School Science Lessons
Food Gardens 5
2017-06-15 SP MF
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Table of contents
7.0.0 Artichoke
3.3.0 Beetroot
3.4.0 Capsicum, chilli
4.0.0 Legumes, peas and beans
5.0.0 Maize, (Zea mays, Indian corn)
6.0.0 Mangoes in subtropical winter

3.3.0 Beetroot
Beetroot, (Beta vulgaris sub vulgaris), Chenopodiaceae
Beetroot dried herb sold as fruit powder.
Betanin, C24H26N2O13, (betanidin-5-O-beta-glucoside)
9.9.0 Cells, human cheek cells, Elodea, plant cells, (See 2.)
3.28 Different stems and roots, (See: 1.7), (Primary)
9.56.1 Effect of temperature and chemicals on beetroot plasma membrane
9.182 Effect of different temperatures on the cell membranes of beetroot
9.183 Effects of factors of environmental stress on the cell membranes of beetroot
9.30 Egg preservation (See 3. Pickled eggs)
16.7.21.0 Fish smell, trimethylamine, "herring smell" of beetroot
Geosmin, C12H22O, (See 2.)
6.6.3 Planting guide, Beetroot
9.176 Plasmolysis in beetroot, (Experiments)
5.6.13 Prepare beetroot (beet) juice acid-base indicator
6.6.1 Rotations for raised beds, (See 3.)
Streptomyces scabies, scab of beetroot, "potato scab"
19.4.2.1 Stain removal, (See: Beetroot)
6.6.7 Tap root crops and bulb crops, (See 4.)
9.1.8.1 Tuberous roots, (See Beetroot)
9.5.10 Tests for urine, urine tests, (See: 3. Colour of urine)

3.4.0 Capsicum, chilli
Capsicum annuum, pimento, Solanaceae.
Capsicum frutescens, chilli, Solanaceae.
28.2.0 Aztec "Cacahuatl", Chocolate recipe
Berry, Succulent fruit, fleshy fruit
6.6.12 Calculate food crop production
17.0 Capsaicin, Scoville Heat Units (SHUs)
Chilli Project
54.1 Chilli fruit, (GIF)
16.9.1 Chilli spray
6.46 Crop rotation
5.12 Flower and fruit formation
5.11.0 Flowers
5.13 Fruit, Kinds of fruit
9.5.0.0 Fruit types, (See: True succulent fruits, fleshy fruits)
6.6.3 Planting guide, Chilli
6.6.9 Tomato family (Solanaceae), (See 2.)

4.0.0 Legumes, peas and beans
4.21.0 Green beans
4.21.1 Plant green beans
4.21.2 Harvest green beans
41.0 Classification of the common bean species
4.17 Cover crops
4.15 Different legumes
9.5.2.1 Dry dehiscent fruits, legume pod
6.6.17.1 Energy from peanuts
6.3.6 Enzyme activity during germination, bean, maize
5.29 Germinate bean seed
9.7.5 Green manure benefits
4.31 Grow bean seedlings, (Primary)
4.12 History of legumes
Legume family, Fabaceae, (Leguminosae), Pea family
9.72 Legume roots, broad bean, clover
4.11 Legumes as food
4.11.1 Legumes in the diet
4.11.2 Legumes for pasture
6.40 Legumes for the soil
4.26 Leucaena leucocephala
4.23 Mung bean, green gram, (Vigna radiata)
6.6.11.1 Pasture legumes
9.5.2.1 Pea pod, Dry dehiscent fruits
4.24 Peanut, Arachis hypogaea
7.8.3.6 Prepare bean curd, (tofu, soya bean)
Pulses
6.6.9 Respiratory quotient, Compositae flowers, mung bean seedlings
4.13 Rhizobium, (root nodules)
9.75 Root hairs of germinating bean plant
19.2.11 Soybean oil, soya fatty acid, soy acid, Composition of edible oils, (Table)
9.155 Tests for respiration of soaked peas with lime water, respiration apparatus
4.25 Winged bean, (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)

4.13 Rhizobium
4.13 Rhizobium inoculation
9.71 Rhizobium in legumes
9.72 Rhizobium, Legume roots, broad bean, clover
4.3.13 Isolate micro-organisms from root nodules
4.3.12 Root nodules, nitrogen-fixing bacteria

4.24 Peanut, Arachis hypogaea
4.24.0 Peanuts (groundnuts)
4.24.1 Planting peanuts
4.24.2 Care and harvest of peanuts

4.25 Winged bean, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
4.25.0 Winged bean
4.25.1 Winged bean as food
4.25.2 Winged bean in the diet
4.25.3 Care and harvest of winged bean

5.0.0 Maize, (Zea mays, Indian corn)
Zea mays, maize, "corn", Indian corn, sweet corn, mealy, vegetable, corn oil, edible grain, (corn silk, herbal medicine), herbal
medicine, Central America, Poaceae.
Zea mays, subsp. mays, flint corn, [used for popcorn], Poaceae.
Dried herb sold as purple corn seed powder.
6.17.1.2 Adding fertilizers by broadcasting, banding, top-dressing, side-dressing, (See 4.)
Baby powder, Zea mays
16.9.50 Biofuels
19.3.3 Boiling, test the cooking water of boiled vegetables, (See 4.)
9.8.6 Companion planting
9.185 Conduction of water and salts through the stems, (See 1.)
9.183 Conduction of water in plants, cut flowers in coloured water, (See 2.)
5.2.0 Corn silk
Corn earworm, Heliothis armigera, moth larva pest of corn
Corn oil
16.8.8 Corn smut, (fungus)
5.1.0 Cornflour, cornstarch, corn oil, corn syrup, popcorn
5.24 Crop management
3.2 Crop rotation
1.27 Drink-can garden, (Primary)
6.3.6 Enzyme activity during germination, bean, maize
Faidherbia, maize interplanting
6.6.3.1 Food crop families
5.13 Fruit, maize kernel, caryopsis
5.29.1 Germinate maize grain, (Primary)
6.6.5 Grain crops and pasture grasses
16.8.9 Head smut, (fungus)
9.12.4 Hoeing
9.8.5 Interplanting
9.80 Monocotyledon stem, maize, Zea mays
9.6.01 Monocotyledons, grass (cereals), bamboo, sugar cane, maize
6.37.1 Nutrition from the soil, composition of mature maize plant dry matter:
6.5.3: Plants need mineral salts, maize, (See 2.)
3.43.02b Smuts, maize smut, (corn smut)
9.9.18.2 Soil-less culture solutions, maize
1.48 Watching seeds germinate, (Primary)

