School Science Lessons
2017-02-140 SP LI
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

19a Food preservation, food chemistry, labels

Table of contents

19.4.4 Food additives

19.3.6 Food preservation


19.4.4 Food additives

19.4.8 Acidity regulators, food additives

19.4.3 Additives that may cause problems to children

19.4.9 Anti-caking agents, food additives

19.4.10 Antioxidants, food additives

E224 Potassium metabisulfite

E999 Quillaia extract, Quillaja saponaria

E100 Curcumin

BANNED = Food additives banned in some countries

19.4.11 Bleaching agents, food bleaching agents & additives

19.4.12 Buffers, food buffers, food additives

19.4.13 Colours, food colours, food additives

19.4.2 EEC Food additives likely to cause adverse reactions

19.4.14 Emulsifiers, food additives

19.4.15 Firming agents, food additives

19.4.16 Flavourings, flavour enhancing agents, food additives

E621 Monosodium glutamate

19.4.17 Flour treatment agents, food additives

19.4.18 Food acids, food additives

19.4.5 Food additives and EEC code numbers

19.2.0 Food allergies and intolerances, "hyperactive"

19.4.19 Glazing agents, food additives

Health risk = Food additives that may cause medical conditions

19.4.20 Humectants, bulking agents, food additives

19.4.7 Humectants, food additives

Magnesium carbonate, (mineral salt, anti-caking agent)

19.4.21 Mineral salts, food additives

19.4.22 Packaging gases, propellants, food additives

19.4.23 Preservatives, food additives

19.4.6 Sequestrants, food additives

E339 Sodium phosphate

19.4.26 Stabilizers, thickeners, food additives

19.4.1 Synthetic food colours approved for use in Australia

19.4.25 Sweeteners, food additives

19.4.27 Vegetable gums, food additives

19.3.6 Food preservation
4.3.16 Food preservation of peas
19.3.14 Bacteria in food, the 2 hour and 4 hour rule
19.3.04 Blanching vegetables for food
19.3.06 Freezing, thawing and cold storage of meat
19.3.03 Lost nutrients in food
19.3.15 Metal drink-cans to store non-alcoholic drinks, beverage cans
19.3.11 Microbial contamination of food
19.3.13 Nutrients in food
19.3.02 Nutritional value of processed food, niacin
19.3.12 Pasteurization and UHT, (Ultra High temperature) of milk
19.3.10 Preservatives or antimicrobials in food
Benzoic acid, Food preservation
Sulfur dioxide and sulfites, Food preservation
Propionates, Food preservation
Sorbic acid, Food preservation
19.3.07 Thermal processing, cooking and canning of food
19.3.05 Vitamins in canned food
19.3.01 Water content of food

19.3.01 Water content of food
Food is commonly preserved by decreasing the availability of water in the food to micro-organisms, i.e. by decreasing the water activity.
The water activity of pure water = 1, so any dissolved substances reduces the water activity.
You can measure the water activity measuring the equilibrium vapour pressure of the water or by measuring its freezing point or boiling
point.
So water activity can be decreased by drying processes or by adding solutes, e.g. sodium chloride, sugar, sodium nitrate.
Lowering of pH also controls micro-organisms.

19.3.02 Nutritional value of processed food, niacin
The nutritional value of a processed food is rarely better than that of the raw ingredients from which it is produced, unless nutrients are
added in purified or concentrated form.
Some beneficial effects of processing include the destruction of trypsin inhibitor in legumes, and the liberation of bound niacin in cereals.
The consumer can judge reduction in nutritional value of food because it is usually accompanied by a reduction in colour, flavour and
texture.

19.3.03 Lost nutrients in food
Nutrients may be lost during food processing because they react with other constituents of the food, oxygen, light or heat, or because
they are leached by water.
Trace elements and enzymes may also catalyse the destruction of the nutrients.
Nutrient loss varies with the type of food, the length of time of processing and the particular nutrient.
Nutrients that are unstable in solution include vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin K, riboflavin, thiamine and essential
amino acids threonine and tryptophan.
Nutrients that are unstable in cooking heat include vitamin A, vitamin C, biotin, (in vitamin B complex), vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin K,
riboflavin, thiamine and essential amino acids lysine, threonine and tryptophan.
Canned meats contain less thiamine than fresh cooked meats because some is destroyed by the heat sterilization.
The importance of nutrient losses during processing depends on the total diet.
Where essential dietary components are in limited supply, any loss of nutrients may be important.

19.3.04 Blanching vegetables for food
Blanching, plunging vegetables in boiling water for 2 minutes, inactivates enzymes.
Potatoes cut for potato chips, French fries, boiled for two minutes and then cooled in a refrigerator for a further two minutes do not
brown as fast as potatoes that are only cut before cooking.
During preservation by canning, freezing or dehydration, most vegetables are blanched by immersion in steam or hot water.
Blanching inactivates enzymes that otherwise would cause deterioration of the food during storage and subsequent thawing.
Steam blanching results in greater retention of water soluble nutrients than water blanching.
Microwave blanching results in better ascorbic acid retention in Brussels sprout.
Vegetables that have significant loss of vitamin c and thiamine from blanching include spinach, broccoli, green beans, lima beans,
Brussels sprout, cauliflower and peas.

19.3.05 Vitamins in canned foods
See vitamins: 16.4.1.0
Percentage retention of vitamins in canned foods at 27oC for 12 months are as follows:
1. Peas: Vitamin C 86%, thiamine 74%, carotene 91%,
2. Orange juice: Vitamin C 77%, thiamine 89%,
3. Tomatoes: Vitamin C 82%, thiamine 82%.

19.3.06 Freezing, thawing and cold storage of meat
Percentage loss of nutrients from muscle meats and liver:
1. Frozen storage for 3 months to 20% to 40% thiamine, 0% to 30% riboflavin, 18% niacin and pantothenic acid.
2. Refrigerator storage for two weeks: 8% to 10% thiamine and pantothenic acid, 10% to 15% riboflavin, <10% niacin.
Thawing in running water loses thiamine and pantothenic acid and up to 33% pantothenic acid is lost in the "drip" from thawed beef.

19.3.07 Thermal processing, cooking and canning of food
Pyridoxine, (vitamin B6), folic acid and pantothenic acid are the most vulnerable of the B vitamins in foods of animal origin.
From 50% to 90% of folic acid and pyridoxine, and 10% to 50% of pantothenic acid may be lost during cooking.
Folic acid is said to help reduce the risk of neural tube defects in babies and some foods have been fortified with folic acid to be used
by pregnant women.
However, recent research suggests that such fortified food increases the risk of cancer.
Thermal processing, cooking and canning to Pyridoxine, (vitamin B6), folic acid and pantothenic acid are the most vulnerable of the B
vitamins in foods of animal origin.
From 50% to 90% of folic acid and pyridoxine, and 10% to 50% of pantothenic acid may be lost during cooking.

19.3.10 Preservatives or antimicrobials in food
Benzoic acid, benzene carboxylic acid, phenylformic acid, C6H5COOH, and its sodium salts are bacteriostatic, germicidal agents,
preservative, in creams for treating haemorrhoids.
Many berries, e.g. raspberries, contain up to 0.05% benzoic acid.
It may be included in foods of pH < 4.5, e.g. soft drinks, to inhibit the growth of bacteria.
The body excretes benzoic acid as hippuric acid.
Sulfur dioxide and sulfites, (E220 to 224), inhibit deterioration of dried fruits and fruit juices.
In the fermentation industry it is used to prevent spoilage by microbes, as a selective inhibitor, as an antioxidant and anti-browning agent.
Sulfur dioxide destroys thiamine so it is only allowed in to foods not an important sources of thiamine.
It may be not allowed in meat, except for cooked manufactured meat, e.g. salamis, sausages.
Some people are allergic to sulfur dioxide.
Propionates, CH3CH2COOH, (E280 to 283), e.g. calcium and sodium salts of propionic acid, are in bread, (0.2%), to inhibit the
growth of micro-organisms, e.g. Bacillus subtilis, which causes "rope" that makes bread inedible.
Sorbic acid, C6H8O2, (E200-203), (2,4-hexadienoic acid), CH3-CH=CH-CH=CHCOOH, food preservative, originally from
Sorbus aucuparia, European mountain ash, rowan, Rosaceae.
Occurs in some fruits and inhibits some moulds, yeasts, and bacteria in cheese, pickles, fish products, cordials, and carbonated drinks.

