School Science Experiments
TopicIndexE
2019-04-06
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Chemistry E
Table of Contents
E0, Reduction potential, Standard electrode potential of metals: 3.84.6
Ear protection, Safety ear muffs, ear plugs
Earth smell, Geosmin
See: Earth Science (Commercial)
Ebullioscopic constant, kB, Elevation of boiling points: 7.5.1
Ecdysterone, C27H44O7, (Saponin)
Ecgonine, C9H15NO3
Echimidine, C20H31NO7
Echinacoside, C35H46O20
See: Ecology (Commercial)
"Ecstasy", abuse of volatile substances: 11.12
EDTA: 9.10.0
EEC Food additives likely to cause adverse reactions: 19.4.2
Effervescence, Prepare fruit salts, health salts: 16.7.13
Effervescent tablets, health salts, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda): 12.1.1
Efflorescent
Egg, chicken egg
Ehrlich's haematoxylin, C16H14O6, microscopy stain, Prepare: 3.13.2
Einsteinium, Es
Elaeocarpine C16H19NO2
Elastic, Mechanical properties of materials: 34.5.0
Elastomer polymers: 3.6.2
Electric, electrical, electricity
Electro-
Electrochemical cells: 13.1.0
Electrolysis: 15.5.0
Electrolytic cells
See: Electrolysis (Commercial)
See: Electrophoresis (Commercial)
Electroplating: 15.1.0
Elemene, C15H24
Elements
Elemicin, C12H16O3: 16.2.2.9
Elephant's toothpaste reaction, Hydrogen peroxide with yeast: 17.3.1.1
Elevation of boiling points, ebullioscopic constant, kB: 7.5.1
Ellagic acid, C14H6O8: 16.3.6.16
Emerald, Be3Al2(SiO3)6
Emery
Emetine, C29H40N2O4
Emodin, C15H10O5
Emulsifying agents (agriculture): 16.18.8
Emulsifying agents (food): 19.1.0.3
Emulsions
Enamel, calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2: 9.226
Enantiomers
Endosulfan, C9H6Cl6O3S
Endothermic reactions take in heat energy: 14.2.0
Endrin, C12H8Cl6O, Cyclodiene pesticides: 16.4.01
Energy
Enthalpy, Chemical potential energy, enthalpy: 7.9.14.1
Enthalpy of reaction, heat of reaction: 14.1.0
Enthalpy: 14.04
Entropy, Negative thermal expansion (NTE) of rubber: 23.6.3
Entropy, Third law of thermodynamics: 20.4.03
Environment
Enzymes
Eosin, C20H6Br4Na2O5, Acid red 87
Ephedrine, C10H15NO
Epigallocatechin, C22H18O11: 16.3.6.15
Epinephrine, C9H13NO3, adrenaline
Epoxy, epoxy resin
EPS (plastic)
Epsom salts, MgSO4, magnesium sulfate, epsomite mineral
"EQUAL", Aspartame sweetener: E951
Equilibrium occurs in reactions with matched forward and reverse rates, so the mixture composition appears unchanging
Equilibrium symbol in this website is <--> or <=>.
Equipment and solutions: 6.0.0
Erbium, Er
Ergotamine, C33H35N5O5
Eriochrome Black T indicator,  Tests for water hardness: 12.13.12.1
Eriochrome, C20H12O7N3Na, C.I. 14645, C.I. Mordant, Black 11, solochrome black, Toxic if ingested