5.1.0 Cornflour, cornstarch, corn oil, corn syrup, popcorn
"Kitchen Science Pack", vinegar, baking soda, cornstarch, lemon, (commercial)
Baby powder, (cornstarch)
Baking powder
19.3.3 Boiling, test the cooking water of boiled vegetables, (See 4. starch grains, maize)
9.165 Cellophane as a semipermeable membrane, (See 1. cornstarch)
19.1.17 Cooking fats, (corn oil)
Corn oil, maize oil, made from germ of maize grain for salads
19.2.11 Corn oil, maize oil, Composition o of edible oils, (Table)
Corn sugar, glucose, dextrose, C67H12O6, D-glucose, blood sugar, grape sugar
Cornflour, cornstarch
17.4.6.1 Electrorheological fluid (ER fluid), cornflour and vegetable oil
6.4 Cornmeal / glucose / sucrose / yeast extract agar, to identify fungi, (Experiments)
6.3 Cornmeal agar, to identify fungi, (Experiments)
13.6.1 Cornstarch, cornflour slime, isotropy and thixotropy, (Experiments)
19.4.2.2 Food allergies and intolerances, (See 5. Oil allergy, corn oil)
19.2.1.13 Ice cream, (See 3. corn syrup)
13.6.1 Isotropy and thixotropy, Cornstarch, cornflour slime,
9.171 Osmosis with an egg, (See 2. corn syrup)
9.5.8 Popcorn
3.2.5.4 Secret writing inks, starch, cornstarch suspension:
13.6.0.4 Shear-thickening, stir-thickening, dilatant fluids, rheopectic fluids, (cornstarch)
3.2.5.4 Starch, cornstarch suspension, invisible writing ink
17.4.6 Stir-thickening cornflour mixture
19.3.5.4 Superheating in a microwave oven, (See 3. Popcorn)
16.2.7 Yoghurt, (See 1. Cornflour)

5.2.0 Corn silk
Each maize ovary, in a female inflorescence, called a husk, produces an elongated style with a hairy stigma, called  a silk
Pollen from the tassels of different male flowers falls on the silks of immature maize, to fertilize the ovary to later form a kernel.
The silks are called corn silk or maize silk and the long shiny fibres are consumed as a diuretec folk medicine herb tea and for other
ailments, e.g. urinary disorders, bed wetting diabetes and high blood pressure.
Dried herb sold as corn silk.

4.10 Legume family
| See diagram 9.72: Root nodules
| See diagram 9.72.2: Winged bean flower
| See diagram 9.53.9: Acacia, Leucaena leaves
Teach the students to recognize different plants in the legume family.
Collect two examples of legumes that are 1.
food plants, e.g. peanuts, 2. cover crops or green manures, e.g. Centrosema and cowpea.
Let the students study the plants, discover a set of similar characters, and find out for themselves the characters of the legume family.
1. Legumes are plants of the bean family, (formerly Leguminosae, now Fabaceae).
Their roots have lumps, nodules, containing Rhizobium bacteria that can use nitrogen gas from the air.
When the legume plant dies and rots in the soil, this nitrogen from the air is available to other plants.
So legumes improve the fertility of the soil.
When a legume crop is buried in the soil it is called a green manure.
Legumes can grow in different types of soils.
However, they should be deeply dug and well-drained to allow roots to grow easily and prevent attacks by fungus and
nematode worms in the soil.
They are usually planted towards the end of the rainy season,
3 cm deep in rows 50 cm apart between rows and 30 cm apart within the rows,
or planted closer and thinned out to 30 cm.
2. Legume plants usually have an erect, spreading, trailing or climbing growth habit.
The plants produce flowers and fruit over some weeks that require more than one picking.
The trailing plants usually have the longest harvesting period but climbing plants save space in the vegetable garden.
3. Legumes are easily recognized from the leaves and the flowers.
The leaves are usually compound leaves, often with each leaf divided into 3, 5 or more leaflets.
The flower has 5 sepals and 5 unusual petals, 1 large standard petal coming from the back, 2 wing petals at the side and 2 keel
petals below, which may be joined.
The flower has 10, or 9 + 1, stamens, which are stuck together to form a tube.
The fruit is a pod formed from one carpel, which can break into two to let the row of seeds out.
The flowers are normally self-pollinated, but they can be cross pollinated by large insects,
e.g. bees, which can push down the keel petals and get into the flower
4. Give each group of students one of each kind of legume and some plants, which are not legumes.
Tell the students to look at all the plants and make a set of plants that have similar characters.
Go to each group and help them make their set.
Let the students walk around from group to group so that can compare the sets.
5. Show the correct sets.
List the common characters of the set: shape of leaves, shape of the flower, the number of parts in the flower,
and the nodules on the roots.
The set of plants that look the same are all members of the legume or bean family.
6. Tell the students to bring to the next class a legume plant which they did not see in the class today.

4.11 Legumes as food
Teach the students the importance of legumes as food
1. Food
The parts of the legume plants eaten by humans include:
1. Tender young leaves, e.g. pigeon pea.
2. Seeds from the unripe pods picked when still green or light yellow, e.g. cowpea.
The pods of snowpea, sugar pea, mangetout, are eaten whole with the seeds still inside.
3. Dried legume seeds called pulses, e.g. alfalfa, chickpea, clover, lentil, pea, mung bean, pigeon pea, soybean.
4. Sprouted seeds, e.g. mung bean, soybean (bean sprouts).
Legumes are used for food in two main ways:
1. The unripe green pods and sometimes also the tender green leaves are picked and cooked as a vegetable.
These provide vitamins and minerals if eaten soon after picking, e.g. green bean, winged bean.
2. The pods are picked when almost dry before they split and let the seeds out.
They are then dried in the sun and threshed by putting them in a bag and hitting it with a stick.
The dried seed called a pulse is stored and later boiled and eaten, e.g. mung bean, pigeon pea.