19.3.11 Microbial contamination of food
Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring toxic products found in moulds in foods, especially peanuts, (groundnuts), and peanut butter, due to
lack of proper drying and storage of crops.

19.3.12 Pasteurization and UHT, (Ultra High temperature) of milk
See 9.5.5: Pasteur's spontaneous generation experiment
Pasteurization is the heat treatment of milk, usually 71.7oC for 15 seconds or 62oC for 30 minutes, so that the milk should keep in the
refrigerator for about 5 days.
This treatment destroys all pathogenic organisms, e.g. tuberculosis and most other bacteria to reducing the risk of milk borne infection
and delay milk becoming sour.
However, there is some loss of thiamine, (vitamin B), and ascorbic acid, (vitamin C).
The amounts of nutrients lost from a processed food depend on the temperature experienced, the time that elapses
between processing and consumption, the nature of the food and sometimes the nature of the container.
During pasteurization of milk the minerals, vitamin A, vitamin D, pyridoxine, niacin, pantothenic acid and biotin not affected.
Riboflavin, vitamin E and vitamin K are only slightly affected.
Thiamine is reduced by 3%.
The proteins albumin and globulin may be 10% coagulated.
Vitamin B1 and vitamin C may be greatly affected, but milk is not an important source of these vitamins.
To produce UHT milk, "long life milk", by "ultra heat treatment" processing, milk is heated to 140oC for about 3 seconds then rapidly
cooled to 20oC.
Milk in unopened UHT packages can keep for 4 to 6 months.
Pasteurization can extend the shelf life of beer, wine and other products by killing any remaining yeast.

Experiment
Compare the spoilage rate of non-pasteurized, pasteurized, and ultra-pasteurized milk at two different temperatures.
Milk is contaminated by bacteria as leaves the udder, although they are harmless and few in number.
Processing and handling activities can introduce further microorganisms.
The two main groups of bacteria in milk are lactic acid bacteria, (LAB), and coliform bacteria
Lactic acid bacteria is the normal bacteria present in milk and dairy products.
Coliform bacteria are the main cause of milk spoilage.
Observe the changes in the pH of milk over a several day period, (depending on room temperature), as it goes sour.
Allow the milk to reach room temperature without cooking and re-pasteurizing it.
Plug the pH probe into the socket and insert the probe into the container of milk.
Record the data and display the graph.
Keep the experiment in a stable environment as the extremes in room temperature may give false readings.
Note any reduction of pH shortly after starting the experiment.
Note whether the speed of change in pH stay constant over the whole experiment period.
Repeat the experiment with UHT milk over the same time period.
Repeat the experiment by keeping the container of milk at different temperatures, (in the fridge or an incubator).
In the experiment, all types of milk grew more bacteria colonies in warmer temperature, except the ultra-pasteurized milk, which grew
no colonies at all.

19.3.13 Nutrients in food
1. Minimize the amount of chopping and cutting of vegetables for cooking by boiling.
2. Do not use sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, in cooking to make cooked vegetables look greener as it increases
the rate of loss of thiamine and vitamin C.
3. Store foods at the lowest appropriate temperature and for the shortest possible time.
Avoid storing cooked foods for lengthy periods in the freezer or refrigerator.
When you purchase frozen food, carry it home in an insulated container and place it in the home freezer as soon as you get home.

19.3.14 Bacteria in food, the 2 hour and 4 hour rule
Hot food stored in a restaurant should be always above 60oC.
Cold food stored in a restaurant should always be below 5oC.
However, many foods kept on display, e.g. pies or sushi, are not kept at these temperatures, in which case bacteria can multiply in them.
To control bacteria, temperatures should either be very high or very low:
115oC to 120oC: Canning temperatures used for low acid vegetables, meat, and poultry in a pressure canner.
100oC to 115oC: Canning temperatures used for fruits, tomatoes, and pickles in water bath canner.
75oC to 100oC: Cooking temperatures that destroy most bacteria.
Time needed to kill bacteria decreases as temperature increases.
60oC to 75oC: These warming temperatures prevent growth but allow survival of some bacteria.
40oC to 60oC: At these temperatures some bacterial growth may occur and many bacteria survive.
15oC to 40oC: These temperatures allow rapid growth of bacteria and production of toxins by some bacteria.
5oC to 15oC: At these temperatures some growth of food poisoning bacteria may occur.
Do not store meats, poultry, or seafood for more than a week in the refrigerator.
0oC to 5oC: These cold temperatures permit slow growth of some bacteria that cause spoilage.
-10oC to 0oC: These freezing temperatures stop growth of bacteria, but may allow bacteria to survive.

The 2-hour rule and the 4-hour rule
Food that can support the growth of bacteria is called potentially hazardous food and is usually stored in a refrigerator, e.g. meat, dairy
products, cooked rice and pasta.
Most pathogen bacteria do not grow or have very slow growth below 5oC and above 60oC, so their favourable temperature range is
between these two temperatures.
When most pathogenic bacteria enter the favourable temperature range they remain in a lag phase for about 2 hours before they start
to multiply rapidly.
So if food is stored in a refrigerator for some time it is safe to eat the food or return it to the refrigerator for up to 2 hours after removal
of the food from the refrigerator. For up to 4 hours after removal from the refrigerator the food may be consumed but not returned to
the refrigerator.
Food removed from the refrigerator for 4 hours or more must be discarded because they are a potentially hazardous because they may
cause food poisoning.

19.3.15 Metal soft drink-cans to store non-alcoholic drinks, beverage cans
Experiment
Cut the tops off two aluminium soft drink-cans.
Fill one can with a sodium bicarbonate solution and fill the other with a vinegar solution.
After 3 days observe corrosion in the can containing sodium bicarbonate but not in the can containing vinegar.
The aluminium oxide formed on the surface of the aluminium can is stable in acid solutions but dissolves in the basic solution leaving the
aluminium unprotected.
So aluminium cans are used to store low pH fruit drinks.
Repeat the experiment with tin-coated steel cans, not protected with a protective lacquer coating.

19.4.1  Synthetic food colours approved for use in Australia
CI number refers to the English Colour index.
Number following the name, e.g. E123, is the EEC code number:
Red shades: CI 16035 Allura red AC, CI16185 Amaranth 123, CI 16255 Brilliant scarlet 4R, CI 14720
Carmoisine 122, CI 14780 Clorazol pink Y, CI 45430 Erythrocyte 127
Orange shade: CI 15980 Orange GGN
Yellow shade: CI 15985 Sunset yellow FCF 110, CI 19140 Tartrazine E102, CI 18965 Yellow 2G,
Green shade: CI 44090 Green S
Blue shadow: CI 42090 Brilliant blue FCF, CI 73015 Indigo carmine
Violet shade: CI 42580 Acid violet 21
Brown shade: CI 20285 Chocolate brown HT E155
Black shade: CI 28440 Brilliant black BN E151
The following artificial food colourings have been removed from sale form some stores in Australia following a study at the University
of Southampton: E102 Tartrazine, E104 Quinoline Yellow, E110 Sunset Yellow, E122 Carmoisine, E124 Ponceau, E129 Allura Red.

19.4.2 EEC Code numbers of food additives most likely to cause adverse reactions
Colours: Artificial E102, E107, E110, E122 to 129, E133, E142, E151, E155. Natural, (annatto), E160b
Preservatives: sorbates E200-203, benzoates E210-213, sulfites E220-228, nitrates and nitrites E249-252, propionates E280-283,
antioxidants E310 to 321, the flavour enhancer monosodium glutamate E621. Most other additives are unlikely to cause reactions.

