School Science Lessons
Angiosperms, and other common plants, common names first
Thes plants are mentioned in the School Science Lessons website
2014-09-28
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

9.2.3  List of angiosperm plants in School Science Lessons website, common names first
| A. |B. | C. | D. | E. | F. | G. | H. | I. | J. | K. | L. | M. | N. | O. | P. | Q. | R. | S. | T. | U. | V. | W. | X. | Y. | Z. |
1.0 Native Australian fruits with potential for development
9.2.1 Plant classification, all plants

A.
acacia, gum arabic tree, Acacia nilotica
African violet, Usambara violet, (Saintpaulia ionantha): 4.3.1
aibika, hibiscus cabbage, musk mallow, Pacific cabbage, bele, pele, Abelmoschus manihot, (Hibiscus manihot), Malvaceae
albizia, (cocoa shade, fuel wood tree), Albizia
aloe, herbal aloe, Aloe vera
almond, sweet almond, Prunus dulcis, (Prunus amygdalus, Amygdalus communis)
amaranth, love-lies-bleeding, careless weed, green stripe, prostrate pigged, Amaranthus albus
American eel grass, Vallisneria Americana, Hydrocharitaceae, (tape grass family, monocotyledon)
anemone, pasque flower, Anemone vulgaris
Anthoceros, ("flower horn", Horn wort, Bryophyte), Anthoceros neesii
apple, common apple, Malus, X domestica
apple, crab apple, wild apple, Malus sylvestris
apricot, Prunus armeniaca, (Armeniaca vulgaris)
areca palm, betel palm, Areca catechu
arrowhead, Sagittaria sagittifolia
arrowroot, Maranta arundinacea
arum lily, Zantedeschia aethiopica
ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior
aspen tree, European aspen tree, Populus tremula
autumn crocus Colchicum autumnale, Liliaceae
avocado, Persea gratissima, (Persea americana)
axillaris, Macrotyloma axillare
azalea, pink azalea, (Rhododendron subgenus azaleastrum), Rhododendron periclymenoides
Azolla, water fern, duckweed fern, floating fern, mosquito fern, N-fixing symbiotic cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae, within leaf cavities, biofertilizer, Pteridophyta, Family Azollaceae
Azolla filiculoides, Pacific azolla
Azolla pinnata, ferny azolla