4.11.1 Legumes in the diet
Legumes are used for food in two main ways:
1. The unripe green pods and sometimes also the tender green leaves are picked and cooked as a vegetable.
These provide vitamins and minerals if eaten soon after picking, e.g. green bean, winged bean.
2. The pods are picked when almost dry before they split and let the seeds out.
They are then dried in the sun and threshed by putting them in a bag and hitting it with a stick.
The dried seed called a pulse is stored and later boiled and eaten, e.g. mung bean, pigeon pea.
3. The edible seeds of leguminous plants cultivated for food are called pulses, e.g. peas, beans, lentils.
Pulses are easily digested and nutritious food. They contain about 20% protein, 60% carbohydrates, 3% fat and minerals,
especially calcium and phosphorus, and vitamins.
The type of protein is not sufficient for a balanced diet so some animal protein is still required in the diet.
before cooking, pulses should be soaked in warm water overnight and the water thrown away.
This reduces production of gas during digestion.
They are cooked by boiling for up to an hour.

4.11.2 Legumes for pastrue
6.6.11.1 Pasture legumes
Pasture legumes are food for animals.
Calopo, pioneer legume, vigorous growth for weed control.
Centro, suited to tropical lowland environments, grows slowly, hard seeds take a long time to germinate.
Hetero, suited to wet tropical coast, combines well with pangola and signal grass.
Desmodium, greenleaf desmodium, combines well with grasses in coastal areas of tropics.
Puero, pioneer species, palatable and productive, grows well in shade under trees.
Stylo, adapted to humid tropics, even poor soils.
Leucaena, perennial shrub, combines well with signal grasses.
Siratro, easy establishment, prolific grower, persistent, makes thick mats.

4.12 History of legumes
Legumes are a very old food.
The story in the Bible of Esau and Jacob and the "mess of pottage" refers to a porridge made of dried legumes called red lentils.
In some parts of the Bible it says that legumes are a food for poor people only.
However, when Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, ordered that some of the students of the Israelites be given some of the King's
meat every day,
Daniel changed this to more simple food.
After the students had eaten pulses and water for 10 days, they appeared healthier than those who ate the King's meat.

4.13 Rhizobium inoculation
| See diagram 9.209: T.S. Root nodule
| See diagram 9.72: Root nodules
Nitrogen fertilizer is not normally needed because the plants can fix nitrogen from the air with their root nodules.
However, if legumes are being grown in a soil for the first time, there may not be enough nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Rhizobium.
To provide enough bacteria the seed should be mixed with the correct type of bacteria just before planting.
This is called inoculation.
To inoculate, e.g. cowpea seed, mix the contents of the packet of cowpea inoculant with water and pour it over the seed so they
become evenly coated.
For slurry inoculation, make a slurry by mixing the contents of the packet with 500 mL water for small packets and 2 000 mL water
for larger packets.
Use a Legume Seed Inoculation Chart provided by agricultural chemical companies, to calculate how much inoculant is needed for the
type and amount of seed.

4.14 Legume seeds and pods
See diagram 9.113.1: Bean pod
Teach the students to:
1. Examine the outside and inside of a bean seed and
2. recognize the parts of a bean seed and say what they are used for.
Use soft pea or bean pods and bean seeds.
The seeds must be soaked in water a day before you teach the lesson.
Each seed is covered with a seed coat and you can see the scar where the seed was attached in the seed pod.
Inside the seed coat are two cotyledons or halves that contain stored food.
This food is used by the young plant when it first begins to grow, i.e. germinate.
The young plant lies between the two seed leaves and can be clearly seen with a hand lens.
It consists of a young root and a young shoot, leaves and stem.
Groups of four students.
1. Give each group one hand lens, four bean seeds and four sheets of paper.
Open some pods show the seeds inside to them.
Take one bean seed, look carefully at the seed and feel it, notice that the seed has a "skin" or coat around it called the seed coat that
protects the seed.
Use the finger nails to cut through the seed coat and remove it.
Look carefully at the inside part of the seed.
How many parts can you see?
Cut carefully around the edge of the seed and open the seed into two parts.
Show this to the class.
Look for the small plant inside, take turns using the magnifying glass to look at the small young plant.
2. Look at the two big white parts (cotyledons) and explain to them that these contain food for the young plant when it begins to grow.
The reason we eat seeds, e.g. beans, is because they contain growth food and healthy food.
3. Draw a picture of the inside of the seed.

4.15 Different Legumes
See diagram 9.72.1: Winged bean, pigeon pea, mung bean
1. Winged bean, four-angled bean, Goa bean, "as bin", (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus).
This bean should be grown in all school gardens because the seeds have a high protein content.
You can eat the seeds, green pods, leaves, flowers and tubers.
2. Cowpea, snake bean, yard-long bean (Vigna): These plants are closely related.
They are grown for the seeds and pods and as a green manure crop.
3. Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea): They have a high protein content and the plant is a good animal feed.
The peanuts must be roasted or boiled before eating.
Some students are allergic to peanuts so be careful!
4. Mung bean or green gram bean (Phaseolus aureus): The pods have a high protein content and the seeds can be left to sprout
rather than eaten.
The pods are small and students get tired of picking them. It is also a good green manure crop.
5. Soya bean or soy bean (Glycine max): The seeds are very nutritious but this plant is attacked by lots of diseases in the wet tropics.
6. Chick pea (Cicer arietum): It has a perennial bush that can be used as temporary shade.
7. Pigeon pea is a perennial bush that can be used as temporary shade.
8. Other shade trees: "cocoa shade" (Gliricidia albizia) coral tree (Erythrina), Leucaena,
wattle tree (Acacia) golden shower Cassia and Poinciana or the flame of the forest (Delonix regia).
9. Other useful legumes: Lablab bean, yam bean (Pachyrrhizus) and Derris used to make an insecticide and fish poison.

4.16 Collect legumes
See diagram 9.72.1: Legumes
Teach the students to make a permanent collection of different kinds of legumes.
Use lots of newspaper and a heavy weight or press.
Before the lesson ask each student to bring three bean plants:
one food crop plant, e.g. peanut or mung bean, one pasture legume, e.g. Centrosema or Crotalaria, and one bush plant, e.g. Acacia,
Leucaena, Canavalia.
1. Arrange your plants on the desk. (Shape of flowers, pods, divided leaves, nodules on roots.]
2. Attach a piece of paper to each stalk and tell the students to write the name of the plant, their names and the date.
Pull off any extra branches so that the specimen is quite small.
3. Put each student's plant inside a piece of folded newspaper.
Put all these together in a pile.
On top of the pile place a piece of wood or cardboard.
On top of this place weights or heavy stones.
This is the way to keep plant specimens.
Change the plant every few days.
4. Take the specimens out of the plant press.
Set up an exhibition of different types of bean plants.
Ask each student to state the uses of the pressed plant specimens.