Erlenmeyer flask, Flasks, borosilicate glass flasks: 1.27
Errors, Accuracy and error: 3.3.1.0
Errors, theory of errors, addition of uncertainties: 6.4.0
Erucic acid: 16.14.4
Erythema, Sunscreens and sun-protective clothing: 19.7.4
Erythrose, C4H8O4, Aldoses and ketoses: 16.3.1.3 (Table)
Erythrosine B, C20H8I4O5: 13 (indicator)
Erythrulose, C4H8O4, Aldoses and ketoses: 16.3.1.3 (Table)
Escalin (Aesculin), C21H24O13, coumarin glucoside: 16.3.5.1
Escin or aescin, C55H86O24: 16.3.5.1a
Essential oils: 16.6.1
Esterification
Esters
Estimating: 3.6.0
Esomeprazole, C17H19N3O3S, "Nexium", medication to treat excess HCl in stomach, heartburn, oesophageal reflux
Estradiol, C18H24O2, oestradiol
Estragole, C10H12O, methyl chavicol
Estragole: 16.2.2.10
Eugenol: 16.3.6.9
Eugenol acetate: 16.3.6.11
Etchants, etching
Ethanal, C2H4
Ethanamide, CH3CONH2, acetamide
Ethane (C2H6)
Ethanedial, glyoxal, CHO-CHO (dialdehyde), in photography
Ethanedioic acid, C2H2O4, oxalic acid
Ethanediol, C2H6O2, ethylene glycol, anti-freeze
Ethanethiol, Ethyl mercaptan: 16.1.3.3.3
Ethanoates, CH3COO-, acetates, ethanoates
Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, acetic acid
Ethanoic acid, Vinegar
Ethanoic anhydride (CH3CO)2O: Acetic anhydride
Ethanol, C2H5OH, ethyl alcohol
Ethanolamine, NH2CH2CH2OH
Ethanone, C10H13NO
Ethanoyl, CH3CO-, acetyls
Ethanoyl chloride, CH3COCl, acetyl chloride
Ethene, C2H4, ethylene
Ethephon phosphonate, ClCH2CH2P(O)(OH)2, Plant growth regulators: 9.88.1
Ethereal oils, essential oils, volatile oils: 16.6.1
Ethers, ether group, R-O-R'
Ethoxyethane, C2H5OC2H5, (C2H5)2O, diethyl ether
Ethoxyethanol, C4H10O2
Ethoxyethanol acetate, C6H12O3
Ethyl group, -CH2CH3
Ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene, C2H4
Ethylphenol, C8H10O
Ethyne, C2H2, HCCH, acetylene
Etoposide, C29H32O13
Eucalyptol, Cineole, C10H18O
Eucalyptus oil
Eugenol: 16.3.6.10
Eugenol acetate: 16.3.6.11
Europium, Eu
Eutectic mixture: 5.5.1
Evans blue (CI: 23860)
Evaporating basin: 1.23
Evaporation, Moisture enters the air: 37.7.0 (Weather)
See: Evaporating dish (Commercial)
Evening primrose oil
Evodiamine, C19H17N3O
Excipients (herbal excipients): 5.04.9
Exothermic and endothermic reactions: 14.03
Exothermic reactions give out heat energy: 14.1.0
EXP: can explode due to flame, shock or friction.
Experimental investigation: 2.2
Experimental procedures: 3.2.3
Expired air resuscitation (EAR): 9.242.0
Explosive: 4.1
Explosive, Hazard classifications: 15.1.0
Explosions, Dust explosions: 15.1.1
Expose different salts to the air: 4.0
Expose sodium carbonate decahydrate to the air: 5.0
Extraction, Solvent extraction of oil from peanuts: 10.12.1
Extremely toxic substances: 15.2.1.0
Eye, Eyes and sight: 9.5.0