B.
bamboo, common bamboo, Bambusa vulgaris
banana, edible banana, Musa acuminata
banksia, coastal banksia, Banksia integrifolia
barley, cereal. Hordeum vulgare
basella, Ceylon spinach, Basella alba
batiki blue grass, smut grass, Ischaemum indicum
bean, adzuki bean, red bean use in Chinese bean paste, Phaseolus angularis, (Vigna angularis)
bean, beach bean, Canavalia rosea
bean, broad bean, fava bean, horse bean, field bean, tic bean, Windsor bean, vetch, tare, hairy vetch, Vicia faba
bean, common bean, French bean, haricot bean, field bean, snap bean, string bean, wax bean, caraota, poroto, Phaseolus vulgaris
bean, jack bean, common jack bean, pig bean, wonder bean, horse bean, ("awikiwiki, the quick one" Hawaiian name, origin of "wikipedia"), Canavalia ensiformis, Fabaceae,
bean, sword bean, Canavalia gladiata, (C. cathartica), Fabaceae
bean, lavafield jack bean (also "awikiwiki"), Canavalia pubescens, Fabaceae
beach bean, bay bean, wild jack bean, Canavalia rosea, Fabaceae
bean, lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, (Phaseolus limensis)
bean, scarlet runner bean, runner bean, potato bean, white Dutch runner bean, Phaseolus coccineus
Bermuda couch, Cynodon dactylon
beech tree, Fagus sylvatica
beet, red beetroot, table beet, garden beet, red beet, Beta vulgaris
begonia, scarlet begonia, Begonia coccinea
betel palm, areca palm, betel nut, Areca catechu
betel pepper, (leaf eaten with betel palm nut), Piper betle
bindweed, scammony, dwarf morning glory, field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis
birch tree, silver birch, European birch, Betula pendula
bird chilli, Capsicum frutescens
bird’s foot trefoil, (legume), Lotus corniculatus
bird's nest orchid, Neottia nidus-avis
birdwood grass, Cenchrus setigerus
bitter cucumber, bitter gourd, balsam pear, Momordica charantia
blackberry, (bramble), Rubus fructicosus
black currant, European black currant, Ribes nigrum
black pepper, Piper nigrum
bladder wort, leafy bladder wort, Utricularia foliosa
blueberry, highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum
bok choy, pak choy, Brassica campestris
bossiaea, (reduced leaves, cladode), Bossiaea foliosa
bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria
bracken fern, western bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum
breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis
broad bean, fava bean field bean, bell bean, tic bean, Vicia faba
broomrape, choke weed, (leafless root parasite), Orobanche ramosa
broomweed, prairie broom weed, Amphiachyris dracunculoides
bryony, white bryony, English mandrake, kua-lou, ladies' seal, Bryonia dioica
buffel grass, (cultivar: Biloela), Cenchrus ciliaris
bulbil yam, potato yam, aerial yam, air potato, wild yam, Dioscorea bulbifera
burrawang palm, (Cycad, Cycadophyta), Macrozamia communis
busy lizzie, garden balsam, Impatiens balsamina, (I. sultani, I. walleriana)
butcher's broom, ruscus, knee holly, Ruscus aculeatus
buttercup, meadow buttercup, Ranunculus acris
butterfly pea, flor de conchitas, Centrosema pubescens
butter wort, (carnivorous), Pinguicula acris
byfield fern, cycad fern, Bowenia spectabilis
C.
cabbage, Brassica oleracea
calopo grass, Calopogonium mucunoides
camomile, chamomile. blue camomile, German camomile, may weed (used for camomile tea), Matricaria recutita
camomile, Roman camomile, dog fennel, Anthemis nobilis
camphor, camphor laurel, Cinnamomum camphora
Canadian pondweed, Elodea canadensis
Canadian waterweed, Elodea canadensis, (Anacharis), Hydrochariataceae, (tape grass family, monocotyledon)
Canadian turnip, rutabaga, swede, turnip, Brassica napus
canna, canna lily, Canna amabilis
cantaloupe melon, Cucumis melo
canola, (from Canada + oleum), (rapeseed cultivars), oil seed rape, Brassica napus X Brassica campestris
cape primrose, Streptocarpus
capsicum, If hot: chilli, chillies, chilli peppers, hot peppers, tabasco pepper (chilli, chile peppers in USA) chile, guindilla, Capsicum annuum
capsicum, If not hot: capsicums, bell peppers, peppers, sweet peppers, green peppers, red peppers, pimiento, ají, Capsicum annuum
capsicum, bird chilli, Capsicum frutescens
carambola, star fruit, five corners, Averrhoa carambola
cardboard palm, (Cycad), Zamia furfuracea
carnation, pink, clove pink, malmaison, sops-in-wine, gillyvor, gillyflower, carnation, pinks, sweet william, ornamental, Dianthus caryophllus
carob tree, St. John's bread, Ceratonia siliqua
carrageenans, Irish "moss", kelp, (in cough mixtures, Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta), Chondrus crispus
carribean, Stylosanthes hamata
carrot, Daucus carota
cashew tree, cashew nut tree, Anarcardium occidentale
cassava, tapioca, Manihot esculenta
cassia tree, senna of Cassia, golden shower, (cassia bark, cooking herb), Cinnamomum cassia
castor oil plant, castor bean, Ricinus communis
cathedral bells, Kalanchoe pinnata
cauliflower, (flowered cabbage), collard, cabbage, kale, kai-lan, Brussels sprout (cabbage-like buds), kohlrabi, broccoli, Brassica oleracea var.
cedar, incense cedar, Calocedrus decurrens
celery, celeriac, (crisp leaf stalks), Apium graveolens
centro grass, Centrosema pubescens
ceratium, (dinoflagellate, colours the upper ocean red), Ceratium macroceros
cereals, cereal grains, (from grasses), Poaceae
chara, musk grass, stone wort, (Algae), Chara tomentosa
cherry, Japanese flowering cherry, (cherry blossom), Prunus serrulata
cherry, sweet cherry, Prunus avium
cherry, sour cherry, Prunus cerasus
cherry, wild cherry, black cherry, Prunus serotina.
chick pea, garbanzo bean, Indian pea, cecci bean, Bengal gram, Cicer arietinum
chick weed, star wort, common chick weed, Stellaria media
chilli, chillies, chilli peppers, chile peppers, Capsicum annuum
chilli, bird chilli, Capsicum frutescens
Chinese cabbage, bak choi, turnip, rapini, Brassica rapa, (Brassica chinensis)
Chinese gooseberries, Actinidia chinensis
Chinese lantern, Quincula lobata
Chinese lantern, Abutilon
Chinese taro, tannia, tana, kong kong taro, cocoyam, Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Chinese yam, cinnamon vine, shan-yao, Dioscorea batatas
chives, Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum
chlamydomonas, (Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
choko, chatote, vegetable peat, Sechium edule
Christmas fern, shield fern, sword fern, Polystichum acrostichoides
chrysanthemum, (Leucanthemum), daisy, Chrysanthemum majus
chrysanthemum, X grandiflora, florist's chrysanthemum, florist's daisy, (hybrid), Chrysanthemum X morifolium
chrysanthemum, pyrethrum, Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium
cinnamon, (cinnamon stick used as herb), Cinnamomum zeylanicum
citron, Citrus medica
citrus fruit, (agrumes, sour fruits), lime, orange, pomelo, lemon, citron, grapefruit, mandarin, Citrus
clematis, virgin's bower, leather flower, traveller's joy, Clematis brachiata
cleome, spider plant, (flower with very long stamens), Asian spider flower, Cleome viscosa
climbing bean, Phaseolus vulgaris
closterium, (desmid, Phylum Chlorophyta), Closterium cornu
clove, Eugenia caryophyllus
clover, white clover, (trifoliate leaves), Trifolium repens
cluster bean, Astragalus gummifer
cobbler's pegs, (sharp-pointed seeds get in your socks), Bidens pilosa
coca shrub, (leaves stimulant, contains cocaine alkaloid), Erythroxylon novogranatense, (E. coca)
cocoa bean, (used to make chocolate), Theobroma cacao
coconut palm, (a “coconut” is the hard-shelled seed), Cocos nucifera
coffee, arabica coffee, Coffea arabica
coffee, robusta coffee, Coffea canephora
columbine, European columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris
columbus grass, Sorghum almum
comfrey, common comfrey, Symphytum officinale
common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris
conifer, Phylum Pinophyta, gymnosperm, cone-bearing trees
coral tree, Erythrina
corallina, (coral algae, red sea weed, red algae, Phylum Rhodophyta), Corallina officinalis
cordyline, cabbage tree, Cordyline australis
cork, (phellem tissue from cork oak), Quercus suber
corn (USA), Indian corn, maize, Zea Mays
corn (UK), wheat, Triticum
cotton, sea island cotton, Gossypium barbadense
couch grass, Cynodon dactylon
cowpea, black eye pea, southern bean, China pea, Kaffir pea, marble pea, snake bean, yard long bean, Vigna unguiculata
creeping jenny, trailing loose strife, money wort, yellow flowers, Lysimachia nummularia
cress, garden cress (not "watercress") pepper grass, lepidium cress, Lepidium sativum
crocus, Dutch crocus, Crocus vernus
crotalaria, rattle box, shake shake, sunn hemp, Crotalaria indica
cucumber, garden cucumber, Cucumis sativus
cucurbits, Vegetables, pumpkin family, (Cucurbitaceae)
currant, red currant, Ribes rubrum
currant, European black current, Ribes nigrum
custard apple, custard apple, bullock's heart, Annona reticulata, (sweet sop, Annona squamata)
cycad, Phylum Cycadophyta, gymnosperm
sago palm, (not a true monocotyledon palm), fern palm, Cycas pectinata