19.4.3 Additives that may cause problems to children
Sweeteners:
E951 Aspartame
Colours:
E102 Tartrazine, E104 Quinoline Yellow, E107 Yellow 2G, E110, Sunset Yellow
E120 Cochineal, E122 Carmoisine, E123 Amaranth, E124 Ponceau 4R, E127 Erythrosine
E128 Red 2G, E129 Allura Red, E131 Patent Blue V, E132 Indigo Carmine, E133 Brilliant Blue FCF
E142 Green S, E151 Black PN, E154 Brown FK
Preservatives:
E210 Benzoic acid, E211 Sodium benzoate, E212 Potassium benzoate
E213 Calcium benzoate, E214 Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, E215 Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium salt
E216 Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, E217 Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium salt,
E218 Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, E219 Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium salt, E220 sulfur dioxide
E221 Sodium sulfite, E222 Sodium hydrogen sulfite, E223 Sodium metabisulfite,
E224 Potassium metabisulfite, E226 Calcium sulfite, E227 Calcium hydrogen sulfite, E230 Biphenyl
E231 2-Hydroxybiphenyl, E232 Sodium biphenyl-2-yl oxide, E233 2-(Thiazol-4-yl), benzimidazole
E239 Hexamine, E249 Potassium nitrite, E250 Sodium nitrite, E251 Sodium nitrate,
E252 Potassium nitrate

19.4.5 Food additives and EEC code numbers
The E-number indicates approved as food additives in some countries but this list may not be current in all countries.
The E means the Federation of European Food Addititves and Food Enzymes Industries and the European Union have given approval
for the use of that additive.
Descriptors from previous lists are shown in brackets.
An additive is a substance added to food to modify flavour, colour, texture, keeping properties or nutritional content.
It is illegal to add additives to food unless permitted by law.
Minerals and vitamins added to food to improve the diet do not need additives numbers, unless added for another purpose, e.g. as an
antioxidant.

19.4.6  Sequestrant food additives
16.4.4 EDTA, synthetic chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, C10H16N2O8
They are added to food to form tightly bound complexes with unwanted metals to prevent the decomposition of the food.
The sodium and calcium salts of EDTA, (ethylene diaminetetra acetic acid), are common sequestrants.
E335 Sodium tartrates, (acidity regulator, sequestrant)
E353 Metatartaric acid, (acidity regulator, sequestrant)
E354 Calcium tartrate, (acidity regulator, sequestrant)
E385 Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetate, calcium disodium EDTA, (sequestrant), (BANNED), (HEALTH kidney damage)
E574 Gluconic acid, (anti-caking agent, sequestrant)
E576 Sodium gluconate, (acidity regulator, sequestrant)

19.4.7 Humectant food additives are moisturizers that attracting water, e.g. sorbitol for skin products and glycerine for shampoos.
E100 to E181 Colours
E200 to E290 Preservatives
E300 to E385 Acids, Antioxidants, mineral salts
E400 to E 495 Vegetable gums, emulsifiers, stabilizers and others
E500 to E585 Vegetable gums, emulsifiers, stabilizers and others
E620 to E640 Flavour enhancer
E900 to E1520 Miscellaneous food additives [This category is not in the classification below.]
Unnumbered food additives
BANNED = Food additives banned in some countries
Health risk = Food additives that may cause medical conditions

19.4.8 Acidity regulators, food additives
E339 Sodium phosphates, (acidity regulator, emulsifier, mineral salt), (Health risk, high intakes cause Ca / P problems), (as laxative,
textile fixing agent)
E340 Potassium phosphates, (mineral salt, acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E350 Sodium malates, (DL-sodium malates), (acidity regulator, humectant)
E351 Potassium malates, (acidity regulator)
E352 Calcium malates, (acidity regulator)
E353 Metatartaric acid, (acidity regulator, sequestrant)
E354 Calcium tartrate, (acidity regulator, sequestrant)
E357 Potassium adipate, (acidity regulator, buffer)
E363 Succinic acid, (Sodium fumarate), (Banned in some countries), (acidity regulator, flavour enhancer)
E261 Potassium acetate, (acidity regulator, preservative), (Health risk, affects damaged kidneys), (in sauces, pickles)
E262 Sodium acetate, (Sodium diacetate), (acidity regulator, preservative)
E296 Malic acid, (from fruit or synthetic), (restricted to not infant food), (acidity regulator, antioxidant)
E326 Potassium lactate, (humectant, bulking agent, acidity regulator), (as with E325)
E330 Citric acid, (from citrus fruit), (food acid, acidity regulator, flavouring), (in infant formula, processed cheese, soft drinks)
E331 Sodium citrates, (food acid, acidity regulator, emulsifier)
E332 Potassium citrates, (food acid, acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E335 Sodium tartrates, (acidity regulator, sequestrant)
E336 Potassium tartrates, (acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate, (Potassium sodium tartrate), (acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E338 Phosphoric acid, (food acid, acidity regulator), (in processed cheese)
E356 Sodium adipate, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E357 Potassium adipate, (acidity regulator)
E370 1,4-Heptonolactone, (Banned in some countries)
E380 Tri-ammonium citrate, (food acid, acidity regulator), (Health risk, liver and pancreas problems)
E507 Hydrochloric acid, (acidity regulator)
E513 Sulfuric acid, (acidity regulator)
E521 Aluminium sodium sulfate, (buffer, firming agent), (Health risk, contact skin rash)
E522 Aluminium potassium sulfate, (buffer, firming agent)
E523 Aluminium ammonium sulfate, (buffer, stabilizer), (Health risk, mouth irritation)
E526 Calcium hydroxide, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E527 Ammonium hydroxide, (Banned in some countries), (acidity regulator)
E528 Magnesium hydroxide, (Banned in some countries), (acidity regulator)
E540 Dicalcium diphosphate, (Banned in some countries)
E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate, (Banned in some countries), (acidity regulator, emulsifier), (phosphate aerator in some baking
powders), (Health risk, acidic problems)
E575 Glucono δ-lactone, (acidity regulator, raising agent)
E576 Sodium gluconate, (Banned in some countries), (acidity regulator, sequestrant)
E578 Calcium gluconate, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E1102 Glucose oxidase, (enzyme, acidity regulator)

19.4.9 Anti-caking agents, food additives
E460 Cellulose, (microcrystalline and powdered), (anti-caking agent)
E468 Cross-linked sodium carboxy methylcellulose, (carrier, suspending agent)
E504 Magnesium carbonate, (mineral salt), (anti-caking agent)
E530 Magnesium oxide, (Banned in some countries), (anti-caking agent, firming agent)
E535 Sodium ferrocyanide, (anti-caking agent)
E536 Potassium ferrocyanide, (anti-caking agent)
E538 Calcium ferrocyanide, (anti-caking agent)
E542 Bone phosphate, (from bones), (anti-caking agent), (in coffee machine milk)
E544 Calcium polyphosphates, (Banned in some countries)
E545 Ammonium polyphosphates, (Banned in some countries)
E551 Silicon dioxide, (anti-caking agent)
E552 Calcium silicate, (anti-caking agent), (Antacid)
E553a Magnesium silicate, (Banned in some countries), or magnesium trisilicate, (anti-caking agent)
E553b Talc, (magnesium silicate), (Banned in some countries), (anti-caking agent), (Health risk, respiratory problems and tumours),
(in polished rice), Baby powder, formerly called talcum powder contains corn starch, (Zea Mays), not talc.
E554 Sodium aluminium silicate, (sodium aluminosilicate), (anti-caking agent), (in table salt, dried milk, flour)
E555 Potassium aluminium silicate, (anti-caking agent)
E556 Aluminium calcium silicate, (Calcium aluminium silicate), (anti-caking agent), (in milk powder)
E558 Bentonite, (anti-caking agent)
E559 Aluminium silicate, kaolin, (anti-caking agent)
E570 Fatty acids, (Stearic acid), (anti-caking agent)
E572 Magnesium stearate, (anti-caking agent)
E574 Gluconic acid, (anti-caking agent, sequestrant)
E900 Dimethylpolysiloxane, (anti-caking agent, emulsifier, anti-foaming agent)