Efflorescent
Efflorescent substances have crystals containing water of crystallization but may lose some of that water by evaporation when
exposed to the air and begin to form a powder.
In the underground cellar of a house or building the term "efflorescence" refers to when dissolved salts rise to the surface and
crystallize out of the ground or on the walls of the cellar.
Efflorescent chemicals include the following:
copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4.5H2O) (in dry air), iron ammonium sulfate (Fe(NH4)2(SO4).6H2O),
lead acetate [(CH3COO)2Pb.3H2O] (slow), magnesium sulfate (MgSO4.7H2O), di-sodium orthophosphate (Na2HPO4.12H2O),
sodium sulfate decahydrate (Na2SO4.10H2O), sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) (Na2B4O7.10H2O) (in dry air),
zinc sulfate (ZnSO4.7H2O).
Sodium carbonate effflorescence: 12.1.23.

Einsteinium, Es
Einsteinium
, Es, radioactive actinide element.

Egg, chicken egg
Catch an egg in a sheet: 17.6.1.6, (Physics)
Dilute acids with carbonates, common carbonates: 12.3.9.0
Dilute tartaric acid with egg shell, soil, wood ash: 12.3.9.4
Egg in a bottle: 12.3.27 (Physics)
Egg in a candle flame: 8.1.12 (Physics)
Egg production: 8.0 (Chicken project)
Egg shell, Calcium carbonate
Egg white
Egg yolk
Eggs: 8.0 (Chicken project)
Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, acetic acid: 12.3.0.6
Household, Stain removal: 19.4.2.1, (See: Egg)
Osmosis with an egg: 9.171
Prepare eggs for food: 23.0 (Chicken project)
Rotten egg gas, hydrogen sulfide, H2S
Secret writing inks, 3.2.5.1 (See: 2.)
Spinning eggs, forces with a fresh egg and hard-boiled egg: 18.3.1.2.1.

Egg white
Albumen (egg white) and egg yolk: 16.7.10
Colloidal nature of egg white: 9.172
Fibrous and globular proteins: 16.3.6.0.2, (See: 3.)
Kjeldahl method for determining nitrogen content: 16.6.9 (See: 2.)
Leavening agents: 19.1.6.0 (See: 1.)
Prepare Meyer's albumen solution: 2.3
Prepare protein solutions: 16.6.3
Use egg white beaten solution to make leather upholstery look like new.

Egg yolk
Choline: 16.7.21.1
Egg in a cake mix: 16.7.10.2
Astaxanthin, C40H52O4
Colloids in food: 19.2.0.1
Prepare mayonnaise and salad dressing emulsions: 16.7.12
Phospholipids: 16.3.3.0.1.

Rotten egg gas, hydrogen sulfide, H2S
Acids with salts: 12.3.15
Float eggs in water: 4.206
Heat iron with sulfur: 12.2.2.1
Hydrogen sulfide, hazards: 3.8.7
Hair straightening: 19.5.6
Prepare hydrogen sulfide: 3.43.0.

Elements
See: Elements (Commercial)
See: Elements of the universe (Commercial)
Table 2. Table of the elements
Properties of elements: 7.0 Assay value of precious metals 35.3.01
Direct union of elements to form compounds: 8.0.0
Elements: 2.0.0
Elements combine with oxygen gas when heated in air: 8.2.0
Elements experiment: 7.2.2a
Elements in food: 3.98
Elements in the Earth's crust, abundance of elements: 36.3.01
Elements in the Sun, abundance of elements: 36.3.02
Free element metals: 2.6.0
Periodic table: Table 1
Pure substances and impure substances, elements and compounds: 7.2.0
Symbol of an element: 2.12.0
Tests for metals with flame tests, metals and their compounds: 11.3.2 Transition elements: 1.12.0.

Emulsions
Emulsions: 7.8.3.0
Emulsifiers, food additives: 19.4.14
Emulsifying agents: 16.18.8, (Pesticides)
Emulsions with a microscope: 7.8.3.1
Prepare bean curd (tofu, soya bean): 7.8.3.6
Prepare face cream emulsion: 7.8.3.2
Prepare mayonnaise and salad dressing emulsions: 16.7.12
Silver chloride precipitate in photography: 7.8.7.1
Soap as an emulsifying agent: 7.8.3.4
Temporary and permanent emulsions: 7.8.3.3.

Enantiomers
Enantiomers, pair of optical isomers, e.g. D-ribulose and L-ribulose
Phenylalanine sweetener: 19.2.6
Pinene, C10H16
Ribulose, C5H10O5
Tartaric acid.

Endosulfan
Endosulfan, C9H6Cl6O3S, insecticide
Aromatic halogen compounds: 16.3.4.0.6
Cyclodiene pesticides: 16.4.01.

