School Science Lessons
Table 1. Periodic table
2019-06-02
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Table 1. Periodic table

Table of contents

Periodic Table: Table 1

See: Periodic table (Commercial)
Terms applied to the Periodic Table

Alkali metals, Group 1: 1.1.0

Alkaline earth metals, Group 2: 1.2.0

Common or industrial classification of metals: 1.3.0

Base metals

Coinage metals

Noble metals

Precious metals

Electronegativity: 1.4.0

Groups: 1.5.0

Halogens, Group 17: 12.0

Noble gases: 1.9.0

Periodic Table: Table 1.

Introduction to the periodic table: 1.10.1

Patterns in the periodic table: 1.10.2

Periods: 1.11.0

Table of the elements: Table 2

Transition elements: 1.12.0

Transuranic elements have atomic number > 92

Table 1. Periodic table
G = Groups
P1 to P7 = Periods
P6a = Lanthanides
P7a = Actinides
G
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

P1

01
H
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. 02
He

P
2
03
Li
04
Be
. . . . . . . . . . 05
B
06
C
07
N
08
O
09
F
10
Ne

P
3
11
Na
12
Mg
. . . . . . . . . . 13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar

P
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr

P
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe

P
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
71
Lu
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn

P
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
103
Lw
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
.
Fl
. 116
Lv
. .

P
6a

.
.
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
.

P7a

.
.
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
.

1.1.0 Group 1, Alkali metals
Alkali metals: Lithium, Li, Sodium, Na, Potassium, K, Rubidium, Rb, Caesium, Cs, Francium, Fr
Group 1 elements include the alkali metals, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr. The alkali metals are all soft, shiny and metallic when cut.
They react easily with water, have low melting points and densities, and are good conductors of electricity.
They all have one valence electron that they lose easily to form ions.
Hydrogen is considered separately because it has few of the properties: of the alkali metals.

1.2.0 Group 2, Alkaline earth metals
Group 2 elements are the alkaline earth metals, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.
They are harder and have higher melting points and boiling points than the alkali metals.
They easily lose two electrons to form ions, e.g. Mg2+.

1.3.0 Common or industrial classification of metals
In the common or industrial classification of metals, the following descriptions of metals are not chemically exact terms:
Base metals
Base metals are neither noble nor precious, are not resistant to oxidation, are common and are readily available with many uses,
including Aluminium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Tin and Zinc.

Coinage metals
Coinage metals are copper, gold and silver, but this description of metals is not a chemically exact term.
Noble metals
Noble metals are commonly only Gold and Silver, but also can refer to metallic chemical elements resistant to oxidation or
corrosion to include Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium, Silver, Rhenium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum, and Gold, i.e. of the second and
third transition series of the Periodic Table.
Precious metals
Precious metals are those usually used in jewellery including Gold, Iridium, Palladium, Platinum, and Silver.

1.4.0 Electronegativity
Based on the IUPAC electronegativity list
Electronegativity is the degree to which an atom attracts electrons. Ignoring lanthanides and actinides, for two elements in different
groups, the element in the higher numbered group has higher electronegativity, for two elements within the same group, the element
with the lower the atomic number has the higher electronegativity.
Hydrogen is less electronegative than polonium and more electronegative than nitrogen, so the formulae of water is H2O and the
formula of ammonia is NH3.

List of highest to lowest electronegativity
Group 17, F to At
Group 16, O to Po
H, hydrogen,
Group 15, N to Bi
Group 14, C to Pb
Group 13, B to Tl
Group 12, Zn to Cn
Group 11, Cu to Rg
Group 10, Ni to Ds
Group 9, Co to Mt
Group 8, Fe to Hs
Group 7, Mn to Bh
Group 6, Cr to Sg
Group 5, V to Db
Group 4, Ti to Rf
Group 3, Sc to La
Lanthanides, La to Lu
Actinides, Ac to Lr
Group 2, Be to Ra
Group 1 (excluding H), Li to Fr
Group 18, He to Rn

1.5.0 Groups
Groups
are the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. Some periodic tables using 1a, 2a to 0, suggest there are 18 groups.
Other versions have only 8 or 9 groups.
Elements in the same group in the periodic table have similar chemical properties: because they have the same number of electrons in
their outer shells.
(This is not true if you group the transition elements together in the table.)
Groups are shown as vertical columns numbered 1 to 18, see top row.
The newest element is Copernicum, Cn, atomic number 112, discovered in 1996, but not given its symbol, Cn, by IUPAC until 2010.

1.6.0 Group 17
Halogens, At, Br, Cl, F, I
Group 17 elements are the halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, At. Astatine has the longest life of any radioactive isotope.

1.7.0 Heavy elements
IUPAC has approved these new heavy elements, 114 Fl (Flerovium) and 116 Lv (Livermorium) (1 June 2012).

1.9.0 Noble gases
Group 18 elements are the noble gases (inert gases or rare gases) He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn-222.
They are colourless, odourless, monatomic gases and they form very few compounds.