D.
daffodil, jonquil, narcissus, asphodel, lent lily, Narcissus pseudonarcissus
dahlia, red dahlia, Dahlia coccinea
daisy, oxeye daisy, "day's eye", Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, (Leucanthemum vulgare)
daisy. lawn daisy, Bellis perennis
dandelion, common dandelion, Taraxacum officinale
date palm, Phoenix dactylifera
dawsonia, Dawsonia, Moss, Phylum Bryophyta
deadly nightshade, Atropa belladonna
dead nettle, (not a nettle and does not sting), henbit, white dead nettle, Lamium album
derris, Derris elliptica
desmodium grass, green leaf desmodium, Desmodium intortum
desmodium grass, silver leaf desmodium, Desmodium uncinatum
devil's twine, (leafless parasite), Cassytha glabella
dictyota, (Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta), Dictyota dichotoma
dinobryon, (Golden Brown algae, Chrysophyta, Chrysophyceae), Dinobryon bavaricum
dodder, greater dodder, (noxious weed), Cuscuta europea
dog rose, (not rose hip), Rosa canina
dracaena, dragon's blood, Dracaena draco
dryopteris, (ferns, Order Filicales, Phylum Pteridophyta, Pterophyta), Dryopteris
duck weed, common duck weed, Lemna minor
durian, Durio zibethinus

E.
ecklonia, leather kelp, Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta, Ecklonia maxima
ectocarpus, (kelp, hair-like, Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta), Ectocarpus silicosis
edible fern, Takuma
eggplant, brinjal, aubergine, Solanum melongena
elm, American elm tree, Ulmus americana
elm, Chinese elm tree, (invasive), Ulmus parviflora
elodea, Canadian pond weed, water weed, Canadian water weed, Elodea canadensis (Anacharis), Hydrochariataceae
encephalartos, bread palm, Kaffir bread, prickly cycad, Encephalartos ferox
episcia, Episcia
erythrina, machete, cock's spur, coral bean, tiger's claw, Erythrina variegata
eucalyptus, "gum tree", stingy bark, Eucalyptus oblonga
eudorina, (colonial, Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Eudorina elegans
Eugenia, euglena, (euglenoids Euglena, Phylum Euglenophyta, single cell, green, one, two flagella), Euglena viridis
evening primrose, Oenothera biennis

F.
fan palms, Chusan palm, windmill palm, Trachycarpus fortunei
fan worts, Cabomba caroliniana, Cabonbaceae, (water shield family, dicotyledon)
fennel, sweet fennel, Foeniculum vulgare
fescue, Festuca
fig, edible fig tree, Ficus carica
five corners, carambola, star fruit, Averrhoa carambola
flax, common flax, Linum usitatissimum
four o'clock flower, marvel-of-Peru, beauty-of-the-night, Mirabilis jalapa var. albomaculata
frankincense, Boswellia carteri
frangipani, temple tree, pagoda tree, Plumeria rubra
fuchsia, shrubby fuchsia, (hybrid cultivars), Fuchsia paniculata
fume wort, spring fume wort, Corydalis solida
funaria, (moss, Phylum Bryophyta), Funaria hygrometrica

G.
garden cress, Lepidium sativum
garlic, cultivated garlic, Allium sativum
geranium, cranes bill. "true geraniums", hinahina, meadow geranium, Geranium pratense
geranium, "pelargoniums", "popular geraniums", Pelargonium capitatum
gerbera, Transvaal daisy, Barbeton daisy, Gerbera Jamesonii
giant taro, wild taro, kape, elephant's ear, Alocasia macrorrhiza
gigartina, giant marine kelp, (Red algae, Phylum Rhodophyta), Gigartina atropurpurea
ginger, garden ginger, Zingiber officinale
ginger, Japanese ginger, Zingiber mioga
ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba,
ginseng, Panax pseudoginseng
ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Panax ginseng
ginseng, Korean ginseng, elecampane tonic wine, Inula helenium
gladiolus, cornflag, ever flowering gladiolus, Gladiolus tristis
gliricidia, (cocoa shade), Gliricidia
gnetum, (mormon tea, Phylum Gnetophyta), jointfir, buko, Gnetum gnemon
gonium, (colonial algae,Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Gonium pectorale
gooseberry, European gooseberry, Ribes uva-crispa
gorse, furze, common gorse, Ulex europaeus
gourd, bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria
granadilla, purple granadilla, Passiflora edulis
grape, muscadine, wine grape, Vitis vinifera
grapefruit, Citrus X paradisi (C. maxima X C. sinensis)
grass, (Formerly family Gramineae, now family Poaceae), (Cereals, cereal gains, grains are grasses.)
grass, Tropical grasses and pasture legumes: 6.9.6.11
green gram bean, Phaseolus aureus
green panic, Panicum maximum
grevilleas, silky oak (silky oak), Grevillea robusta
ground ivy, alehoof, cat's foot, Glechoma hederacea
groundsel, gray rag wort, Senecio canus
guar tree, Cyamopsis tetragonobolus
guava, mangrove berry, Psidium guajava
Guinea grass, hamil grass, (cultivar: Hamil), Panicum maximum
guarana, Paullinia cupana
gutta-percha, (natural rubber), Palaquium oblongifolium
gymnodinium (Phylum Pyrrophyta, naked dinoflagellate, causes red tide), Gymnodinium galatheanum

H.
hakea, silky hakea, Hakea sericea
hardy orange, Poncirus trifoliata
hawthorn, fireberry hawthorn, Crataegus chrysocarpa
haya blanca, Guatteria caribaea
hazelnut, cobnut, filbert, Corylus cornuta
heather, Calluna vulgaris
hemp fibre plant, Indian hemp, marijuana, Cannabis sativa
hetero grass, johnstone grass, Desmodium heterophyllum
hibiscus, rosemallow, mahoe, Hibiscus lunarifolius
hibiscus cabbage, aibika, bele, pele, Abelmoschus manihot, (Hibiscus manihot)
holly, Ilex
hollyhock, Alcea rosea
honesty, money plant, annual honesty, Lunaria annua
honeydew melon, Cucumis melo indorus
hoop pine, Araucaria cunninghamii
hormosira, Neptune's necklace, sea grapes, bubble weed, (kelp, Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta), Hormosira banksii
horn worts, (Phylum Anthocerotophyta), e.g. Anthoceros, Dendroceros, Felioceros, Notothyles, Phaeoceros
horn worts, (coon's tail), Ceratophyllum demersum, Ceratophyllaceae, (horn wort family, dicotyledon)
horsebean, Vicia faba var. equina
horse chestnut tree, common horse chestnut, conker, buckeye, Aesculus hippocastanum
hyacinth, golden hyacinth, Hyacinthus orientalis
hydrangea, wild hydrangea, Hydrangea arborescens