Energy
See: Energy (Commercial)
"Mouse Trap Car", energy conversion, levers, springs, add CD wheels, (toy product)
Chemical potential energy, enthalpy: 7.9.14.1
Chemiluminescence, bioluminescence: 14.3.0
Conservation of energy: 9.2.0
Electric power and energy, power supply: 33.5.0
Electrical energy from the displacement of copper by zinc: 3.84
Endothermic reactions take in heat energy: 14.2.0
Energy conversion kJ, mJ, kWh, therm, Btu, calorie, horsepower: 3.13.0
Energy density, battery energy storage density
Energy drinks, Soft drinks: 15.8.6
Energy from chemical reactions: 3.80
Energy from peanuts: 6.6.17.1
Energy from breakfast cereal: 6.6.17.2
Energy of reactions: 14.01
Energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, Gravesande's experiment: 9.1.0
Enthalpy of reaction, heat of reaction: 14.1.0
Exothermic reactions give out heat energy: 14.1.0
Flywheels: 9.2.01
Gravitational potential energy: 36.10.7
Heat energy from chemical reactions: 3.12.0
Heat energy from respiration of peas: 9.156
Heat of combustion, bomb calorimeter, energy values of food: 22.5.7
Kinetic motion: 9.1.0
Power: 9.2.20
Power, bicycle ergonometer: 9.2.21
Prepare molar solutions: 5.1.1
Renewable energy, biomass, hydroelectric, solar, wind: 9.0.1
Rotational energy: 18.3.2
Solar water heater: 9.2.10
Steam wheel: 5.09 (Primary)
Transfer kinetic energy to heat energy: 23.104
Units of work and energy, joule and calorie, kilowatt-hour: 21.0.0
Water wheel: 4.199.

Environment
See: Environment (Commercial)
See: Excursions, (Commercial)
See: Meters, Environment meters, (Commercial)

Effects of factors of environmental stress on the cell membranes of beetroot: 9.183
Environment pollution: 34.9.0
Environmental chemistry, pollution: 18.0.0
Part 7. Environmental studies, sustainability, (websites).

Enzymes
Enzyme technology, pectinase in the industrial production of juice: 4.2.7.2
Enzymes in washing powders: 12.12.03.6
Enzymes, Safety in school science: 2.1.8
Fermentation, food preparation: 4.2.0
RuBisCO, carbon fixing enzyme
RuBisCo, Photosynthesis: 6.5.0
Technology, pectinase, amylase: 4.2.7.1.

Experiments
Bromelain enzyme from pineapples, Ananas: 17.4.3
Enzyme activity during germination: 6.3.6
Enzyme technology, industrial uses of pectinase: 4.2.10
Hydrogen peroxide decomposition: 17.3.1.0
Hydrolysis of urea with urease 16.6.17
Hydrolysis, starch by salivary amylase: 9.130
Prepare jelly, fresh and tinned pineapple: 16.7.9.1
Tests for diastase activity: 9.3.10
Tests for glucose, urine test: 19.1.20.4
Tests for lipase activity, castor oil, milk: 9.3.14.

Enzymes are biological catalysts that can speed up, and control, chemical reactions that would otherwise virtually never occur at
normal body temperature, 37C.
Thousands of chemical reactions are occurring in the human body every moment of life, and each of these reactions is controlled by a
particular enzyme, e.g. catalase breaks down potentially poisonous hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Enzymes are proteins that are specific in their action, but are not altered by the reaction, so they can be used repeatedly.
An enzymes is neither a reactants nor a product of a chemical equation it influences.
As with all proteins enzymes are destroyed by heat or by extreme values pH or salt concentration, denaturation.
So they are sensitive to pH.

Eosin
Eosin, C20H6Br4Na2O5, Acid red 87
Eosin: 16.3.5.3
Anodize aluminium: 15.1.8 (See experiment 1)
Blood cells experiments: 9.215.1, (See 4.4)
Fluorescence
Path of the transpiration stream, cut flower stems in ink: 6.2.12 (See Experiment 2.)
Prepare eosin solution, tetrabromofluorescein: 3.10
Prepare Giemsa stain: 3.28
Prepare Wright's stain: 3.19
Reactions of bromine, Br2: 12.19.9.1 (See 3.)
Prepare Scott's blueing solution: 1.9.

Epoxy
Epoxy embedding medium, for electron microscopy.
'Araldite" polymer, epoxy resin, C13H18O2:
3.8.7
Epoxy resin, fibreglass,
Adhesives: 1.3
Epoxy resin polymers, thermoset plastics: 3.4.3.1.