4.17 Cover crops
Teach the students to name that plants are suitable for cover crops and explain how to improve the soil with them.
Use diagrams or specimens of common cover crops.
Before the lesson obtain diagrams or specimens of the different plants used,
and find a place in a garden or plantation nearby where cover crops are growing.
Ask an agricultural officer to show you how to prepare these seeds or cuttings for planting.
Some should be inoculated with a special Rhizobium mixture before planting.
1. Legumes may be grown between tree crops to cover the soil and stop weeds growing by shading them.
These crops are called cover crops, e.g. the trailing plants Pueraria and Centrosema.
Erect plants, e.g. Crotalaria and cowpea, are grown as green manures.
If these plants are dug into the soil at the time of flowering nitrogen plant nutrient is added to the soil.
Some legumes that are trees or shrubs are grown to provide shade or windbreaks, e.g. Leucaena.
Legumes that are large trees and have large flowers are grown for shade and decoration, e.g. coral tree Erythrina.
2. Draw a diagram of a bed of soil on the chalk board.
Hold their arm above it.
What my arm would protect the soil from? [Sunlight, rain.]
Why should we protect the soil from sunlight? [If the soil is too hot (a) humus is lost, (b) some seeds cannot germinate, (c) water is lost
from the soil.]
Why should we protect soil from rain? [Heavy raindrops make the soil splash up then get washed away.]
3. What can we use to protect the soil?
Can we use sheets of iron? [No]
Can we use trees? [Yes, but when the trees grow big they will use most of the light and water so we cannot grow other crops.]
We use plants that do not grow high but cover all the ground with lots of leaves.
We use some legumes as cover crops, e.g. Puero, Centro and Calopogonium.
4. Cover crops will:
4.1. lower soil temperature and evaporation of water,
4.2. protect soil from splash erosion but let water trickle down into the soil,
4.3. shade the weeds so they cannot grow,
4.4. add humus and nitrogen fertilizer to the soil when the leaves die.
Can cover crops cause problems? [Yes, they can grow all over young coconuts, so clear a circle around each palm.]
5. If you are not using land for some time, such as during the school holidays, you can protect the soil and keep weeds out by planting
cover crops.
However, clearing cover crops is hard work.
If you plant an upright legume such as cowpea or mung bean, you can easily dig them into the soil as green manure.
About 3-6 weeks after digging the plants into the soil the plant foods will be available for their next crop.
6. Show the students the legume plants and let them feel the soil under a cover crop.
7. Sowing a cover crop of green manure.
Centro has hard seeds that take a long time to germinate unless you treat them with boiling water.
Puero and Calopogonium grow well in shade under leaves.
Do not dig in green manure crops under tree crops because it damages the roots.
Other good cover crops are Hetero and Siratro that produce good grains for cattle and Stylo that is good at smothering weeds.

9.7.5 Green manure benefits
Green manures provide the following benefits to the soil:
1. Increases organic matter, earthworms and beneficial micro-organisms,
2. Increases available nitrogen and water retention.
3. Stabilizes the soil to prevent erosion,
4. Brings deep minerals to the surface and break up soil compaction.
5. Provides habitats for beneficial insects.
6. Improves water, root and air penetration.
7. Smothers weeds.
8. Fills unused garden beds with useful soil-building plants.
Examples of green manure plants:
1. Warm season, whenever good rainfall is expected:
buckwheat, (Fagopyrum esculentum), cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), millet, (Pennisetum sp.),
Japanese millet, (Echinochloa utilis), mung bean, (Vigna radiata), soybean, (Glycine max).
2. Cool season:
Broad bean, (Vicia faba), fenugreek, (Trigonella foenum-graecum), lupins (Lupinus), oats,
(Avena sativa), subterranean sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum), woolly pod vetch, (Vicia villosa).

4.18 Bean, common bean
Bean, common bean, (Phaseolus vulgaris), field bean, French bean, garden bean, green bean,
(pole bean, climbing bean, bushy bean), haricot bean, kidney bean, runner bean, snap bean, string bean
See diagram 9.65.2: Mung Bean
Teach the students about the many kinds of beans
Many kinds of beans come from Central America.
They are grown as a green vegetable and for the dried seeds.
The seeds must be soaked in warm water overnight, the water thrown away and then well cooked otherwise they cause gas in the
intestines.
These beans often do not grow well in coastal areas of the tropics because the high humidity allows them to be attacked by many pests
and diseases.
The seeds should be sown in deeply dug well-drained soil 3 cm deep, 60 cm apart between rows, and 10 cm apart within rows.
The soil must be loose and fine to allow the stem to lift the cotyledons easily through the soil.
Although they are legumes, they need much nitrogen in the soil. Beans are erect annual plants that mature in 6-8 weeks and can usually
be harvested in 2 pickings.
They cannot withstand very hot weather.
The seeds store well when dry, especially the red seed varieties.
There are many pests and diseases.
Bean fly cause the stems of young plants to split and go brown. Small brown egg-shaped cocoons can be seen inside the attacked stem.
They can be sprayed with Dimethoate, a dangerous chemical.
Bean pod borer is hard to treat because it is a caterpillar that gets inside the pod.
Spider mites cause yellow spots on the leaves in dry weather they can be controlled by Dimethoate.

4.19 Bean life cycle
See diagram 9.112: Epigeal germination | See diagram 9.3.5: Epigeal germination
Teach the students to identify the stages in the life cycle of the bean plant.
Leaves and branches or whole plants, flowers, pods and seeds of any common legume.
You may need to tell them the difference between annual and perennial life cycles.
Small plants, e.g. peanuts, mung beans are usually annuals, the plants die after the seed has formed and scattered.
Large plants, e.g. pigeon pea, flame of the forest, are perennials that produce seed for many years.
Show the students the bean plants, flowers and seeds.
Draw the life cycle of the bean plant on the chalk board.
The male parts and the female parts of a flower are used to make baby seeds inside the bean pod.