19.4.10 Antioxidants, food additives
E100 Curcumin, (from turmeric and artificial), (colour orange to yellow, antioxidant), (in margarine),  choleretic,  insoluble in water,
dissolves in alcohols, stable to heat but not to light so clean turmeric stains with methylated spirits then expose stained fabric to light
Turmeric, (Curcuma longa), Zingiberaceae, the spice turmeric is the powdered rhizome.
E224 Potassium metabisulfite, (preservative, antioxidant), (Health risk, allergy reaction to asthma, hyperactivity)
E225 Potassium sulfite, (preservative, antioxidant), (may cause asthma, hyperactivity, behavioural problems)
E296 Malic acid, (acidity regulator, antioxidant)
E300 Ascorbic acid, (in fruit and synthetically from glucose), (vitamin C), (antioxidant, preservative), (breakfast cereals, meat products)
E301 Sodium ascorbate, (sodium salt of vitamin C), (antioxidant)
E302 Calcium ascorbate, (antioxidant, preservative), (Health risk, calcium oxalate stones)
E303 Potassium ascorbate, (antioxidant), (potassium salt of vitamin C)
E304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, (ascorbyl palmitate), (antioxidant, preservative)
E306 Tocopherols, concentrate, mix, (vitamin E), (from vegetable oils), (antioxidant), (may be destroyed by freezing)
E307 α-tocopherol, (di-α tocopherol), (vitamin E), (antioxidant, nutrient), (may be destroyed by freezing)
E308 γ-tocopherol, (synthetic), (antioxidant)
E309 δ-tocopherol, (vitamin E), (vegetables, soy, wheat germ, maize), (antioxidant prevents oxidation of vitamin A), (in margarine,
salad dressing)
E310 Propyl gallate, (synthetic ester of gallic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid,), (antioxidant), (Health risk, asthma, not allowed in
baby food), (prevents rancidity of oils), (in margarine, salad dressing)
E311 Octyl gallate, (synthetic salt of gallic acid), (antioxidant), (Health risk, allergic reactions), (as in E310)
E312 Dodecyl gallate, (ester of gallic acid), (antioxidant), (Health risk, allergic reactions), (as in E310)
E315 Erythorbic acid, (from sucrose), (antioxidant, preservative), (Health risk, allergic reactions)
E316 Sodium erythrobate, (salt of erythrobic acid), (antioxidant)
E319 Tert-butyl hydroquinone, (from petroleum), (antioxidant), (Health risk, nausea, can be fatal!), (in margarine)
E320 Butylated hydroxy anisole, BHA, (from petroleum), (Banned, some countries, not in infant food), (antioxidant that retards
spoilage, preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity)
E321 Butylated hydroxy toluene, BHT Sweeteners, (Banned in some countries), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity), (antioxidant,
preservative)
E512 Stannous chloride, SnCl2, (colour retention agent, antioxidant), (may irritate skin)
E620 Glutamic acid, (from animal and vegetable proteins, bacteria), (restricted, not for infants), (flavour enhancer, antioxidant), (in
canned and frozen foods)

19.4.11 Bleaching agents, food bleaching agents, food additives
E925 Chlorine, (bleaching agent), (Health risk, destroys nutrients), (in flour products, in tap water)
E926 Chlorine dioxide, (bleaching agent), (as in E925)
E927 Azodicarbonamide, (Banned in some countries)
E928 Benzoyl peroxide, (bleaching agent), (Health risk, problems for asthmatics), (in flour)

19.4.12 Buffers, food buffers, food additives
E260 Acetic acid, glacial acetic acid, glacial, (from wood fibres), (food acid, buffer), (vinegar), (in pickles)
E327 Calcium lactate, (food acid, buffer)
E333 Calcium citrate, (food acid, buffer)
E341 Calcium phosphates, (buffer, sequestrant) calcium dihydrogen phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2, calcium hydrogen phosphate CaHP2O4
E352 Calcium malates, (IDL-calcium malates, (buffer, firming agent)
E355 Adipic acid, (food acid, raising agent, buffer)
E357 Potassium adipate, (acidity regulator, buffer)
E521 Aluminium sodium sulfate, (buffer, firming agent), (Health risk, contact skin rash)
E522 Aluminium potassium sulfate, (buffer, firming agent)
E523 Aluminium ammonium sulfate, (buffer, stabilizer), (Health risk, mouth irritation)

19.4.13 Colours, food colours, food additives
E100 Curcumin, (from turmeric and artificial), (colour: orange to yellow, antioxidant), (in margarine)
E101 Riboflavin, Riboflavin-5'-phosphate, (vitamin B2), (in green vegetables, eggs, milk, liver), (colour: orange to yellow), (margarine)
E102 Tartrazine, (coal tar dye), (Banned in some countries), (colour: lemon to orange yellow), (Health risk, asthma, skin problems)
E104 Quinoline yellow, (azo dye), (colour: yellow), (Health risk, dermatitis), (in lipsticks)
E107 Yellow 7G, (Health risk, asthma, allergies), (in soft drinks)
E110 Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S, (azo dye), (Banned in some countries), (colour: orange to yellow), (Health risk, asthma,
hyperactivity), (in ice cream, medicines)
E120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmines, (made from cochineal insects), (colour: red), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity)
E122 Azorubine, Carmoisine, (from coal tar), (Banned in some countries), (colour: red), (Health risk, asthmatic reaction, hyperactivity),
(in sweets)
E123 Amaranth, (from amaranth plant or coal tar and azo dye), (Banned in some countries), (colour: blue to red), (Health risk,
hyperactivity), (in cake mix, jelly crystals)
E124 Ponceau 4R, Cochineal Red A, (coal tar and azo dye), (Banned in some countries), (colour: scarlet), (Health risk, asthmatic
reaction, hyperactivity)
E127 Erythrosine, (colour: blue pink), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, light sensitivity), (in preserved cherries, sweets)
E128 Red 2G, (azo dye), (Banned in some countries), (colour: red), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity)
E129 Allura red AC, (coal tar dye), (Banned in some countries), (colour: orange to red), (Health risk, hyperactivity, may be carcinogen),
(in sweets, medications)
E131 Patent Blue V, (Banned in some countries), (colour: blue), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, intestinal problems)
E132 Indigotine, Indigo Carmine, (coal tar dye), (Banned in some countries), (colour: bright green), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity),
(added to tablets and capsules, in ice cream)
E133 Brilliant blue FCF, (Banned in some countries), (colour: blue), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity), (in dairy products, sweets as
aluminium solution or ammonium salt)
E140 Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins, (colour: olive to dark green), (used to dye oils and wax in medicines and cosmetics)
E141 Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins, (colour: bright green)
E142 Green S, (Food green S), (from coal tar), (Banned in some countries), (colour: green), (in jelly, canned peas, cake mix)
E150a Plain Caramel, (Caramel), (from sucrose), (colour: dark brown), (Health risk, intestinal problems), (in sauces, beer, pickles)
E150b Caustic sulfite caramel, (colour: dark brown to black, flavour enhancer), (Health risk, hyperactivity)
E150c Ammonia caramel, (colouring agent), (Health risk, hyperactivity)
E150d Sulfite ammonia caramel, (colouring agent), (Health risk, hyperactivity, intestinal problems)
E151 Brilliant black BN, Black PN, (azo dye from coal tar), (Banned in some countries), (colour: black), (in brown sauces, black
current cake mix)
E153 Vegetable carbon, (Carbon black), (Banned, some countries not if from vegetables), (colour: black), (in jams, liquorice)
E154 Brown FK, (from petroleum), (Banned in some countries), (colouring agent brown), (Health risk, asthmatic reaction,
hyperactivity, skin sensitivity)
E155 Brown HT, (coal tar and azo dye), (Banned in some countries), (colouring agent brown), (Health risk, asthmatic reaction,
hyperactivity, skin sensitivity), (in chocolate cake mix)
E160a Carotenes, (from carrots and orange to yellow fruit and vegetables, (α-carotene, β-carotene, γ-carotene), (colour: orange to
yellow), (becomes vitamin A)
E160b Annatto, bixin, norbixin, (from Bixa orellana), (colour: yellow to pink), (Health risk, hyperactivity, head banging, skin
irritation), (as body paint, fabric dye)
E160c Paprika extract, Capsanthin, Capsorubin, (from peppers), (Banned in some countries), (colour: orange to red)
E160d Lycopene, (carotenoid), (from tomatoes, pink grapefruit), (colour: red), (may decrease risk of cancer)
E160e Beta-apo-8' carotenal, (C30), (synthetic), (colour: orange to yellow to red)
E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8', carotenoic acid, (from plants), (colour: yellow to orange)
E161b Lutein, (a xanthophyll), (in egg yolk, green leaves, marigold flowers), (colour: yellow to red)
E161f Rhodoxanthin, food coloring, not approved in EU or USA, approved in Australia, new Zealand
E161g Canthaxanthin, (a xanthophyll), (from β-carotene or animals, e.g. crustaceans), (Banned in some countries), (colour: pink),
(Health risk, vision and skin colour problems)
E162 Beetroot Red, Betanin, (Beet red), (from beetroot), (colour: deep red to purple), (Health risk, skin problems)
E163 Anthocyanins, (from grape skins, red cabbage, flowers), (colour: red to violet)
E170 Calcium carbonate, (mineral salt), (colour: white, firming agent), (excess may cause intestinal problems), (in toothpaste, canned
fruit, paint, cleaning powder)
E171 Titanium dioxide, (natural mineral), (colour: white, opacifer), (nanoparticles may cause skin irritation), (in toothpaste, white paint,
white shoes)
E172 Iron oxide and hydroxides, (Banned in some countries), (colour: red to brown to black to orange to yellow), (excess unsafe),
(in tinned salmon, fish paste)
E173 Aluminium, (from bauxite), (colour: metallic), (Banned in some countries), (excess unsafe)
E174 Silver, (natural metal), (Banned in some countries), (colour: metallic)
E175 Gold, (natural metal), (Banned in some countries), (colour: metallic)
E180 Litholrubine BK, (Banned in some countries), (colour: red), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, intestinal problems)
E181 Tannic acid, tannins, (from oak trees, tea), (clarifying agent)
E249 Potassium nitrite, (restricted to not baby food), (preservative, colour fixative, meat curing agent), (Health risk, asthma,
hyperactivity, shortness of breath), (in preserved meat, gunpowder)
E250 Sodium nitrite, (restricted to not baby food), (preservative, colour fixative), (Health risk, nausea, headaches, hyperactivity, forms
nitrosamine in stomach)
E251 Sodium nitrate, (restricted to not baby food), (preservative, colour fixative), (Health risk, nausea, headaches), (fermented meats)
E375 Niacin, (in legumes, milk, eggs), (vitamin B3), (colour retention agent), (Health risk, excess causes Health risk, problems
including liver damage, gout)
E512 Stannous chloride, SnCl2, (colour retention agent, antioxidant), (may irritate skin)
E579 Ferrous gluconate, (flavour enhancer, colour retention), (Health risk, intestine problems), (iron supplements, preserved olives)
E585 Ferrous lactate, (from pigs), (colour fixative)