I.
Indian hemp, Cannabis sativa
iris, blueflag, Iris versicolor
ivory nut palm
ivy, English ivy, Hedera helix
ivy, poison ivy, rhus tree "natural lacquer", Toxicodendron radicans, Anacardiaceae

J.
jackfruit, kathal, jaca, Artocarpus heterophyllus
Jerusalem artichoke, (girasole articiocca), sunflower artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus
jimson weed, Datura stramonium
jonquil, Narcissus jonquilla
jute, Corchorus capsularis
juniper tree, common juniper, Juniperus communis

K.
kamarere, Eucalyptus deglupta
kapok, pochote, Ceiba pentandra
kelp (large sea weeds, Algae, Phaeophyceae, Laminariales), e.g. Ecklonia
ketemfe, Thaumatococcus danielli
kiwi fruit, Actinidia deliciosa
kola nut, Cola acuminata, Cola nitida
koronivia grass, Brachiaria humidicola
kikuyu grass, elphant grass, Pennisetum clandestinum
kudzu, Pueraria montana, var. lobata, (P. lobata)
kurrajong tree, whiteflower kurrajong, Brachychiton populneum

L.
lablab bean, Lablab purpureus
laminaria, olive-brown kelp, Japanese kombu, (Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta), Laminaria ephemera
lantana, Lantana camara
larch trees, tamarack, (Conifers Phylum Pinophyta), European larch, Larix decidua
larkspur, delphinium, staves acre, house wort, two lobe larkspur, Delphinium nuttallianum
lavender, Lavandula angustifolia, (L. officinalis, L. vera)
leek, garden leek, Allium porrum
legumes, Tropical grasses and pasture legumes
lemon
lemon balm, Melissa officinalis
lentil, Lens culinaris
lesser celandine (Ranunculus ficaria)
lesser yam, Dioscorea esculenta
lettuce, Lactuca sativa
leucaena, white leadtree, Leucaena leucocephala
lilac tree, Syringia vulgaris
lily, tiger lily, Lilium lancifolium
lime (fruit), Citrus aurantifolia
linden tree, lime tree, Tilia europaea, (T. cordata X T. platyphyllos)
liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra
loco weed, stagger weed, Astragalus
loofah, sponge gourd, Luffa aegyptiaca
loranthus, mulberry mistletoe, Ramulus loranthis
lotononis, Lotononis bainesii
lotus, sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera
love-in-a-mist, Nigella damascena
lucerne, Medicago sativa
lupine, fleshy lupine, Lupinus affinis
lychee, litchi, Litchi chinensis

M.
macrocystis, bull kelp, giant kelp, (Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta, thickens ice cream), Macrocystis pyrifera
macadamia nut, Queensland nut, Macadamia integrifolia
maidenhair tree, ginkgo, Phylum Ginkgophyta, Ginkgo biloba
maize, corn, sweet corn, Indian corn, Zea mays
malay apple, mountain apple, Syzygium malaccense
male ferns, shield ferns, wood ferns, autumn ferns, southern wood fern, Dryopteris ludoviciana
mallow, common mallow, Malva neglecta
mandarin orange, Citrus reticulata
mandrake, Mandragora officinarum
mango, Mangifera indica
mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana
mangrove, black mangrove, Avicennia germinans
marchantia, (Liverwort, Phylum Hepatophyta), Marchantia foliacia
marigold, French marigold, Tagetes patula
marigold, pot marigold. Calendula officinalis
marijuana, Cannabis sativa
marshmallow, Althaea officinalis,
marsh marigold, cowslip, yellow marsh marigold, Caltha palustris
mastigocladus (thermophilic, lives in hot springs, Blue-green algae, Cyanobacteria), Mastigocladus laminosus
may apple, Podophyllum
meadow sweet, Spirea ulmaria
meyer lemon, Citrus X meyeri
Michaelmas daisy, New England aster, Symphyotrichum novae-angliae
mildew, powdery mildew, (Erysiphales, Phylum Ascomycota, ascomycetes), powdery mildew of grapes, Erysiphe necator
maple, boxelder, sugar maple, Acer saccharum
marrow, squash, kiwano, Cucumis metuliferus
marsilea, (aquatic fern), Marsilea drummondi
melilot, Melilot officinalis
millet, common millet, hog millet, white millet, (white proso millet, birdseed millet), Panicum miliaceum
millet, finger millet, Eleusine coracana
millet, foxtail millet, Setaria italica
millet, pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum
mint, garden mint, Mentha spicata
mung bean, green gram bean, Phaseolus aureus
mistletoe, (monotypic genus, parasite), Loranthus europaeus
money wort, creeping jenny, Lysimachia nummularia
molasses grass, Melinis minutiflora
mosquito fern, water fern, floating fern, Azolla pinnata
moss, (Phylum Bryophyta, Musci), e.g. Catharinea, Dawsonia, Funaria, Mnium, Polytrichum, Sphagnum, Stricta
mother-in-law's tongue, snake plant, Sansevieria trifasciata
mulberry, white mulberry, Morus alba
mung bean, green gram bean, Vigna radiata, (Phaseolus aureus)
musk grass, stone worts, (submerged aquatic plants, Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Chara tomentosa
mustard, brown Indian mustard, Brassica juncea
mustard, black mustard, table mustard, Brassica nigra
mustard, white mustard, yellow mustard, (mustard and cress sandwich), Sinapsis alba, (Brassica alba, Brassica hirta)
myrrh, Commiphora abyssinica

N.
nasturtium, "nose twister", Tropaeolum polyphyllum
natural lacquer Toxicodendron vernicifluum
natural turpentine, Abies balsamea
navicula (boat-shaped diatom, Phylum Bacillariophyta), Navicula tripunctata
nemalion, (Red algae, Phylum Rhodophyta), Nemalion
nereocystis, (giant kelp, Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta, thickens ice cream), Nereocystis luetkaena
nettle, stinging nettle, common nettle, Urtica dioica
nigella, devil in the bush, Spanish fennel, black cumin, Nigella sativa
nipa palm
nitella, Nitella clavata
ngali nut, Canarium
noctiluca, (dinoflagellates Phylum Pyrrophyta), Noctiluca scintillans
nostoc, (Blue-green algae / Cyanobacteria, Phylum Cyanidophyta), Nostoc azollae
nutgrass, flatsedge, Cyperus rotundus
nutmeg, Myristica fragrans

