestion of food
5.06 Fish life cycle
4.03 Fish parts
6.01 Forest food chains
5.07 Sea food chains
1.01 Living and non-living
4.05 Lizards and snakes
3.14 Model insect
3.02 Mosquito life cycle
2.05 Protect birds
6.29 Protect coral reefs
5.02 Protect sea animals
6.02 Protect turtles
5.01 Sea animals and plants
5.04 Shellfish and snails
4.06 Snake bite
3.32 Soil animals
5.05 Starfish, sea urchin
3.05 Uses of animals and plants
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3.0 Astronomy
2.08 Dull and bright
3.07 Burn with a magnifier
4.38 Liquids in the sun
4.21 Sun movement
4.42 Sundials
6.19 Moon and tides
6.20 Southern Cross

6.0 Burn
3.42 Burn different substances
3.07 Burn with a magnifier
5.43 Burn to make carbon
2.20 Spirit burner, alcohol lamp
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4.0 Balances
2.11 Balanced parrot
2.28 Beam balance
2.26 Bottle top balance
5.25.5 Link spring balances
1.21 Mobile balance
2.27 Nail balance
3.24 Measure our weight
2.25 Ruler balance
2.23 See-saw balance
3.19 Single pan balance
2.24 Steelyard balance
2.29 Straw balance
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7.0 Chemistry
5.43 Burn to make carbon
6.34 Chemical fertilizers
2.43 Different metals
2.21 Heat different substances
4.47 "Human water"
5.39 Make clay pots
4.28 Mixing and dissolving
4.29 Mixing liquids with water
4.14 Prepare crystals
4.19 Prepare invisible inks
3.30 Prepare plant dyes
6.25 Soil fertilizers
2.44 Candle flame
5.35 Fertilizer trial
4.40 Heat and cool water
5.42 Heated air expands
4.41 Ice experiments
5.41 Keep water clean
11.0 Floating
4.45 Ice floats in water
6.12 Float Plasticene boat
1.45 Float different objects
3.38 Float pins on water
2.45 Floating and sinking
6.39 Plasticine sinking and floating
14.1 Magnets
6.41 Electromagnets
6.40 Hanging magnets
2.10 Magnetic pin chain
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9.0 Colour
3.09 Different colours
3.10 Rainbow colours
3.11 Spinning colour disks
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10.0 Electricity
6.37 Electric circuit
6.38 Electricity conductors
6.41 Electromagnets
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12.0 Force
2.11 Balanced parrot
6.11 Coins on a slope
1.42 Drinking straw game
1.41 Falling parachutes
2.45 Floating and sinking
6.13 Forces of friction
4.13 Inertia tricks
5.25.5 Link spring balances
5.25.4 Paddle a canoe
6.22 Pendulum tells the time
5.25.3 Pile of coins
3.17 Plumb bob (vertical test)
4.46 Pressure melts ice
4.30 Propellers
6.10 Pull with pulleys
5.25 Push and pull forces
5.25.1 Push and pull carts
5.25.2 Push and pull a box
3.43 Solid, liquid and gas
1.12 Spinning top
3.44 Squeeze materials
5.09 Steam wheel
3.22 Throw up and fall down
5.08 Water wheel
13.0 Heat
4.11 Air temperature
2.44 Candle flame
3.39 Convection disc, heat snake
6.33 Cool candle wax
4.41 Cool water, melt ice
4.39.1 Cooling melted solids
4.48 Freezing water expands
4.10 Heat, conductors and insulators
2.21 Heat different substances
4.09 Heat from rubbing
4.40 Heat water, cool water vapour
5.42 Heated air expands
6.08 Heated liquids expand
4.44 Heated materials expand
4.38 Liquids in the sun
4.39 Melt different solids
4.49 Microwave ice
4.12 Smoke moves up and down
2.20 Spirit burner, alcohol lamp
4.26 Temperature during the day
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14.0 Light
3.07 Burn with a magnifier
2.44 Candle flame
3.09 Different colours
2.08 Dull and bright
6.15 How far you can see
5.12 Image with a lens
5.10 Light travels in straight lines
4.38 Liquids in the sun
1.11 Mirror game
5.11 Mirror reflects light
5.14 Pinhole camera
3.10 Rainbow colours
1.09 Shadow game
3.11 Spin colour disks
1.10 Spinning picture
4.42 Sundials
5.13 Water drop magnifier
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15.0 Measurement
1.44 Area game
4.11 Air temperature
4.18 Diameter of a thread
1.23 Different new shapes game
1.22 Different shapes game
6.21 Estimating
1.19 Length game
1.20 Measure distance in paces
2.14 Measure in hand spans
4.20 Measure chest expansion
3.18 Measure our fist volume
3.15 Measure our height
3.24 Measure our weight
3.21 Measure with trundle wheel
2.15 Measure with our body
3.20 Measure with wheels
3.17 Plumb bob, (vertical test)
1.13 Same and different
3.23 Volume of a liquid