19.4.14 Emulsifiers, food additives
E322 Lecithins, (emulsifier), (from soy bean, egg yolk), (Health risk, overdose intestinal problems, sweating), (in combined oils,
margarine, chocolate)
E339 Sodium phosphates, (acidity regulator, emulsifier, mineral salt), (Health risk, high intakes cause Ca/ P problems), (as laxative,
textile fixing agent)
E406 Agar, (from red algae), (vegetable gum), (thickener, emulsifier)
E421 Mannitol, (from seaweed), (restricted to not infant food), (artificial sweetener, thickener, vegetable gum, humectant), (Health
risk, hypersensitivity, nausea, diarrhoea), (in low calorie foods)
E425 Konjac
E432 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, polysorbate 20, (emulsifier), (may contain contaminants, e.g. 1,4 dioxane)
E431 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate, polyoxyethylene stearate, polysorbate, (40), (emulsifier)
E432 Polysorbate 20, (Banned in some countries)
E433 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate, polysorbate 80, (from animal fatty acids), (emulsifier, flavouring), (may contain
contaminants, e.g. 1,4 dioxane), (as surfactant, defoaming agent)
E434 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate, polysorbate 40, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier), (may contain contaminants,
e.g. 1,4 dioxane)
E435 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, (emulsifier), (may contain contaminants, e.g. 1,4 dioxane), (as in E433)
E436 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate, polysorbate 65, (emulsifier), (may contain contaminants, e.g. 1,4 dioxane), (as in E433)
E440 Pectins, pectin, (from apple skin), (vegetable gum, thickener), (used to thicken jams, sauces), [also amidated pectin]
E441 Gelatine, (Health risk, if contain SO2 may cause allergies)
E442 Ammonium phosphatides, ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid, (emulsifier)
E444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate, (emulsifier, stabilizer)
E445 Glycerol esters of wood resins, (emulsifier, stabilizer)
E450 Diphosphates, (Sodium and potassium phosphates are as phosphate aerators in some baking powders.)
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose, (emulsifier, thickener)
E470a Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier, stabilizer)
E470b Magnesium salts of fatty acids, (magnesium stearate), (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier, stabilizer)
E471 Monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, (emulsifier)
E472a Acetic acid esters of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, (acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol), (emulsifier)
E472b Lactic acid esters of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, (lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol), (emulsifier)
E472c Citric acid esters of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, (citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol), (emulsifier)
E472d Tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, (tartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol), (emulsifier)
E472e Mono-acetyltartaric acid and monodiacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, (diacetyl
tartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol), (emulsifier)
E472f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, (emulsifier)
E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids, (emulsifier)
E474 Sucroglycerides, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier, stabilizer)
E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, (emulsifier)
E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate, (polyglycerol esters of inter-esterified ricinoleic acid), (emulsifier)
E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids, (propylene glycol mono-esters and di-esters of fatty acids), (emulsifier)
E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1
E479b Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, (emulsifier)
E480 Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, (emulsifier)
E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, (sodium oleylltostearoyl lactylate), (emulsifier)
E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate, (calcium oleyltostearoyl lactylate), (emulsifier)
E483 Stearyl tartrate, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier)
E491 Sorbitan monostearate, (emulsifier)
E492 Sorbitan tristearate, (emulsifier)
E493 Sorbitan monolaurate, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier)
E494 Sorbitan mono-oleate, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier)
E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier)
E524 Sodium hydroxide, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier)
E525 Potassium hydroxide, (Banned in some countries), (emulsifier)
E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate, (emulsifier, acidity regulator)
E900 Dimethylpolysiloxane, (emulsifier, anti-caking agent, anti-foaming agent)
E962 Salt of aspartame-acesulfame, (artificial sweeteners, emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents), (Health risk, tumours)

19.4.15 Firming agents, food additives
E170 Calcium carbonate, (colour: white, firming agent), (excess may cause intestinal problems)
E356 Sodium adipate, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E520 Aluminium sulfate, (firming agent, bulking agent, modifier)
E521 Aluminium sodium sulfate, (buffer, firming agent), (Health risk, contact skin rash)
E522 Aluminium potassium sulfate, (buffer, firming agent)
E526 Calcium hydroxide, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E578 Calcium gluconate, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E356 Sodium adipate, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E521 Aluminium sodium sulfate, (buffer, firming agent), (Health risk, contact skin rash)
E522 Aluminium potassium sulfate, (buffer, firming agent)
E526 Calcium hydroxide, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E578 Calcium gluconate, (acidity regulator, firming agent)
E530 Magnesium oxide, (anti-caking agent, firming agent)