O.
oak trees, English oak, pedunculate oak, Quercus robur
oats, common oat, Avena sativa
ochromonas, (golden / golden brown algae, Phylum Chrysophyta), Ochromonas danica
odontella, (marine diatom, Phylum Bacillariophyta), Odontella
oedogonium, (Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta, Oedogonium, Oedogonium cardiacum
okra, gumbo, lady's finger, lady finger, Abelmoschus esculentus, (Hibiscus esculentus)
oil of wintergreen, Gaultheria procumbens
oil palm, African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis
olax, Olax stricta
oleander, Nerium oleander
olive, Olea europaea
onion, Allium cepa var. cepa
ophiocytium, (Yellow-Green Algae, Phylum Xanthophyta), Ophiocytium apiculatum
opium poppy, Papaver somniferum
orange, sweet orange, Citrus X sinensis
orchid, military orchid, Orchis militaris
Oscillatoria, (Blue-green algae / Cyanobacteria, Phylum Cyanidophyta), Oscillatoria princeps
oxalis, wood sorrel, Oxalis acetosella

P
padina, (Brown algae, Phylum Phaeophyta), Padina pavonica
pandanas
pandorina, (Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Pandorina morum
pangola grass, Digitaria eriantha
pansy,European field pansy, Viola arvensis
para grass, Brachiaria mutica
palms, Family Palmae, monocotyledon, e.g. coconut palm Cocos nucifera, oil palm Elaeis guineensis, betel palm Areca catechu
papaya, pawpaw, Carica papaya
papaya, babaco, (hybrid: C. stipulata X C. pubescens), Carica pentagona
papaya, mountain papaya, Carica pubescens
paperbark tree, Melaleuca alternifolia
paspalum, crown grass, Paspalum hieronymi
para grass, Urochloa mutica
parsley, curly leaf parsley, Petroselinum crispum
parsnip, Pastinaca sativa
passion fruit, passion flower fruit, purple passion fruit, Passiflora edulis
pea, garden pea, table pea, Pisum sativum var. hortense
pea, field pea, (pulse used for dal and green manure), Pisum sativum var. arvense
peach, Prunus persica
peanut, groundnut, Arachis hypogaea
pear, Prunus communis
pelargonium, Pelargonium capitatum
pellia, (Liverworts, Phylum Hepatophyta), Pellia fabroniana
pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium
peperomia, Peperomia
pepper, capsicum, periwinkle, Vinca major (Catharanthus is also called "periwinkle")
persimmon, Diospyros
phasey bean, Macroptilium lathyroides
phlox, Phlox acuminata
pitcher plant, Sarracenia
pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan
pimento, allspice, Pimenta dioica
pimpernel, "scarlet pimpernel", Anagallis arvensis
pine tree, (Conifers, Phylum Pinophyta), Pinus quadrifolia
pineapple, Ananas comosus
pit pit grass, Miscanthus floridulus
pitcher plants, North American pitcher plants, purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea
pitcher plants, East Indian pitcher plant, Nepenthes mirabilis
platycerium (epiphyte) staghorn fern, elkhorn fern, Platycerium Ferns, (Phylum Pteridophyta), Platycerium alcicorne
Pleurococcus, (Protococcus), (algae on bark of trees, most abundant living thing on earth, Phylum Chlorophyta), Pleurococcus vulgaris
pleodorina (aquatic, algal blooms, Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Pleodorina caudata
plicatulum, Paspalum plicatulum
plum, European plum, Prunus domestica
podocarp, plum pines, real yellowwood, kusamaki, mahogany pine, (Conifers, Phylum Pinophyta), Podocarpus comptonii
poinciana, flame of the forest, Delonix regia
poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima
poison ivy, rhus tree "natural lacquer", Toxicodendron radicans, Anacardiaceae
polysiphonia, (Red algae, Phylum Rhodophyta), Polysiphonia, pomegranate, Punica granatum
pomelo, pumelo, Chinese grapefruit, pamplemousse, shaddock, Citrus maxima
poplar, European poplar, American cottonwood tree, Lombardy poplar, Populus nigra
poppy, opium poppy, Papaver somniferum
porphyra, "nori", laver, (Japanese edible sea weed, Red algae, Phylum Rhodophyta), Porphyra tenera
potato, Irish potato, Solanum tuberosum
prickly cycad, bread tree, white-haired cycad, (Cycad, Phylum Cycadophyta), Encephalartos altensteinii
primrose, common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis
primrose, Primula vulgaris
privet, European common hedge plant, Ligustrum vulgare
psilotum, whisk ferns, fork ferns, (Phylum Psilophyta, but may be true fern Pteridophyta), Psilotum nudum
puero, Pueraria phaseoloides
pumpkin, field pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo, ("Australian pumpkin", winter squash, Cucurbita maxima)
purslane, Portulaca australis
pyrethrum, Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium

Q.
quince, Cydonia oblonga
quinine, Cinchona

R.
radish, Raphanus sativus
radish, Raphanus raphanistrum, wild radish, horse radish, radish, herbal remedy, vegetable, Brassicaceae
rafflesia, (the largest flower, plant parasite), Rafflesia arnoldii
rambutan, Nephelia lappaceum
raspberry, red raspberry, Rubus idaeus
rattle pod, lebbeck, woman's tongues tree, Albizia lebbeck
rattlepod, rattlebox, Crotalaria
red clover, Trifolium pratense
redcurrent, red currant, Ribes rubrum
redwood, coast redwood, california redwood, sequoia, giant sequoia, redwood pine, giant redwood, Sequoia sempervirens
Rhodes grass,(cultivar: Callide), Chloris gayana
rhododendron, Rhododendron ponticum
rhodolith, (corraline red algae, Lithothamnium, Phylum Rhodophyta), Lithophyllum margaritae
rockmelon, Cucumis melo reticulatus
riccia, (floating liverwort, Liverworts), Riccia congoana
rice, Oryza sativa
rockmelon, Cucumis melo reticulatus
rose, dog rose, Rosa canina
roselle, rosella, rama, Hibiscus sabdariffa
rowan, mountain ash, wiggentree, witchen, whitebeam, service tree, Sorbus aucuparia
rubber, natural rubber, para rubber, hevea rubber, Hevea brasiliensis
rungia, Rungia pectinata
runner bean, scarlet runner bean, Phaseolus coccineus