1.10.0 Periodic table
1.10.1 Introduction to the periodic table
Table 1. Periodic table | Table 2. Table of elements
The periodic table organizes elements and it can be used to make predictions about the properties of elements.
The periodic table is an orderly way to arrange the properties of the elements.
The periodic table shows each element as a symbol with its atomic number atomic mass (whole number) electron notation and valence.
The groups have group notation numbers, 1 to 18, as approved by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry).
The atomic number is shown above the symbol for each element. It is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus.
The relative atomic mass is shown below the symbol for each element.
It is the average of the values for the different isotopes of the element.
The relative atomic mass of Carbon, C, is defined as Metallic properties are dominant towards the lower left corner and non-metallic
properties are dominant towards the upper right corner.
Periods and groups for the first 20 elements: group (vertical), period (horizontal).
In the full periodic table, Groups 3 to 12 contain the transition elements including:
| 4th Period: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn,
| 5th period: Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn | 6th period Pt, Au, Hg, Bi.
Table 12.19.10
Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 18
1st period H . .
.
. .
.
He
2nd period Li Be B C N O F Ne
3rd period Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4th period K Ca .
. .
.
.
.


1.10.2 Patterns in the periodic table
Use A4 size periodic charts for student use or a classroom size 2 000 × 1 500 mm periodic chart to find the following information and
fill in a blank A4 size chart of the periodic table.
Commercial periodic table chart, A4 sheet, three colour, pad of 100 sheets
Commercial Sargent-Welch three colour poster size, laminated chart with metal eyelets, double sided, in protective cardboard tube,
130 cm × 90 cm and 495 mm × 694 mm
1. Periods: The elements have electrons in the same outer shell, i.e. the rows.
2. Groups: The elements have the same number of electrons in their outer shells, i.e. the columns.
A group of elements has similar chemical properties.
3. Metals: Al and elements below and to left of Al and Sn, Pb (Sb, Bi) Po, but not H.
4. Non-metals: He, C, N, O, F, Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar, Se, Br, Kr, I, Xe, At, and Rn.
5. Metalloids: As, Ge, Si, Te (and Sb, Bi, B).
6. Elements that are gases at room temperature 27oC: H2, He, N2, O2, Ne, Cl2, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn.
The elements that are liquids at room temperature are Hg and Br.

3. Periodic variations
Elements display periodic variations in their chemical and physical properties:
1. The trends across a period or down a group in the periodic table for properties, e.g. melting or boiling point, reactivity, ionization
energy, atomic radius, metallic character, nature of oxides,
2. The terms used to describe groups and periods of the periodic table; alkali metals, alkali earth metals, halogens, noble gases,
lanthanides and actinides,
3. The relationship between the number of valence electrons for an element, its position in the periodic table, and its chemical properties.
Metals usually have a few valence, but Bismuth, Lead and Tin have many valence.
4. The properties of an element, e.g. combining power, general reactivity, and relationship to its position in the periodic table,
5. Anomalies in the properties of an element, e.g. mercury, Hg, is liquid at room temperature.

1.11.0 Periods
Periods are shown as horizontal rows numbered 1 to 7, in italics, see far left column.
The elements in a period have electrons in the same outer shell.
Period 1: 1 H and 2 He
Period 2: 3 Li to 10 Ne
Period 3: 11 Na to 18 Ar
Note the important trends in the reactions of the Period 3 compounds from metals on the left to non-metals on the right, e.g. reactions
of the oxides and chlorides with water
Period 4: 19 K and 20 Ca, and 31 Ga to 36 Kr
Period 5: 37 Rb and 38 Sr, and 49 In to 54 Xe
Period 6: 55 Cs and 56 Ba, and 81 Ti to 86 Rn
Period 7: 87 Fr, 88 Ra, 89 Ac
Period 6a 57 La to 71 Lu (Lanthanides)
Period 7a 89 Ac to 103 Lr Actinides

1.12.0 Transition elements
Groups 3 to 12, periods 4 and 5
Period 4: Scandium | Titanium | Vanadium | Chromium | Manganese | Iron | Cobalt | Nickel | Copper | Zinc
Period 5: Yttrium | Zirconium | Niobium | Molybdenum | Technetium | Ruthenium | Rhodium | Palladium | Silver
Transition metals (transition elements) have atomic numbers as follows:
Group 3 to Group 12
First transition series: 21 Sc to 30 Zn,
Second transition series: 39 Y to 48 Cd,
Third transition series 57 La to 80 Hg.
(Some chemists refer to Zn, Cd and Hg as metals, not transition metals.)
The transition elements are good conductors of heat and electricity, hard, strong, shiny, high m. p. and b.p.
Only Hg is liquid at room temperature.
With these properties they are useful a pure substances because of their relatively low chemical activity, e.g. Fe and Cu.
Transition metals have more than one oxidation states in their compounds, e.g. Cu (I) Cu2O, Cu (II) CuO, most are coloured, most
are catalysts and many form complex ions, e.g. [Cu(H2O)6]2+, when copper sulfate dissolves in water.