4.20 Bean flower
See diagram 9.72.4: Winged bean flower
Teach the students to pull apart a bean flower and state the function of this kind of flower.
You will need: at least two large bean flowers for each student.
In this lesson it is important that each student learns to pull the flower apart and see the individual pieces.
Make sure you understand the diagram below before trying to teach this lesson.
1. Push your fingers inside the flower.
Can you see the parts inside like little sticks? These little sticks are the male and female parts.
Look at these parts:
1. Flower stalk
2. Sepals are like little green leaves that cover the bus and protect it.
3. Petals have bright colours and attract insects and sometimes birds.
4. See one big petal at the back (standard).
5. See two petals at the side (wings).
6. See two petals at the bottom (keel) that may be stuck together.
Pull off the sepals and petals.
The male parts (stamens) are like little sticks with yellow knobs because of pollen.
Pull off all the male parts.
The female part is what is left.
It looks like a small bean (ovary) with a stick and knob at one end (style and stigma).
Open the female part.
Can you see little white seeds inside? [They are the ovules, not seeds.]
When the yellow pollen from the male part gets onto the female part then little baby seeds are made.
Draw a diagram of a cross-section of the flower.
Draw the individual parts of the bean flower.

4.21.0 Green beans.
Teach the students the importance of green beans in the diet.
1. Green beans are grown for the young green juicy pods that are a good source of protective food if they are cooked quickly.
The beans are picked when the seeds inside the pods are still soft and young.
Green beans are also known as French bean, Kidney bean, Haricot bean, Snake bean and Runner bean.
Green beans are of two types:
1.1 Dwarf beans that grow as a small bush and mature early,
1.2 Climbing beans or pole beans that need support, mature late but bear fruit for a longer time.
When green beans are eaten, they should be freshly picked.
You should hear a snap when you break them into two.
2. Use bean seeds, e.g. dwarf "Contender" variety or climbing "Kentucky Wonder" variety.
Show the students a green bean or picture of a green bean plant. Have you seen them before?
Have you eaten green beans before?
Tell the students how to pick and eat them.
Green beans are good protective food if they are eaten fresh or cooked quickly.
Draw the shape of the seeds.

4.21.1 Plant green beans
Teach the students to prepare soil for green beans and plant them.
1. Green beans will produce a good yield in about 10 weeks.
The best seeds are hybrid imported seeds from companies such as Yates, or Takii.
Good varieties are Suva Green, Epicure, Blue Lake, Contender.
Soil should be well-drained open soil because beans will not stand waterlogging.
Rotten compost or animal manure should be dug in.
Dwarf beans should be planted in ridges or raised beds.
The plants should be sheltered from the wind.
Plant seeds 20 cm apart in rows 50 cm apart.
Climbing beans save space but you have to provide a support fence or strings, two metres high.
Seeds are planted 15 cm apart on rows 100 cm apart.
Do not soak seeds before planting.
Plant when soil is damp but not at the wettest time of year.
Do not water until two days after planting.
2. Draw a diagram to show students how to plant seeds in ridges or beds.
Show students how to dig organic matter into the soil.
One way is to bury compost or manure in a shallow trench then pile soil on top to a ridge.
Show students how to plant the seed.
Look at the seed beds every day.
When do you see the first shoots coming up out of the ground?

4.21.2 Harvest green beans
Teach the students to care for green beans and harvest them.
1. Beans can be blown down by wind so you may need a windbreak.
You can cover the ridges with mulch to prevent soil being washed away.
However, if the mulch presses against the stems they may be infected with stem rot, then the plant will fall over and die.
2. To prevent disease try to keep the tops of the bean plants dry, put water only on the soil during the late afternoon.
Young beans can be attacked by bean fly that lay eggs in the stems.
If stems are dying pull out the plant and burn it.
The bean pod borer is a green caterpillar that gets into the pod to eat the seeds.
Do not try to treat this with insecticide, just burn the infected pods.
3. Harvest the pods when the seeds are just soft little bumps inside the pod.
Pick the pods every seven days and eat these soon after picking.
Pods can be picked eight to ten weeks after planting.
Bean plants can be picked for two months.
When the harvest is finished pull out all the bean plants, including roots, and burn them.
This will help to control pests and disease.
4. Inspect the bean plants.
Are they damaged by wind?
Are the ridges washed away?
Are the ridges or raised beds protected by mulch?
Are there any pests or disease?
Are the beans ready for harvest?
Show the students how to pick beans without damaging them or the plant?
Eat the green beans raw or lightly cooked.

4.22 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
See diagram 4.22: Cowpea
Cowpea is a multi-purpose herbaceous annual legume with spreading to fairly erect habit.
It grows to 50 to 100 cm high, improves soil fertility, and is easy to establish in a wide range of soils.
It is drought tolerant and gives high yields in a short period of time and high seed production.
It has high nutritive value and high palatability.
The stems are hollow and hairless with the main stem to about 1 cm thick.
Both unripe pods and young leaves are used as a vegetable.
The leaves consist of three hairless leaflets, about 10 cm long and 7 or 8 cm wide.
The ripe dry seeds are very nutritious and are easily digested if well cooked.
The plants can grow in a wide range of soil types providing they are well-drained.
It is an annual leafy plant that can also be used as a cover crop.
There are many different types from erect to trailing and climbing.
Flowers are white to purple on long flower stalks.
The pods, grey-orange when ripe, circular in section, 10 - 20 cm long, and 0.5 to 1 cm diameter,
are smooth and slightly curved and yellow when dry.
The seeds may have a dark spot where it was joined to the pod to give it a "black eye".
The colour of the seed is brown to purple, with variety "Ebony" black, varieties "Red Caloona" and "Meringa" grey-orange.
The naturally self-pollinating flowers are pale violet / mauve, about 2.5 cm across, in groups on stems over 30 cm long.
Seeds of erect varieties should be planted in firm moist seed bed in rows 50 cm between rows and 10 cm within rows.
Avoid time of high rainfall and too much fertilizer or the plants will produce lots of leaves but few pods.
Spreading varieties should be planted 30 cm apart and climbing varieties can be planted in hills 80 cm apart.
Weeds should be pulled out by hand-picking when still young.
There are few diseases and they can be controlled by garden hygiene and rotations.
Erect varieties have a short harvest period and climbing varieties have a longer harvest period and yield a lot more for the area of
garden used.
Pods and seeds are easily attacked by fungus diseases in wet weather.
The seeds are hard to store without treating with pesticides.
Cowpea must have well-drained soil and is susceptible to many pests and diseases.
For example it is an alternative host for pests and diseases of French beans.
Cowpea pasture is suitable for grazing, hay / silage, grain, and green manure.