S.
sabi grass, Urochloa mosambicensis
sago palm, pearl sago, commercial sago, Metroxylon sagus, (Metroxylon rumphii)
St. John's wort, Hypericum perforatum
salix, weeping willow, (Chinese Peking Willow X European White Willow), Salix × sepulcralis
salvinia, giant water fern, (serious water weed), Salvinia molesta
sandalwood, Santalum paniculatum
sapota, Sapota, (Sapodilla)
sargassum, (Brown algae, kelp, Phylum Phaeophyta), Sargassum natans
screwpine, screw pine, pandanas, Pandanus tectorius
sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnosides
sea lettuce, (Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Ulva lactuca
Securingia, fuelwood tree
selaginella, spike moss, little club moss, peacock moss, queen of the night, (Club moss, Phylum Lycopodiophyta), Selaginella lepidophylla
senna, Egyptian senna, (herbal medicine), Senna alexandrina
sensitive plant, shameplant, Mimosa pudica
sesame, Sesamum indicum
setaria grass, Setaria anceps
shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris
signal grass, (cultivar: Basilisk), Brachiaria decumbens, (Urochloa decumbens)
silverbeet, chard, Swiss chard, Beta vulgaris
siratro, Macroptilium atropurpureum
sisal, Agave sisalana
skeleton weed, (Chondrilla)
snake gourd, snake bean, New Guinea bean, (not a legume), Trichosanthes cucumerina
snapdragon, common snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus
soap bark tree, Quillaja saponaria
Solomon's seal, Polygonatum, X hybridum
sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, (Sorghum vulgare)
soursop
soybean, soya bean, Glycine max
Sphaerella, (Haematococcus, Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Sphaerella platanifolia
spiderflower Cleome
spider wort, wandering jew, Tradescantia pallida
spike moss, Selaginella, spike moss, little club moss, peacock moss, queen of the night, Selaginellaceae, Lycopod, Phylum Lycopodiophyta
spinach, English spinach, Spinacia oleracea
spinfex, (perennial coastal grass), Spinifex longifolius
spirogyra, (spiral chloroplast, Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Spirogyra crassa
spirulina, (edible nutrititous algae), (Blue-green algae / Cyanobacteria, Phylum Cyanidophyta), Spirulina maxima, and Spirulina platensis
spring onion, ramps, wild garlic, ail des bois, Allium tricoccum
spruce, common spruce, Norway spruce, (traditional "Xmas tree"), Picea abies
squash, summer squash, zucchini, Cucurbita pepo
squirting cucumber, Ecballium elaterium
stag horn fern, elkhorn fern, (Ferns, Phylum Pteridophyta), Platycerium bifurcatum
stag's horn club moss, ground pine, (Club moss, Phylum Lycopodiophyta), Lycopodium clavatum
stagger weed, loco weed, Astragalus
star fruit, carambola, five corners, Averrhoa carambola
stangeria, (Cycad, Phylum Cycadophyta), Stangeria eriopsis
stocks, gillyflower, Mathiola incana
strawberry, Fragaria, x ananassa, (cv.)
soursop, Annona muricata
stonecrop, Sedum, Crassulaceae
stylo, Stylosanthes guyanensis
stylo, Townsville stylo, Stylosanthes humilis
stylo, shrubby stylo, Stylosonthes scabra
sugar cane, Saccharum edule, and Saccharum officinarum
sun dew, sundew, Drosera rotundifolia
sunn hemp, rattlebox, Crotalaria juncea, Fabaceae
sunflower, Helianthus annuus
swamp taro, Cyrtosperma chamissonis
sweet pea, sweet pea, grass pea, singletary pea, Lathyrus odoratus
sweet potato, kamara, kau kau, Ipomoea batatas
sycamore tree, English sycamore, European great maple, Scotland plane tree, Acer pseudoplatanus
sycamore, in Bible, sycamore fig, fig mulberry, Ficus sycomorus
sycamore, American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis

T.
tamarind, Indian date, Tamarindus indica
tangerine, Citrus X tangerina
tannia, tana, Chinese taro, Xanthosoma sagittifolium
taro, ordinary taro, common taro, dasheen, Colocasia esculenta, (Arum esculentum, Caladium esculentum, Colocasia antiquorum)
taro, swamp taro, babai, Cyrtosperma chamissonis
taro, Chinese taro, "Kong Kong taro", Tannia, Yautia, "Cocoyam", Xanthosoma sagittifolium
taro, giant taro, wild taro, kape, elephant's ear, Alocasia macrorrhiza
taxus, European yew, Taxus baccata
tea, Camellia sinensis
tea tree, Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia
tea tree Leptospermum
teak Tectona grandis
Terminalia, (forest tree)
Traveller's palm.
thale cress, rock cress, mouse ear cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, (the first plant to have its entire genome sequenced), Arabidopsis thaliana
hanging fork fern, hanging rock fern, Tmesipteris parva
tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum
tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, (Lycopersicon esculentum)
tooth wort, (root parasites), Lathraea squamaria
Tradescantia, spider wort
tree tomato, tamarillo, Cyphomandra betacea
tobacco, cultivated tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum
trefoil, bird's foot trefoil, asparagus pea, winged pea, (many clovers, genus Trifolium, are called trefoils: 3 leaflets), Lotus corniculatus
tribonema, (Yellow Green Algae, Phylum Xanthophyta), Tribonema vulgare
tulip, Tulipa gesneriana
tumeric, Curcuma longa
tung oil tree, Aleurites fordii
turnip, Brassica rapa, var. rapa
turpentine, natural turpentine, Abies balsamea