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16.0 Our body
6.45 Birth and care for baby
2.16 Blindfold description
4.24 Catching the ruler
4.27 Children with diarrhoea
3.13 Different bones
2.34 Different kinds of food
5.20 Digestion of food
4.20 Measure chest expansion
1.18 Feelie bag game
1.15 Five senses
1.35 Green leaves for health
1.16 Hearing sounds game
5.41 Keep water clean
2.14 Measure in hand spans
2.15 Measure with our body
3.18 Measure our fist volume
3.15 Measure our height
3.24 Measure our weight
3.16 Move your arms
4.22 Memory games
2.17 Our eyes
2.19 Our skin and hair
2.13 Our teeth
6.44 Reproduction organs, female
6.43 Reproduction organs, male
2.18 Smelling game
4.06 Snake bite
4.23 Test your reflexes
1.17 Touch and feel game
6.16 Volume of air breathed out
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17.0 Plants
1.02 Animals and plants
2.32 Collect seeds
1.06 Different leaves
1.04 Different plants
1.47 Different seeds
3.28 Different stems and roots
1.27 Drinking glass garden
6.28 Ferns and mosses
2.31 Flower parts
6.01 Forest food chains
6.26 Grasses
5.29.1 Germinate maize grain
5.27 Germination test
1.28 Grow plants from seeds
3.27 Leaf classification
3.26 Leaf collection
2.30 Leaf pictures
5.31 Leaves lose water
1.01 Living and non-living
6.27 Palms
6.23 Plants take in water
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2.35 Paint with plant juices
1.26 Plant names
3.25 Plant parts
1.05 Plant pictures
1.33 Plants need soil
1.30 Plants need sunlight
1.31 Plants need water
3.30 Prepare plant dyes
5.32 Protect mangroves
4.35 Protect trees
5.30 Roots absorb water
5.01 Sea animals and plants
5.07 Sea food chains
5.28 Seed depth
3.29 Seeds and fruits
1.24 Seeds and seed pods
6.24 Trees, palms, ferns
3.05 Uses of animals and plants
1.48 Watch seeds germinate
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18.0 Soils and rocks
6.34 Chemical fertilizers
5.36 Cover crops
6.31 Describe soils
5.33 Different rocks
2.37 Different soils
2.36 Examine rocks with magnifier
1.37 Examine soil with a magnifier
1.34 Good soil and bad soil
5.39 Make clay pots
4.33 Make sedimentary rocks
6.36 Mulch saves water
1.33 Plants need soil
4.34 Protect soils
1.36 Protect topsoil
5.37 Rain on slopes
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6.42 Rain on soils
2.38 Shake soil in water
3.34 Soil air
3.32 Soil animals
3.35 Soil contents
5.44 Soil fertilizer trial
6.25 Soil fertilizers
3.31 Soil nutrient cycles
5.34 Soil profiles
6.32 Soil texture
3.33 Soil water
4.37 Soil watering bottle
2.39 Water through soil
4.36a Water climbs up soil
3.36 Waterlogged soil
4.32 Weathering rocks
19.0 Sound
2.02 Bird sounds
2.07 Bottle sounds
1.16 Hearing sounds game
4.07 How sound travels
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1.07 Knocking sounds
1.08 String sounds
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3.12 String telephone
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20.0 Water
4.41 Cool water, melt ice
6.12 Float Plasticine boat
1.45 Float different objects
3.38 Float pins on water
4.48 Freezing water expands
4.40 Heat water, cool water vapour
4.47 "Human water"
4.45 Ice floats in water
5.41 Keep water clean
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Microwave ice
6.36
Mulch saves water
4.46 Pressure melts ice
2.38 Shake soil in water
2.12 Siphon and water spray
3.33 Soil water
4.37 Soil water bottle
1.14 Stones in Water
4.36a Water climbs up soil
5.21 Water finds its own level
4.43
Water from the air
1.25
Water pouring game
2.39 Water through soil
3.08 Water waves
3.36 Waterlogged soil
21.0 Weather
5.26 Air pressure in all directions
4.11 Air temperature
6.18 Atmospheric pressure
5.24 Describe clouds
5.22 Rain gauge
5.37 Rain on slopes
6.17 Relative humidity
2.46 Simple wind detector
4.12 Smoke moves up and down
4.26 Temperature during the day
4.43 Water from the air
3.08 Water waves
5.23 Wind speed and direction
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22.0 Five challenges for science in Australian primary schools
By Dr Rachel Wilson and Simon Crook, first published in The Conversation, 4 June 2015
Science education has been in the spotlight after federal Education Minister Christopher Pyne recently proposed to make science
and maths education compulsory through to year 12.