4.23 Mung bean, green gram, (Vigna radiata)
See diagram 9.72.1 Mung bean, winged bean, pigeon pea
The crop matures in about 3 months and is harvested over some weeks as the pods ripen.
The pods tend to split so it is best to harvest pale yellow pods in the mornings and let them dry in the sun.
They are easy to thresh by hand to put them in a bag and beat it.
The stored bean may be damaged by insects if not kept dry.
Mung bean can be boiled and eaten as a vegetable, or boiled and mashed with sugar or syrup, or boiled and eaten cold with onion,
oil and vinegar.
Mung bean can be sprouted by soaking seeds and then letting them sprout for 3 to 4 days.
Before cooking mung bean, the seeds should be soaked in warm water overnight and that water thrown away.

4.24.0 Peanuts (groundnuts)
Teach the students to say how peanuts are used, where and when they are planted and to recognize the main parts of the plant.
Use a whole plant or a picture of a peanut plant, and some peanuts.
Peanuts are used as food because they help us to grow.
Peanuts should be boiled or roasted and not eaten raw.
Where and when grown:
Peanuts grow best in light loose soils, sandy loam.
These soils let the nuts grow big in the ground and also the nuts are easy to dig out.
They are often grown in rotation with maize.
Peanuts need plenty of rain from the time they are planted until they are fully grown.
But when the pods are getting ripe the weather should be dry.
They should be planted 3-5 months before the end of the wet season.
The peanut flower forms a young pod that pushes down into the soft soil.
Peanut roots have little white bumps on them called nodules that help the plant to grow bigger.
The nodules are found in most legume plants.
The nodules improve the soil for crops following legume crops.
Ask the students the following questions:
1. How they use peanuts, where and when they are planted.
2. Show the students the peanut plant or picture and ask them to name the parts.
3. Show the students some peanut pods.
How many peanuts are there inside?
Can they break the peanut seed into parts?

4.24.1 Planting Peanuts
Teach the students to prepare soil for planting peanuts, plant the seed and draw a planting map.
You need the following:
spades,
clean seeds, free from disease,
land, 1.5 x three metres.
Soil preparation
Peanuts must be planted in well-dug ground.
The land must be properly cleared of all trees, logs and grass.
Peanuts are best grown in rows.
If the land is not well cleared, they cannot plant peanuts in rows.
There is no need to dig the soil if their ground is loose and friable.
However, dig out every bit of root and runner of kunai grass, blady grass, Imperata cylindrica.
Planting.
Use only the best seed for planting to get a good crop.
If there is none available ask the agricultural officer for the right kind of seed.
Be sure the seed has no weevils or small grubs in it, and that it is not mouldy.
Mark out rows across the peanut block with bush rope one metre apart.
Then plant the seed along these rows 30 cm apart or dig up a raised bed 15 cm high,
1.5 metres wide and three metres long.
Take the seed out of its shell before you plant.
Then press each seed into the ground to a depth of 2 cm.
If planted any deeper, the seed may rot in the ground.
If planted any shallower, the seed may dry out if they get no rain quickly, or the birds may eat it.
Cover up the seed and firm the soil.
Some commercial seed is coated with a blue chemical so do not let students eat these seeds.
If the garden is on a slope, make the rows run around the hill instead of straight up and down,
or they will lose a lot of topsoil by erosion during heavy rain.
It is best to plant towards the end of the wet season.
Peanuts take about four months to mature.
Therefore the weather should be dry when the time comes to harvest the crop.
1. Dig the ground and mark out rows or make holes two cm deep. Take the seed out of the shell and put one clean seed
in each hole.
Press the earth flat over the seeds.
2. Draw a map of the planting.
Write the date of planting on one of the maps and put it on the classroom wall.
3. Inspect the planting every day.
Pick out any weeds.
When do the first seedlings come up?
Did any students eat the peanut seed instead of planting them?

4.24.2 Care and harvest of peanuts
Teach the students to take care of a peanut crop and harvest it.
Ask an agricultural officer to look at their peanut crop.
Ask him about plant pests and diseases.
Use a digging fork.
While the peanut plants are growing they must weed often.
As the plants get bigger, they should hill the rows.
This improves drainage, loosens the soil, and makes harvesting easier.
Harvest and storage.
The peanut crop should be mature about four months after planting.
Peanuts are ready to harvest when some of the leaves and stalks turn yellow, also at this time some of the leaves start falling off.
When harvesting, do not pull the plants up because many nuts will be stripped off and left in the ground.
Dig them out carefully with a pointed stick or a garden fork.
After digging out the bushes hang them upside down in the open sun for at least three weeks.
When the leaves are dry and the nuts inside the shell are firm, curing has finished. The nuts will be ripe and have a good taste.
Keep the best nuts for replanting.
1. Show the students how to weed the peanuts carefully, write the dates of weeding on their planting map.
If you planted in rows, hill up the rows with a hoe to improve drainage.
2. Show the students any attacks by pest or disease.
3. When the peanuts are ready to harvest show the students how to know when the peanuts are ready for picking.
Show them the proper way to dig up the whole plant with a fork.
Can you count the number of pods on each plant?
Write this on your planting map and date of harvest.
Do all the pods contain two seeds?
4. Show the students how to store the peanuts for curing.
Hang them upside down on rails in the sun.
Let the students open some pods and look at the nuts. Do they look big and round?
Are they good to eat?

4.25.0 Winged bean, (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)
See diagram 9.72.1: Mung bean, winged bean, pigeon pea | See diagram 9.72.4: Winged bean flower
Winged beans, four angled bean, Goa bean, asbin, can contain 33% protein and the tubers 10% protein.
The plant grows in almost any type of soil that is well-drained.
It is a long vine that must be supported on stakes.
The large pods have "wings" on them.
Some varieties produce mostly pods and some produce mostly tubers.
Seeds are planted 3 cm deep, 20 cm x 20 cm apart in raised beds or mounds, at the start of the wet season.
They can be interplanted with maize or soybean.
Fertilizer and inoculation is not usually needed.
Weeding should be done early to protect the young plants from competition for water.
When the crop is 6-8 weeks old stakes or string 2 metres high should be provided to let the plant climb.
The main diseases are leaf spot that can be controlled with Benomyl, 50 gram / 100 litres water
and soil pests and diseases that can only be controlled by rotation.
Collar rot can only be controlled by shallow planting in well-drained soils.
Flowers, leaves and green pods can be harvested after 3 months and tubers after 5 months.
Winged bean germinates best between 18 - 25 degrees C so should be sown in early summer.
The seed should be scarified because it can have a hard skin that can inhibit germination by preventing moisture entering the seed.