U.
ulothrix, (Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Ulothrix zonata

V.
valeriant, Valeriana officinalis
vanilla vine, Vanilla planiflora, (V. fragrans)
vaucheria, (Yellow-Green Algae, Phylum Xanthophyta), Vaucheria dispema
Venus' fly trap, Venus fly trap, Dionaea muscipula
vervain, blue vervain, (used as an infusion), Verbena officinalis
vetch, European vetch, Vicia disperma
vinca, Vinca minor
violet, field pansy, Viola bicolor
Virginia creeper, woodbine, Parthenocissus tricuspidata
Volvox, (Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Volvox aureus

W.
wallflower, Cheiranthus cheri
walnut, black walnut, Juglans nigra
watercress, Nasturtium officinale
water hyacinth, common water hyacynth, (fast growing aquatic weed, "worst weed in the world"), Eichhornia crassipes
water lily, European water lily, Nymphaea alba
watermelon, camel melon, Citrullus lanatus
water weed, Canadian water weed, Elodea canadensis, (Anacharis), Hydrochariataceae, (tape grass family, monocotyledon)
wattle, black wattle, Acacia concurrens
wax flower, Geralton wax flower, Chamelaucium uncinatum
wheat, (hexaploid bread wheat), Triticum aestivum
wheat, (tetraploid durum wheat), Triticum turgidum var. durum
white bryony, bryony, English mandrake, Bryonia alba
white mustard, (mustard and cress sandwiches), Sinapsis alba, (Brassica alba)
wild cabbage, Brassica oleracea
willow tree, weeping willow, Salix X sepulcralis, (Peking willow Salix babylonica X white willow Salix alba)
wing bean, winged bean, four-angled bean, as bin, Goa bean, Psophocarpus tetrogonolobus
wisteria, wistaria, (climbing legume), Wisteria sinensis
wood avens, Geum urbanum
wood ferns, male fern, buckler fern, Dryopteris filix-mas
wormwood, common wormwood, absinthe wormwood, Artemisia absinthium

Y.
yam, common yam, greater yam, water yam, winged yam, white yam, Guyana arrowroot, ten months yam, name-de-agua, Dioscorea alata, (D. rubella)
yam, aerial yam, wild yam, bulbil yam, potato yam, Dioscorea bulbifera
yam, lesser yam, pan, Dioscorea esculenta
yam, (leaf with 3-5 lobes), Dioscorea pentophylla
yam, (spiny stem), Dioscorea numularia
yam bean, Pachyrrhizus
yard long bean, Vigna unguiculata
yellow vetchling, Lathyrus aphaca
yellow vetchling, Lathyrus ochroleucis
yerba mate, Ilex paraguariensis

Z.
zebrina, wandering jew, Tradescantia zebrina, (T. fluminensis, T. pallida), (formerly Zebrina pendula)
zucchini, summer squash, Cucurbita pepo
zygnema, (two stellate chloroplasts, found near Spirogyra, Green algae, Phylum Chlorophyta), Zygnema pectinatum