19.4.16 Flavourings, flavour enhancing agents, food additives
E150b Caustic sulfite caramel, (colour: dark brown to black), (flavour enhancer), (Health risk, hyperactivity)
E210 Benzoic acid, (preservative), (flavouring)
E330 Citric acid, (acidity regulator, flavouring)
E363 Succinic acid, (Sodium fumarate), (Banned in some countries), (acidity regulator, flavour enhancer)
E579 Ferrous gluconate, (flavour enhancer, colour retention agent), (Health risk, intestinal problems)
E620 Glutamic acid, (flavour enhancer, antioxidant)
E621 Monosodium glutamate, (Monosodium L-glutamate), (restricted, not for infants), (from molasses fermentation), (used for
canned and frozen foods, Chinese restaurant food), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, bronchospasms, irritation, affects asthmatics),
(flavour enhancer)
E622 Monopotassium glutamate, (Monopotassium L-glutamate), (flavour enhancer), (Health risk, nausea, asthma, hyperactivity,
bronchospasms, irritation), (as low sodium table salt substitute)
E623 Calcium diglutamate, (Calcium di-L-glutamate), (flavouring), (as low sodium table salt substitute)
E624 Monoammonium glutamate, (Mono-ammonium L-glutamate), (flavouring), (as low sodium table salt substitute)
E625 Magnesium diglutamate, (Magnesium di-L-glutamate), (flavouring), (as low sodium table salt substitute)
E626 Guanylic acid, (flavour enhancer), (Health risk, may trigger gout)
E627 Disodium guanylate, (from sardines or yeast), (restricted, not for infants), (flavouring), (Health risk, may trigger gout)
E628 Dipotassium guanylate, (flavour enhancer)
E629 Calcium guanylate, (flavour enhancer), (Health risk, may trigger gout)
E630 Inosinic acid, (flavour enhancer)
E631 Disodium inosinate, (flavouring)
E632 Dipotassium inosinate, (flavour enhancer)
E633 Calcium inosinate, (flavour enhancer)
E634 Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides, (flavouring)
E635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides, (Banned in some countries), (flavouring), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, itchy skin), (in packets
of potato chips, instant noodles, pies)
E636 Maltol, (from bark of larch tree, Larix, roasted malt, or synthetic), (flavouring)
E637 Ethyl maltol, (from maltol), (flavouring)
E640 Glycine and its sodium salt, (flavour enhancer)
E650 Zinc acetate, (flavour enhancer)
E912 Montan acid esters, (surface coating of medicine tablets)
E927b Carbamide, urea, (browning agent for surface of pretzels, deodorizer)
E951 Aspartame, (from phenylalanine and aspartic acid), (artificial sweetener, flavour enhancer), e.g. "Nutrisweet", (Health risk,
hyperactivity, nervous disorders, teratogenic)
E952 Cyclamic acid, also Na and Ca cyclamates, (artificial sweetener, flavour enhancer), (Health risk, migraine headache, skin
conditions and cancer)
E957 Thaumatin, (artificial sweetener, flavour enhancer)
E999 Quillaia extract, (from soap bark tree Quillaja saponaria)
E1101 Proteases: papain, bromelain, ficin, enzymes, (stabilizer, flour treatment agent, tenderizer, flavour enhancer)
E1104 Lipases enzyme, (flavouring)

19.4.17 Flour treatment agents, food additives
E223 Sodium metabisulfite, (preservative, flour treatment agent), (Health risk, asthma, dermatitis)
E517 Ammonium sulfate, (flour treatment agent, stabilizer)
E920 L-cysteine monohydrochloride, (from hair and feathers), (flour treatment agent) [Also, cystine]
E924 Potassium bromate, (flour treatment agent), (Health risk, nausea, diarrhoea)
E1100 Amylases Enzyme, (from mushroom or pig pancreas), (flour treatment agents)
E1101 Proteases: papain, bromelain, ficin, enzymes, (flour treatment agent, stabilizer, tenderizer, flavour enhancer)

19.4.18 Food acids, food additives
E260 Acetic acid, glacial acetic acid, glacial), (from wood fibres), (food acid, buffer), (vinegar), (in pickles)
E263 Calcium acetate, (food acid, firming agent), (used to make vinegar, dyes, mordants)
E264 Ammonium acetate, (food acid), (Health risk, nausea)
E270 Lactic acid, (food acid, preservative), (from carbohydrates), (acidity regulator), (Health risk, some babies cannot digest it),
(in sweets, soft drinks, baby food)
E283 Potassium propionate, (preservative)
E297 Fumaric acid, (from Fumaria officianalis, or fungal fermentation of glucose), (food acid, antioxidant, raising agent, flavouring),
(in soft drinks, cake mixes)
E327 Calcium lactate, (food acid, buffer), (as with E325)
E330 Citric acid, (from citrus fruit), (food acid, acidity regulator, flavouring), (in infant formula, processed cheese, soft drinks)
E331 Sodium citrates, (food acid, acidity regulator, emulsifier)
E332 Potassium citrates, (food acid, acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E333 Calcium citrate, (food acid, buffer)
E334 Tartaric acid, (from grape juice, unripe fruit) [L-, (+)], (food acid, antioxidant)
E335 Sodium tartrate, (food acid)
E336 Potassium tartrate, (food acid)
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate, (food acid)
E338 Phosphoric acid, (food acid, acidity regulator), (in processed cheese)
E342 Ammonium phosphates, (emulsifier, stabilizer)
E343 Magnesium phosphate, (mineral salt, anti-caking agent), (in table salt substitutes)
E349 Ammonium malate, (food acid)
E352 Calcium malates, (IDL-calcium malates, (buffer, firming agent)
E355 Adipic acid, (food acid, raising agent, buffer)
E366 Potassium fumarate, (food acid)
E367 Calcium fumarate, (food acid)
E368 Ammonium fumarate, (food acid)
E380 Tri-ammonium citrate, (food acid, acidity regulator), (Health risk, liver and pancreas problems)
E381 Ammonium ferric citrate, ferric ammonium citrate, (from citric acid), (food acid), (dietary iron supplement), (in breakfast cereals,
diet formulae)
E929 Magnesium lactate, (food acid)
E3120 Sodium fumarate, (salt of fumaric acid)
E355 Adipic acid, (food acid, raising agent, buffer)

19.4.19 Glazing agents, food additives
E901 Beeswax, white and yellow, (glazing agent, release agent), (used to wax fruit)
E902 Candelilla wax, (glazing agent, emollient)
E903 Carnauba wax, (from palm), (glazing agent), (used to wax fruit, cosmetics)
E904 Shellac, (from insects) bleached, (glazing agent), (Health risk, skin irritation)
E905 Paraffins, microcrystalline wax, (glazing agent), (Health risk, inhibit nutrient absorption in the intestine), (used for sweets, tablets,
dried fruit)
E905a Mineral oil white, (glazing agent)
E905b Petrolatum, (glazing agent)
E907 Refined microcrystalline wax, (Banned in some countries)
E913 Lanolin, (from sheep wool)

19.4.20 Humectants, bulking agents, food additives
E200 Sorbic acid, (preservative, humectant)
E325 Sodium lactate, (from milk, salt of lactic acid), (humectant, bulking agent), (Health risk, lactose intolerance children)
E326 Potassium lactate, (humectant, bulking agent, acidity regulator), (Health risk, problems with lactose intolerance children)
E328 Ammonium lactate, (humectant, bulking agent), (Health risk, problems with lactose intolerance children)
E329 Magnesium lactate, (humectant, bulking agent), (Health risk, problems with lactose intolerance children)
E350 Sodium malates, (DL-sodium malates), (acidity regulator, humectant)
E914 Oxidized Polyethylene wax, (humectant)
E965 Maltitol and maltitol syrup, (from maltose), (sweetener, humectant, stabilizer)
E966 Lactitol, (from milk sugar), (sweetener, texturizer, humectant)
E967 Xylitol, (from wood, plums, lettuce), (stabilizer, humectant), (in sweets, ice cream, jam)
E421 Mannitol, (from seaweed), (restricted to not infant food), (artificial sweetener, thickener, vegetable gum, humectant), (Health risk,
hypersensitivity, nausea, diarrhoea), (in low calorie foods)
E422 Glycerol, (Glycerine), (from fats or petroleum), (humectant and sweetener), (in sausage coating, dried fruit, liquors)
E1200 Polydextrose, (humectant)
E1518 Glyceryl triacetate, triacetin, (vegetable gum, humectant, solvent), (used to "wax" fruit)
E1520 Propan-1,2-diol, propylene glycol, (humectant, solvent, wetting agent, dispersing agent), (Health risk, contact dermatitis),
(in medications and deodorants), humectant, solvent, wetting agent, dispersing agent
E9120 Maltitol, hydrogenated glucose syrup, (humectant), (in sweets, diet foods, ice cream)