4.25.1 Winged bean as food
Pods
1. The winged bean is a tropical vine producing large highly nutritious winged pods.
All parts of this uniquely flavoured plant are eaten from the pods to the flowers, leaves, stems and roots.
Pods are best picked when young and added to stir-fry dishes.
The flowers may also be added to dishes and sometimes used to add colour to rice or pastries.
Young leaves are picked and prepared as for many leafy vegetables like spinach.
The roots can be used in a similar fashion to potatoes and much more nutritious.
Dried seeds are also ground to make a form of flour.
2. Winged bean pods are the most popular part of the plant in almost every country where it is grown.
Tender pods may be eaten raw or else chopped and then either boiled in water or coconut milk, or shallow-fried in oil.
The winged bean is also used in soups, and stews.
Pods that are too fibrous to eat whole are often steamed or baked in open fires, and the seeds scraped out and eaten.
The seeds may first be removed and then boiled or fried.
Leaves, shoots and flowers
The growing shoots, young leaves and flowers of the winged bean are edible, nutritious and delicious. They may be boiled or fried.
Ripe seeds
Winged bean seeds should be soaked until the seed coat starts to soften.
They can then be boiled in water until they are tender, or they may be shallow fried or baked.
It is best to soak the seeds in water beforehand to breakdown some of the toxic substances.
The winged bean seed contains about as much protein and energy as the soybean.
Root tubers
Tubers can be boiled or baked (but not fried) without peeling. The skin then peels off easily.
The root should not be eaten raw.

4.25.2 Winged bean in the diet
Teach the students to explain the importance of winged beans in the diet.
1. Winged bean should be grown in the school garden because its seeds are good growth foods and the green parts are good
healthy food.
You can eat the seeds, green pods, leaves, flowers and underground root tubers.
There are many different varieties so the colour, size and wings on the pod vary.
It is a climbing plant that can grow up to four metres high.
The flowers are blue or white.
2. They grow in most types of soil and because they are legumes that give nitrogen plant food to the soil if they are dug in as
green manure.
Collect winged bean plants with pods or drawings of winged bean.
3. Ask the students if they have eaten winged bean and how it is used at home.
Show them the leaves, pods, flowers and tubers.
Some varieties of winged bean growing on the coast do not have tubers.
4. Draw the winged bean pods, leaves and flowers.
5. Cook some winged bean and give it to the students to eat.
Winged bean is very good for the health of babies and students because it is a growth food and a healthy food.

4.25.3 Care and harvest of winged bean
Teach the students to care for winged bean and harvest it.
Make sure the winged beans have enough water and are well-drained.
If the leaves start to turn yellow some fertilizer such as superphosphate will help.
After a month when plants are five cm high they need stakes to climb up.
Use strong sticks such as bamboo, two metres high for every 3rd plant.
When stakes are in position, pull out all weeds.
If you want bigger root tubers break off all the flowers and young shoots.
Diseases can form orange coloured lumps on the leaves, stems and pods.
Pick those infested plants and burn them.
Harvesting flowers, leaves and green pods can start after three months.
Tubers are harvested after six months.
Let some good pods mature to form seed for the next planting.
Beans and tubers are cooked by boiling.
Use stakes and something to hammer them in.
Visit the winged bean garden each week and note any changes.
Show the students the stakes needed and tell them to cut the number needed.
Put in stakes, weed garden, note any pests and diseases.
How many parts of the winged bean can they eat raw or cooked?

4.26 Leucaena
Leucaena leucocephala, (Acacia leucocephala, Leucaena glauca, Mimosa glauca, Mimosa leucocephala),
Family Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Subfamily: Mimosoideae, Common names: lamtoro; ipil ipil, tangan tangan, vaivai
See diagram 4.26: Leucaena | See diagram 9.53.9: Leucaena leaves
Perennial shrub, up to 18 m tall, forked when shrubby and branching strongly after coppicing, with greyish bark and prominent lenticels.
Leaves bipinnate with 4-9 pairs of pinnae, variable in length up to 35 cm,
with a large gland (up to 5 mm) at the base of the petiole; leaflets 11-22 pairs of pinnae, 8-16 mm x 1-2 mm, acute.
Flowers numerous, in globose heads with a diameter of 2-5 cm, stamens (10 per flower)
and pistil 10 mm long, anthers pilose, dehiscing at dawn.
Pod 14-26 cm x 1.5-2 cm, pendant, brown at maturity.
Seeds 18-22 per pod , 6-10 mm long, brown.
Uses:
1. Unripe pods and seeds as a food or medicine.
2. Very young shoots as food.
3. Ruminant forage, combines well with signal grass.
4. Fuel wood.
5. In hedgerow systems with grass for cattle production.
6. Shade trees over coffee and cocoa.
7. Living fence to support vine crops, e.g. pepper, passionfruit.
8 Reclamation species following mining, but weed risk.
9. Forage under mature coconuts.
Leucaena grows on shallow limestone soils, coastal sands and seasonally dry, self-mulching vertisol soils of pH 7.0-8.5.
It is tolerant of moderate salinity and alkalinity. Intolerant of low pH, high salinity and waterlogging.
Prefers subhumid and humid climates of 650-1,500 mm and up to 3,000 mm annual rainfall and tolerates up to 7 months dry season.
Requires temperatures of 25-30C for optimum growth.
All subspecies will flower and set seed throughout the year providing soil moisture and temperature are adequate.
Does not normally spread under grazing as cattle eat young seedlings.
However, it has considerable weed potential in ungrazed situations due to hard seeds and high rates of seed production.
Also, it colonizes disturbed lands such as roadsides and stream banks, particularly where soils are limestone based.
Weed potential is particularly severe for L. leucocephala subsp. leucocephala,
as this subspecies seeds continuously and heavily throughout the year given sufficient soil moisture.