Epoxy compounds
Epoxy compounds (O atoms in CCO ring, -C-O-C- in epoxides), Epoxy resin polymers, thermoset plastics
Oxygen directly linked to two adjacent bonded carbon atoms forming a triangle.
Epoxides contain an oxygen atom linked to two carbon atoms as part of a three-member cyclic ring, e.g. the cyclic ether ethylene
oxide, C2H4O, also called oxirane.
Epoxy hardener, e.g. diethylenetriamine / methyl isobutyl ketone ketamine mixture, fumes may be toxic if heated.
Epoxy resins are the uncured resins used for fibreglass and may contain isocyanate residues that are strong irritants to the eye nose and
respiratory organs.
Epoxy resins are easy to ignite, orange yellow smoky flame, burns after removing flame, acrid smell.
"Araldite" polymer is an epoxy resin.
(Epoxy hardener, H180 FAST, H180 SLOW, Epoxy resin DER353).

Erbium
Erbium
, Er, Ytterbi, Sweden), erbium oxide, Er2O3, pink powder, in optical fibre walls, occurs with yttrium, television screen red
colour, in ink of European Union banknotes (euro), for anti-counterfeiting.

Esters
Esters, e.g. propane C3H8, ethanoic acid CH3COOH, ester = propyl ethanoate CH3COOC3H7
Esters, derivatives of fatty acids: 16.5.0
Esters, List of esters: 1.12
Glycerides, esterification of glycerol: 16.3.3.0.5
Prepare ethyl acetate (ethyl ethanoate): 16.5.2.

Esterification
Forming an ester, reaction of organic acid with an alcohol.
Carboxylic acid (acid catalyst), ester + water
R:O:OH --> (R-OH) R:O:OR + H2O (Fischer esterification)
The reverse process is ester hydrolysis, e.g. saponification, the making of soap from fat.
Glycerides, esterification of glycerol: 16.3.3.0.5.

Etchants
Etching may be done in schools to prepare printed circuit boards, metal specimens for examination, etchings and lithographic plates.
However, many etchants are hazardous.
1. Ammonium persulfate (NH4)2S2O8, a strong oxidizing agent, is used as an etchant for copper plates as a 20% solution (w / v),
(20 g in 100 mL of water), and 5% solution (w / v) (5g in 100 mL of water), prepared before the lesson, and used at 80oC, to prepare
copper and alloys for microscopic examination, etch copper in construction of printed circuit boards and prepare tin coating on steel for
microscopic examination.
2. Copper ammonium chloride solution, [Cu(NH3)3Cl2], 10% solution (w /v) (10 g per 100 mL of water), to prepare steels for
macroscopic examination.
3. Iron (III) chloride (ferric chloride), 20% solution (w / v) (20 g in 100 mL of water), prepared before the lesson, is an etchant for
most metals and alloys, and is used etch copper in PCB construction, and etch aluminium zinc and copper plates, but it may leave
persistent stains.
4. Nitric acid, 25% solution (approximately 4M), is an etchant for copper plates.
5. Sodium hydroxide solution, 1% solution (w / v) (1 g per 100 mL of water), to prepare aluminium and alloys for microscopic
examination.
6. Sulfuric acid with concentration < 2M, may be used with care.
7. The following etchant chemicals, or mixtures containing them, are not permitted in schools because of high corrosive risk and in some
cases potential fire hazard;
7.1 Ammonium hydroxide + hydrogen peroxide
7.2 Chromic acid
7.3 Hydrofluoric acid
7.4 Nitric acid + potassium dichromate + water (which can produce nitric acid)
7.5 Nitric acid + methanol
7.6 (Nital), Nitric acid + glycerol + acetic acid
7.5 Picric acid.