19.4.21 Mineral salts, food additives
E170 Calcium carbonate, (mineral salt)
E339 Sodium phosphates, (acidity regulator, emulsifier, mineral salt), (Health risk, high intakes cause Ca/ P problems), (as laxative,
textile fixing agent)
E340 Potassium phosphates, (mineral salt, acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E341 Calcium phosphate, (mineral salt), (Antacid, enamel polishing agent)
E343 Magnesium phosphate, (mineral salt, anti-caking agent), (in table salt substitutes)
E450 Diphosphates, (Sodium and potassium pyrophosphates), (mineral salt)
E451 Triphosphates, (Sodium and potassium tripolyphosphates), (mineral salt), (STPP, sodium tripolyphosphate, Food Grade),
(SHMP, sodium hexametaphosphate, Food Grade), (SAPP, sodium acid pyrophosphate, Food Grade)
E452 Polyphosphates, (Sodium and potassium metaphosphates, polymetaphosphates and polyphosphates), (mineral salt)
E459 Beta-cyclodextrin
E500 Sodium carbonates, (mineral salt)
E501 Potassium carbonates, (mineral salt)
E503 Ammonium carbonates, (mineral salt), (Health risk, irritate mucous membranes)
E504 Magnesium carbonate (mineral salt, anti-caking agent), (Antacid, laxative)
E508 Potassium chloride, (mineral salt), (Health risk, excess causes gastric ulcers)
E509 Calcium chloride, (mineral salt)
E510 Ammonium chloride, (mineral salt), (Health risk, problems if liver or kidney malfunctions), (used for flours)
E511 Magnesium chloride, (mineral salt)
E514 Sodium sulfate, (mineral salt), (Health risk, water balance problems)
E515 Potassium sulfate, (mineral salt)
E516 Calcium sulfate Flour treatment agent, (mineral salt)
E518 Magnesium sulfate, (mineral salt), (as a laxative)
E519 Copper, (II) sulfate, cupric sulfate, (mineral salt)
E526 Calcium hydroxide, (mineral salt)
E529 Calcium oxide, (mineral salt)

19.4.22 Packaging gases, propellants, food additives
E290 Carbon dioxide, (propellant), (in soft drinks, aerated waters)
E931 Nitrogen, (in freezing, packaging, freeze drying)
E932 Nitrous oxide
E938 Argon, (packaging gas)
E939 Helium, (packaging gas, propellant)
E941 Nitrogen, (propellant)
E942 Nitrous oxide, (propellant)
E943a Butane, (propellant, solvent)
E943b Iso-butane, (propellant)
E944 Propane, (propellant, aerator)
E948 Oxygen, (packaging gas)
E949 Hydrogen gas, (packaging gas)

19.4.23 Preservatives, food additives
E200 Sorbic acid, (from berries or ketene), (preservative, humectant), (Health risk, skin irritant)
E201 Sodium sorbate, (preservative, antifungal)
E202 Potassium sorbate, (preservative)
E203 Calcium sorbate, (preservative)
E210 Benzoic acid, phenylcarboxylic acid, (from benzoin resin), (preservative, flavouring), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity), (in
foods, cough medicine, anti fungal)
E211 Sodium benzoate, (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity), (as taste improver in orange drink, medicines, e.g. Tylenol)
E212 Potassium benzoate, (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, intestinal problems)
E213 Calcium benzoate, (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity)
E214 Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate, (Banned in some countries), (preservative) Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity)
E215 Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate, (Banned in some countries), (preservative) Health risk, asthma, mouth numbness, allergy)
E216 Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, (propylparaben, Nipagin A), (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, skin allergy)
E217 Sodium p-hydroxybenzoate, (Banned in some countries), (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, skin allergy)
E218 Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, (methylparaben, Nipagin B), (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, skin allergy)
E219 Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, (Banned in some countries), (preservative)
E220 Sulfur dioxide, (from coal tar or combustion of S), (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, destroys vitamins A and B1), (in soft
drinks, dried fruit, wine)
E221 Sodium sulfite, (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, skin problems, destroys vitamin B1) in fresh orange juice as decontaminating
agent)
E222 Sodium hydrogen sulfite, (Sodium bisulfite), (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, mouth numbness, allergy), (in soft drinks, dried
fruit, wine)
E223 Sodium metabisulfite, (preservative, flour treatment agent), (Health risk, asthma, dermatitis), (in soft drinks, dried fruit, wine)
E224 Potassium metabisulfite, (preservative, antioxidant), (Health risk, allergy reaction to asthma, hyperactivity), (in soft drinks, dried
fruit, wine)
E225 Potassium sulfite, (preservative, antioxidant), (may asthma, hyperactivity, behavioural problems), (in soft drinks, dried fruit, wine)
E226 Calcium sulfite, (Banned in some countries), (preservative, firming agent), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, intestinal problems)
E227 Calcium hydrogen sulfite, (Banned in some countries), (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity)
E228 Potassium hydrogen sulfite, potassium bisulfite, (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity, intestinal problems), (in soft
drinks, dried fruit, wine)
E230 Biphenyl, diphenyl, (Banned in some countries), (preservative), (Health risk, irritation), (in citrus industry)
E231 Orthophenyl phenol, (Banned in some countries), (preservative), (nausea, convulsions, vomiting, carcinogenic), (in fruit industry)
E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol, (preservative, anti fungal), (Health risk, vomiting, convulsions, irritation, photosensitivity), (in fruit
industry)
E233 Thiabendazole, (Banned in some countries), (in citrus, meat, milk industries)
E234 Nisin, (antibiotic from bacteria, from beer), (preservative), (in processed cheese, tomato sauce)
E235 Natamycin, pimaricin, (from Streptomyces nataiensis), (Health risk, nausea, skin irritation, intestinal problems), (anti fungal),
(as mould inhibitor, may treat candidiasis)
E239 Hexamethylene tetramine, (Banned in some countries), (preservative), (Health risk, irritation, intestinal problems)
E250 Sodium nitrite, (Banned, some countries, not allowed in baby food), (preservative, colour fixative), (Health risk, nausea,
headaches)
E251 Sodium nitrate, (Banned, some countries, not allowed in baby food), (preservative, colour fixative), (Health risk, nausea,
headaches),
(used to preserve meat)
E252 Potassium nitrate, (Banned in some countries), (preservative), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity), (used to preserve meat)
E261 Potassium acetate, (acidity regulator, preservative), (Health risk, affects damaged kidneys), (in sauces, pickles)
E262 Sodium acetate, (Sodium diacetate), (acidity regulator, preservative)
E280 Propionic acid, (in fermented foods, perspiration, or from ethylene), (preservative), (Health risk, migraine headaches), (in bread,
pastry)
E281 Sodium propionate, (preservative), (Health risk, migraine headaches), (in pastry)
E282 Calcium propionate, (preservative, anti fungal, mould inhibitor), (as in E281)
E283 Potassium propionate
E284 Boric acid, (preservative), (may be poisonous)
E285 Sodium tetraborate, Borax, (preservative), (not allowed most countries), (toxic, may cause skin problems)
E300 Ascorbic acid, (vitamin C), (antioxidant, preservative)
E302 Calcium ascorbate, (antioxidant, preservative)
E304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, (Ascorbyl palmitate), (antioxidant, preservative)
E315 Erythorbic acid, (from sugar), (antioxidant, preservative), (Health risk, allergic reactions)
E320 Butylated hydroxy anisole, BHA, (from petroleum), (Banned in some countries), (antioxidant, preservative), (Health risk, asthma,
hyperactivity)
E321 Butylated hydroxy toluene, BHT Sweeteners, (Banned in some countries), (Health risk, asthma, hyperactivity), (antioxidant,
preservative)
E1105 Lysozyme, enzyme, (preservative)