4.31 Grow bean seedlings
See diagram 9.103.2: Watch seedlings grow
Teach the children to observe how seedlings grow.
1. Watch some young seedlings grow into mature plants.
Look for changes in colour, height and the number of leaves.
Measure the size of the leaves.
Count the flowers and the fruits.
Keep records of your observations.
2. Tie a string around the growing stem at an exact distance from the end of the shoot tip, e.g. 2 cm.
Record the distance between the end of the shoot tip and the tied string every day.
You can see that plants grow by extending their shoot tips.
3. Measure the height of the seedling with a ruler.
Cut a strip of paper the same height as the seedling and paste it on a big piece of cardboard.
Do this each day to make a bar graph.
Use the bar graph to predict how tall the plant will be 5 days later.
If you join the middles of the tops of the bars, you have a line graph.
When the slope of the line is steep, the plant is growing fast.
When the slope of the line is flatter, the plant is growing slowly.
4. Compare the growth of two seedlings, bean and maize.
Which seedling starts to grow first?
Which seedling is tallest after twelve days?
On which day are both seedlings the same height?
With this kind of graph you can answer questions, e.g. Do plants grow more during sunny or cloudy days?
Do plants grow more quickly when they are very young?
5. Compare the growth of four seedlings, tomato, chilli, pumpkin, papaya.
The four plants grow taller, produce flowers, fruits and seeds but they do these things at different times.
Which plant germinates first?
Which plant flowers first?

5.29 Germinate bean seed
| See diagram 9.113.2d: Germinate bean seed
| See diagram 9.112: Common bean, epigeal germination
| See diagram 9.110.1: Broad bean, hypogeal germination
Teach the children to describe the stages in the germination of a bean seed.
Use bean seeds, wet paper, jar.
The 2 types of germination:
1.1 Epigeal germination.
The seed leaves (cotyledons) pop out of the ground, e.g. common bean, (Phaseolus vulgaris)
2.2 Hypogeal germination.
The seed remains in the ground, e.g. peas, (Pisum sativum), broad bean (Vicia faba), maize (Zea mays), (Indian corn).
1. Soak some bean seeds in water.
What changes do you see? [The skin becomes wrinkled and the seed swells.]
2. Put the soaked seeds in a jar with wet paper.
tell the children to observe the seeds each day and describe what happens by completing this table:
Bean, Day 1 Coat wrinkles, seed swells,
Day 2 Root comes out,
Day 3 Curved neck stage White finger stage,
Day 4 Seed pops out of ground,
Day 5 First leaves appear First leaves appear
This can be extended to become a crop diary.

6.0.0 Mangoes in subtropical winter
Apply a little fertilizer in June and, if dry, water to encourage bud activity to help flower formation.
Apply 1-2 kg gypsum to mature trees to supply calcium.
During flowering, if the night temperature drops below 10oC, it kills the ovaries in the flower so they never get seed set and the fruit
falls off when small.
These damaged flowers are called "nubbins".
Cut them open to see if no seed is present.
At the end of July, snap off the flowers on the half of the tree that you can reach easily.
If a warm winter, the primary flowering will set fruit and if a cold winter, the secondary flowering will set fruit.
The fruit is prone to anthracnose fungus and bacterial spot.
To prevent disease, spray a copper-based fungicide alternating with sprays of Mancozeb fungicide.
During flowering only spray Mancozeb.
In Western Australia use "Ecocarb", (potassium bicarbonate), as an organic disease spray on mangoes.
Prune the trees to allow air and sunshine into the tree after fruiting and give supplementary potash during late winter.
For good canopy management and tree nutrition and soil management you should be able to see the sky through the pruned tree
canopy.

7.0.0 Artichokes
Inulin, D-fructose, in artichokes
Artichoke, globe artichoke, French artichoke, crown artichoke, (Cynara cardunculus var scolymus), Asteraceae
Plant in deep, rich well-drained soil in an open sunny area with cool, moist summer and mild winter.
Add well-rotted manure, blood and bone fertilizer, compost and garden lime.
Propagate from suckers from 3 years old plants, root cuttings or from the crowns.
Roots grow close to soil surface so cultivate with care.
At end of season cut back to 5 cm from the ground.
It is grown for its "head", its flower picked before it blooms.
However, do not eat the "choke" (cluster of immature florets), at the centre.
The edible flower head may be called an "artichoke".
It is the flavour of the Italian liqueur "Cynar", vegetative reproduction by rhizome, perennial thistle, parenchyma contains polysaccharide
inulin, instead of amylum.

Pulses
Pulses are annual leguminous crops yielding grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod, and are used for both food
and feed.
The term "pulses" is limited to crops harvested solely for dry grain, excluding crops harvested green for food, e.g. green peas, which are
classified as vegetable crops.
The term "pulses" also excludes crops used for oil extraction, e.g. soybean, groundnuts, and leguminous crops, e.g. seeds of clover
and alfalfa, used exclusively for sowing purposes.
Pulses also play an important role in cropping systems because of their ability to fix nitrogen and so enrich the soil.
Pulses contain carbohydrates, mainly starches (55-65 % of the total weight), proteins, including essential amino acids (18-25 %), and
fat (1 - 4 %), with the remainder consists of water and inedible substances.
Production data is reported in terms of dry clean weight, excluding the weight of the pods.
FAO describes 11 primary pulses.
1. Beans, Dry, includes: kidney bean, haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), lima bean, butter bean (Phaseolus lunatus), adzuki bean
(Phaseolus angularis), mungo bean, golden gram, green gram (Phaseolus aureus), black gram, urd (Phaseolus mungo), scarlet runner
bean (Phaseolus coccineus), rice bean (Phaseolus calcaratus), moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius), tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius).
2. Broad Beans, Dry, includes: Vicia faba: horse-bean (var. equina), broad bean (var. major), held bean (var. minor).
3. Peas, Dry, includes: garden pea (Pisum sativum), field pea (Pisum arvense).
4. Chickpeas, includes: chickpea, Bengal gram, garbanzos (Cicer arietinum).
5. Cow Peas, Dry, includes: cowpea, blackeye pea / bean (Vigna sinensis, Dolichos sinensis).
6. Pigeon Peas, includes: pigeon pea, cajan pea, Congo bean (Cajanus cajan).
7. Lentils, includes: (Lens esculenta, Ervum lens).
8. Bambara Beans, includes: bambara groundnut, earth pea (Voandzeia subterranea).
9. Vetches, includes: spring/common vetch (Vicia sativa), used mainly for animal feed.
10. Lupins, includes: Lupinus spp., used primarily for feed, but some varieties are cultivated for human food.
11. Pulses Nes, includes: lablab or hyacinth bean (Dolichos spp.), jack or sword bean (Canavalia spp.), winged bean (Psophocarpus
tetragonolobus), guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), velvet bean (Stizolobium spp.), yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus).
Two processed products are included in the FAO list:
Flour of Pulses, produced through milling or grinding of pulses, and Bran of Pulses