1.0 Native Australian fruits with potential for development
Based on "Wild Fruits of Australia" by John M. Riley, California Rare Fruit Growers
About 180 fruit and nuts are edible. They are mostly large seeded, tropical trees whose seed may be eaten after they are leached or boiled to remove toxins. Many small fruits have not much potential for development.
1. Antidesma  bunius and A. dallachyanum (Qld) are commonly found as shrubs or small trees with simple, alternate leaves bearing inconspicuous male and female flowers on different plants. The rounded fruits are mostly 6 to l2 mm across, vary in colour from cream to red and purple-black. They have a very acid pulp surrounding a central stone. The fruit are densely borne on the stalk. A. dallachyanum fruit may reach 2 cm across. These plants are tender and suffer damage below 10oC.
2. Austromyrtus dulcis (NSW) is a low straggly, highly ornamental shrub producing one of the best edible native fruits. The young leaves, about 2 cm long, are pink and silky. Its white flowers are borne singly in the leaf axils, and are followed by currant-like fruits that are pale lilac or almost white with darker purple flecks and about 1 cm across. The soft pulp has an aromatic, delicious flavour. The skin is very soft and seeds small, so the whole fruit can be eaten with pleasure. The plant is said to be a prolific fruiting plant, easy to grow from seed.
3. Araucaria bidwillii, "Bunya Nut", (Qld), is a large growing pine valuable as an  ornamental and a timber tree. The Bunya nut is extracted from large cones. Its taste is a  blend of chestnuts and pine nuts. The nuts are pierced and then roasted.
4. Billardiera, “Appleberry" is a genus of about eight species of small evergreen vines bearing edible fruit. The small bell-shaped flowers are inconspicuous, but the fruit is very ornamental. B. longiflora is commonly grown for its blue fruit. Other species are B. scandens with yellow or red berries, B. cymosa with reddish berries, and B. mutabilis. Seed should be germinated at above 13oC.
5. Capparis mitchelli, "Small Native Pomegranate", fruit 2 to 5 cm in diameter and the pulp with an agreeable perfume, is eaten by the aborigines. C. nobilis, "Native Pomegranate, has fruit, 2 to 5 cm in diameter..
6. The native Citrus species are notably different from all other species of citrus, suggesting an isolated and diverging evolution. As ornamentals they have great vigour and unusual fruit and foliage. They represent citrus relatives adapted to unusual soil conditions, extreme drought or rainforest conditions.
Eremocitrus glauca, “Desert Lime", (Qld), is a pronounced xerophyte, growing in dry areas and dropping its leaves under the stress of drought. In the summer it bears heavy crops of rounded yellow fruits 1 to 2 cm broad. Since its rind is soft and less bitter than most members of the citrus group, the fruit makes excellent marmalade.
Microcitrus australasia, "Finger Lime", (Qld, NSW), is one of five subspecies. It produces curious pickle-shaped fruit about 2 cm in diameter and 10 cm long. These can be sliced into rings and preserved. The very acrid pulp has a harsh aftertaste.
Microcitrus australis, "Round Lime", (Qld, NSW), bears fruit the size of a large walnut. The flavour is lemon-like with a harsh aftertaste. Both Microritrus species are very vigorous and good candidates as rootstock for citrus grown in arid lands. Microcitrus garrowayi, (Qld), is a rare species similar to M. australasica. Microcitrus inodora (Qld) is a rainforest species with fruit of good flavour.
7. Davidsonia pruriens, "Davidson’s Plum" (Qld), is one of the best native fruits. Its fruit is blue-black, plum-like, with loose hairs on the surface. The flesh is soft, juicy, purple and contains small, flattened seed with a fibrous coating. The fruit is very acid so is stewed with sugar or made into jam or jelly. It provides a distinctive and  most enjoyable food for anyone who likes a sharp taste in preserves. The plant is striking in form and foliage.
8. Diploglottis australis, "Native Tamarind", (Qld), is a relative of the lychee found in the Australian rain forest. The plant has a crown of very large, pinnate leaves sometimes reaching 60 cm long. The yellow fruit has three rounded lobes each about 1 to 2 cm broad and contains a single seed enclosed in an orange, juicy, jellylike pulp. This is very acid but pleasant and refreshing. A good drink can be made by boiling the fruits with sugar and water. They can also be made into jam. Diploglottis campbellii is very rare and much superior to D. australis. The fruit is a capsule, usually three-lobed. Each lobe is 4 cm in diameter, smooth, hard, and enclosing a single round seed. The pulp, a pleasantly acid, juicy red aril, encloses the single seed.
9. Eugenia species typically have fruit vary from 1 to 6 cm in diameter and are usually round to pear-shaped. The majority have pleasant, crisp or pithy flesh that is sour and aromatic. In some species, the uninteresting fresh fruit develops an excellent flavour when cooked. E. suborbicularis and E. carissoides are the best species. Eugenia smithii, "Lilly Pilly", (Qld, NSW, NT), is grown for its evergreen foliage and showy berries. Fruit is 0.5 to 2 cm in diameter, depressed, globular, edible, and slightly acid. E. operculata is a tree with ovate leaves, 13 to 20 cm long. The edible fruit is pea-like, ripening from dark red to purple.
E. suborbicularis has large, red fruit with a small stone and good flavour.
10. Syzygium coolminianum, "Blue Lilly Pilly", (Qld, NSW), is a shrub or small tree to 18 feet. The 1 cm fruit is edible and of an unusual blue colour. Syzygium luehmannii, "Cherry Alder", (Qld, NSW), is common in rainforests near the beach with edible small, pear-shaped fruits. Syzygium moorei, " Robby'' or Durobby", (NSW), has large, cream-colored fruit to 5 cm. Syzygium paniculatum, "Brush Cherry," is commonly grown as an ornamental so the fruit is not often eaten and no improved fruiting varieties are known.
11. Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia, (Qld, NSW),  is a stunning ornamental relative of the macadamia. It bears large strap leaves up to 60 cm long, growing straight like a palm. Its fruit is bright red and 2 to 3 cm wide. The seed encased in a bony shell is edible, though inferior to the macadamia nut. The bright red rind is said to numb the mouth if bitten into in the mistaken idea that it is a fruit.
12. Macadamia integrifolia, (Qld) is probably the most common species in cultivation. Its leaves usually occur in whorls of three and often it has leaves that have no marginal teeth. M. tetraphylla, (Qld), bears leaves mostly in whorls of four and leaf margins are always toothed. M. ruhelanii, (Qld), is a rainforest tree that resembles the macadamia nut, but its kernel is poisonous and extremely bitter. M. praealta, (Qld, NSW), is a rainforest tree with round fruits, up to 5 cm across, containing one or two nuts with shells thinner than the macadamia nut. Other species are M. ternifolia and M. heyana.
13. Nitraria schoberi, "Karambi", is a dry land shrub that produces fruit the size of an olive, of a red colour and agreeable flavour.
14. Owenia cerasifera, "Queensland Plum", (Qld), is a plant that bears a fine juicy red fruit with a large stone. When eaten fresh it is very acid, but after storage it becomes palatable and refreshing.
15. Schinus molle has fruit about 2 cm in diameter. The skin is rough. The pulp is of a rich crimson colour. The flavour is acid, but enjoyable. The large, rough stone contains several seed.
16. Physalis peruviana, "Cape Gooseberry", is common, and is a weed in some places. The fruit is popular for jams and pies, better when cooked with an equal amount of apple. The fully ripe fruit can be dried into an attractive "raisin." The berry has an inflated papery calyx completely enclosing it. Despite the small size and seediness, the intense flavour recommends this species for annual planting.
17. Pleiogyniam timorense, "Burdekin Plum", (Qld, NSW), is a spreading tree with glossy, pinnate leaves and purple-black fruits 3 to 4 cm broad, like flattened plums. The  flesh around the large, ribbed stone is acid and of reasonable flavour only if completely ripe. They are said to taste like "indifferent Damson plums".
18. Podocarpus elatus, "Brown Pine", (Qld, NSW), is a common rainforest pine but lacking an obvious cone. The round, greenish seed is seated at the apex of a larger fleshy stalk that  resembles a purple-black grape with a waxy bloom. This stalk is edible, but is rather mucilaginous and resinous in flavour. It makes jam or jelly more acceptable than the raw stalks.
19. Psidium guineense, "Guava", has been naturalized in parts of Australia and is regarded as a good fruit. The fruit is said to resemble guajava, but more sour. Germination takes 10 to 12 weeks or longer.
20. Santalum acuminatum, "Sweet Quandong",  is a good eating fruit and nut. Native to the drier parts of Australia, it regularly fruits without supplemental water. The rounded, pendulous fruits, 2 to 3 cm across, change from green to bright red. The firm, fleshy layer surrounding the stone is edible when quite ripe. This stage is usually indicated by the fruits falling to the ground or rattling when shaken. Although the flesh is rather acid, it can be eaten raw, but is more often made into highly prized pies, jams and jellies. The stones are easily removed and the flesh can be dried for later use. The seed is said to also be edible and to contain enough oil to burn like a candle. The seedlings are partially parasitic and are best germinated with a host such as grasses, acacias, or even citrus. A related species, S. album, is grown in India with Zizyphus oenophilia as a host. To germinate Santalum seed, they are cracked in a vice and the kernel removed. The surface is sterilized with sodium hypochlorite, stored in slightly damp vermiculite, and put in a darkened area at 16 to 20oC. However, germination is erratic.
21. Zizyphus oenoplia, (Qld), from the north-ernmost part of Australia, is a spiny, sprawling shrub with black, acid, edible fruit less than 1 cm broad. Z. mauritiana and Z. jujuba are grown in Australia, though not common.