19.4.25 Sweeteners, food additives
E420 Sorbitol, Sorbitol syrup, (from glucose in berries or synthesized, (artificial sweetener, bulking agent, humectant)
E421 Mannitol, (from seaweed), (restricted to not infant food), (artificial sweetener, thickener, vegetable gum, humectant), (Health risk,
hypersensitivity, nausea, diarrhoea), (in low calorie foods)
E422 Glycerol, (Glycerine), (from fats or petroleum), (humectant and sweetener), (in sausage coating, dried fruit, liquors)
E950 Acesulfame K, (Acesulfame potassium), (synthetic chemical), (artificial sweetener), (Health risk, tumours.)
E951 Aspartame, (from phenylalanine and aspartic acid), (artificial sweetener, flavour enhancer), e.g. "Nutrisweet", (Health risk,
hyperactivity, nervous disorders, migraine headaches)
E952 Cyclamic acid, also Na and Ca cyclamates, (artificial sweetener, flavour enhancer), (Health risk, migraine headache, skin
conditions and cancer)
E953 Isomalt, (from sugar), (thickener, sweetener)
E954 Saccharines, also Na and Ca saccharin, (from toluene), (Banned, some countries, sometimes ban lifted if labelled clearly),
(artificial sweetener), (may be tetragenic, may cause cancer)
E955 Sucrulose, (synthetic from sugar and chlorine), (artificial sweetener)
E956 Alitame, (artificial sweetener)
E957 Thaumatin, (protein from plant Thaumococcus danielli, (artificial sweetener, flavour enhancer), (used with wine, bread, fruit)
E959 Neohesperidine DC
E962 Salt of aspartame-acesulfame, (sweeteners, emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents), (Health risk, tumours)
E965 Maltitol and maltitol syrup, (from maltose), (sweetener, humectant, stabilizer)
E966 Lactitol, (from milk sugar), (sweetener, texturizer, humectant)
E967 Xylitol, (from wood), (stabilizer, humectant)

19.4.26 Stabilizers, thickeners, food additives
Stabilizers and thickeners are added to improve the texture and blends of foods, e.g. carrageenan, (E407, from seaweed used in icings,
frozen desserts, salad dressing, whipped cream, confectionery, and cheeses.
E400 Alginic acid, (vegetable gum), (thickener, emulsifier)
E332 Potassium citrates, (acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E336 Potassium tartrates, (acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate, (Potassium sodium tartrate), (acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E340 Potassium phosphate, (mineral salt, acidity regulator, stabilizer)
E406 Agar, (from red algae), (vegetable gum), (thickener, emulsifier)
E407 Carrageenan, (vegetable gum, thickener), (Health risk, intestinal problems)
E407a Processed Eucheuma seaweed, (stabilizer, thickener)
E417 Tara gum, (from Caesalpinia spinosa), (vegetable gum, thickener, stabilizer)
E418 Gellan gum, (emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener) in soya milk for soy protein suspension
E421 Mannitol, (from seaweed), (restricted to not infant food), (artificial sweetener, thickener, vegetable gum, humectant), (Health risk,
hypersensitivity, nausea, diarrhoea), (in low calorie foods)
E469 Enzymatically hydrolysed carboxy methylcellulose, (stabilizer, thickener), (Health risk, intestinal problems)
E517 Ammonium sulfate, (stabilizer, flour treatment agent)
E523 Aluminium ammonium sulfate, (stabilizer, buffer), (Health risk, mouth irritation)
E577 Potassium gluconate, (stabilizer)
E953 Isomalt, (from sugar), (thickener, sweetener)
E962 Salt of aspartame-acesulfame, (stabilizers, thickeners, sweeteners, emulsifiers, gelling agents), (Health risk, tumours)
E965 Maltitol and maltitol syrup, (from maltose), (stabilizer, sweetener, humectant)
E1101 Proteases: papain, bromelain, ficin, enzymes, (stabilizer, flour treatment agent, tenderizer, flavour enhancer)
E1103 Invertase, (stabilizer, processing aid)
E1201 Polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, povidone, (stabilizer, clarifying agent, dispersing agent, binding agent, e.g. povidone-iodine
complex,
(PVD-iodine), e.g. "Betadine", (Health risk, dermatitis, carcinogenic)
E1202 Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, (synthetic protein), (stabilizer, clarifying agent), (Health risk, dermatitis, carcinogenic)
E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate, (vegetable gum), (thickener, stabilizer), (may be danger to infants)
E1420 Acetylated starch, (starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride), (vegetable gum, thickener), (may be danger to infants)
E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate, (vegetable gum), (thickener, stabilizer)
E1451 Acetylated oxidized starch, polyethylene glycol 6000, (stabilizer, thickener), (may be danger to infants)

19.4.27 Vegetable gums, food additives
E400 Alginic acid, (from seaweed), (vegetable gum, thickener, emulsifier), (in flavoured milk, ice blocks, yoghurt)
E401 Sodium alginate, (vegetable gum, thickener, emulsifier), (in flavoured milk, ice blocks, yoghurt)
E402 Potassium alginate, (vegetable gum, thickener, emulsifier), (in flavoured milk, ice blocks, yoghurt)
E403 Ammonium alginate, (vegetable gum, thickener, emulsifier), (in flavoured milk, ice blocks, yoghurt)
E404 Calcium alginate, (vegetable gum, thickener, emulsifier), (in flavoured milk, ice blocks, yoghurt)
E405 Propane-1, 2-diol alginate, (propylene glycol alginate), (vegetable gum, thickener)
E406 Agar, (from red seaweed), (vegetable gum, thickener, emulsifier), (in laxatives, meat products, ice cream)
E407 Carrageenan, (seaweed fibre), (vegetable gum, thickener), (Health risk, intestinal problems, carcinogenic if degraded or impure)
E409 Arabino galactan, thickener, (vegetable gum)
E410 Locust bean gum, carob gum, (from Ceratonia siliqua), (vegetable gum), (in sweets, fruit drinks, chocolate substitute)
E412 Guar gum, (from Cyamopsis tetragonobolus), (vegetable gum), (Health risk, nausea, cramps, flatulence), (as animal feed)
E413 Gum tragacanth, (from Astragalus gummifer), (vegetable gum), (Health risk, contact allergy), (in foods, medicines,
cosmetics)
E414 Acacia gum, gum arabic, (from Acacia senegal), (vegetable gum), (Health risk, skin rash), (in soothing medicines)
E415 Xanthan gum, (from corn sugar fermentation), (vegetable gum)
E416 Karaya gum, (from Sterculia urens), (vegetable gum, thickener), (used with E410 in ice cream, sweets)
E417 Tara gum, (from Caesalpinia spinosa), (vegetable gum, thickener, stabilizer)
E421 Mannitol, (from seaweed), (restricted to not infant food), (artificial sweetener, thickener, vegetable gum, humectant), (Health risk,
hypersensitivity, nausea, diarrhoea), (in low calorie foods)
E440 Pectins, pectin, (from apple skin), (vegetable gum, thickener), (used to thicken jams, sauces)
E461 Methyl cellulose, (vegetable gum), (Health risk, intestinal problems)
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose, (Banned in some countries)
E464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, (vegetable gum)
E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose, (methyl ethyl cellulose), (vegetable gum)
E466 Carboxy methyl cellulose, (sodium carboxy methylcellulose), (vegetable gum), (Health risk, intestinal problems)
E470 Fatty acids salts, (Banned in some countries)
E1400 Dextrin roasted starch, (vegetable gum)
E1401 Acid treated starch, (vegetable gum)
E1402 Alkaline treated starch, (vegetable gum)
E1403 Bleached starch, (vegetable gum)
E1404 Oxidized starch, (vegetable gum)
E1405 Enzyme-treated starches, (vegetable gum)
E1410 Monostarch phosphate, (vegetable gum)
E1412 Distarch phosphate, (vegetable gum)
E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate, (vegetable gum)
E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate, (vegetable gum), (thickener, stabilizer), (may be danger to infants)
E1420 Acetylated starch, (starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride), (vegetable gum, thickener), (may be danger to infants)
E1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate, (vegetable gum)
E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate, (vegetable gum), (thickener, stabilizer)
E1440 Hydroxy propyl starch, (vegetable gum)
E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate, (vegetable gum)
E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate, (vegetable gum)
E1505 Triethyl citrate, (vegetable gum), (by-product changes to alcohol in body metabolism)
E1518 Glyceryl triacetate, triacetin, (vegetable gum, humectant, solvent), (used to "wax" fruit)
E4120 Ethyl methyl cellulose