While this is welcome news, such a proposal needs to include long-term plans for improving the status of science in primary
schools and ensuring teachers have the requisite support.
Here we outline some of the challenges faced as the new science curriculum is implemented across the country.
1. The Australian curriculum is not a 'national curriculum'
Many people in education are somewhat bemused that the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority's
Australian Curriculum is not national.
Every state and territory is implementing the curriculum in their own way.
This is most noticeable in NSW.
Primary school teachers have to follow the NSW syllabus, which combines an additional "technology" component along with
science.
2. Primary Connections: one size does not fit all
Primary Connections is a program developed to support the teaching of the Australian science curriculum.
It has been overtly promoted and endorsed by the Australian Academy of Science plus the science panel on Q&A in 2014, which
included Chief Scientist Ian Chubb, Professor Suzanne Cory and Nobel Laureate Professor Brian Schmidt. Schmidt even used
some of his Nobel Prize money to support it.
Primary Connections does provide a wealth of ideas, activities, background knowledge and safety considerations.
However, it also has several issues.
While Primary Connections is free to all schools via the online platform Scootle, many schools are still spending money to get it via
the Primary Connections website, to which the Australian Academy of Science website points all those interested.
Primary Connections is essentially just a bunch of PDFs, which is a long way from an inspiring instructive for teachers to get kids
interested in science.
Many schools are also implementing Primary Connections in its entirety, which might not be consistent with their state or territory
requirements.
This will not allow for a personalised journey into scientific inquiry.
In some states, relying solely on Primary Connections would make a school non-compliant with the requirements of the state
syllabus.
For example, Primary Connections does not cater for the technology knowledge and skills in the NSW syllabus.
3. Science is a high-anxiety, low-confidence subject for many primary teachers
As a primary school teacher once told us, "primary teachers are expert generalists".
Most lack the training and experience to teach science, and a deep understanding of the subject and experimentation.
Many feel under-confident in science.
The declines in science participation are longstanding and will have fed into the teaching profession.
So, increasingly, teachers will not have studied science at upper secondary school or university.
Only around 50 percent of teachers teaching science in 2013 had received training in teaching methods for science.
There are also issues in secondary schools.
One in five teachers in science classes teaches out of their area of specialisation.
The introduction of the new curriculum adds to the challenges teachers face.
It may lead some to cling onto any resource they find - even if it does not cover all of the curriculum needs.
4. Time demands on primary schools
When primary teachers face disruptions due to impromptu assemblies, excursions (reported as causing serious disruption in
Australian schools in particular) and extra-curricular activities, they have to choose what to chop from their teaching.
This has been demonstrated to impact most on subjects that the teachers themselves are least comfortable with.
This is traditionally mathematics, where teachers are under-confident and often have limited content knowledge.
While mathematics is assessed in NAPLAN, there is currently no comprehensive national assessment of science.
Thus, despite (or perhaps because of) the new emphasis on science, science is at risk of being the new sacrificial lamb of choice.
NSW mandates that six-10 percent of curriculum time is spent on science in primary schools - that's 1.5 to 2.5 hours a week.
There is substantial variation in the time devoted to science across states and schools.
Many schools are operating on only one hour a week, which could easily become 45 minutes when you factor in "pack-up time"
at the end of the day and other interruptions.
5. Specialist teachers an unlikely dream
Ian Chubb recently wrote about aspiring to something magnificent with science in Australia.
He said: "Every primary school ought to have a science teacher with continually updated knowledge."
This is a noble dream. However, it also raises several issues.
First, there are enough problems recruiting specialist science teachers into secondary, let alone primary schools.
And what happens to those students already in school during the hiatus to train up specialist primary science teachers?
Second, in a large primary school, only one science specialist would not be enough.
They would not be able to get to every class for the recommended curriculum time.
Teaching science, as with any subject, is the responsibility of all primary teachers.
With science being somewhat neglected historically in pre-service training, how are we going to train up all of the incumbents?
There are some wonderful primary teachers out there who openly admit they need help with teaching science.
However, national, state and school structures currently conspire to make this more difficult and less enjoyable than it should be.
To benefit the national economy, we need to raise the profile of science and develop a long-term plan to nurture it in schools and
industry.
Educational attainment in science is linked to national economic growth and competitiveness.
These high stakes prompted the UK Royal Society to develop a 20-year plan and a follow-up UK government strategy.
Here, Australia's Chief Scientist has outlined the need for such planning.
Central to this is the need to support teachers in schools, because, in the words of Ian Chubb: "... every child needs to love scienc
 to thrive."