Ethanal
Ethanal, C2H4O, acetaldehyde, ethyl aldehyde, acetic aldehyde, ethyl aldehyde, acetic aldehyde, UN 1089
Acetaldehyde, ethanal, Toxic if ingested, Highly flammable
Acetaldehyde, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous
Used in the manufacture of chemicals, perfumes, aniline dyes, plastics, synthetic rubber, phenolic and urea resins, room air deodorizers,
synthetic flavouring substance and food preservative
Clear colourless fuming liquid, pungent, fruity odour.
Vapours heavier than air can travel distances and cause flash back from combustion sources.
Heated to decomposition emits acrid smoke and toxic fumes of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Metaldehyde, ethanal tetramer
Prepare ethanal with potassium dichromate: 16.3.2.7
Prepare ethanal with potassium manganate (VII): 16.3.2.6
Tests for aldehydes, Tollens' test: 16.3.7.3.

Ethane
Ethane (C2H6 | CH3.CH3 | H3C.CH3)
CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, "Freons": 12.19.5.0
Density of gases, Ethane (Table)
Ethanediol, C2H6O2, ethylene glycol, anti-freeze, ethane-1, 2-diol, ethanediol
Prepare ethane gas: 16.6.1.1.

Ethanoic acid
Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, acetic acid,
Common ion effect, sodium ethanoate and ethanoic acid: 17.5.2
Dilute acids with metals, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ethanoic acid: 12.3.2.1
Ethanoic acid (acetic acid), ionization reaction: 16.3.6.1.4
Ethanoic acid, dilute acids and metals: 12.3.2.1
Ethanoic acid with sodium carbonate: 12.1.25
Ethanoic acid with sodium hydroxide: 14.1.5.1
Heat of neutralization with a calorimeter: 14.1.5 (See: 5.)
Prepare ethyl acetate (ethyl ethanoate): 16.5.2
Prepare ethanoic acid (acetic acid), ionization reaction: 16.4.2
Storing acids, acetic acid: 3.4.13.1
Tests for acetates: 12.11.5.1
Vinegar (acetic acid).

Acetic acid
Acetic acid, CH3CO2H, CH3COOH, ethanoic acid, weak acid, Ka small, colourless, mobile liquid (r.d. glacial acetic acid, 17 M),
1.05 gm cm-3, b.p. 118oC, solidifies 16.7oC, conc. 17.5 M, dilute 6 M, miscible with water, pungent odour, "glacial" ethanoic acid,
(vinegar, eisel, is about 5% acetic acid, sour wine), E260 (anti-bacterial medicine, clean toilets, stain remover, dissolves grease, mild
disinfectant).
Common names: white vinegar (5%)
Vinegar is a weak 4-5 % solution of acetic acid, C2H4O2.
Pure acetic acid is a colourless liquid that solidifies to ice like crystals in cold weather so is called glacial acetic acid.
Acetic acid is a weak acid, but, like citric acid and tartaric acid, it forms carbon dioxide with chalk, baking soda, and forms hydrogen
with iron filings and zinc.
Acetic acid is used in the manufacture of artificial silk, non-flam celluloid.
By treating copper with acetic acid in the presence of air a green-blue pigment forms called verdigris, i.e. impure copper acetate.
Acetic acid, CH3COOH, glacial acetic acid, analytical reagent, white vinegar, photographic stop bath, volatile organic compound,
Toxic if ingested, Irritant vapour, Harmful, Corrosive
Colourless liquid, strong vinegar-like odour, flammable, > 39C forms explosive vapour / air mixture
Topical medicines, treat warts, make chemical compounds, antimicrobial agent, latex coagulant, food preservative, solvent
Emitted by solid fuels for barbecues
Glacial acetic acid, 17 M, 99%, 120 mL of concentrated solution for 1 litre of 2 M solution.
Glacial acetic acid, 99.5%, packing 25/225 kg in plastic drum
Acetic acid, > 13 M
Acetic acid, glacial > 80%
Acetic acid 2-13 M, 10-89%
Acetic acid < 2 M, < 10% solution, vinegar, Not hazardous
Ethanoic acid-2-water, glacial acetic acid, fixative, pure acid is called "glacial".

Vinegar
Acidity of vinegar and wine: 12.8.4.3
Decolorize vinegar: 12.11.2
Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, acetic acid: 12.3.0.6
Prepare mayonnaise and salad dressing emulsions: 16.7.12
Prepare mayonnaise: 7.8.1.01
Prepare casein plastic from milk: 3.100
Prepare verdigris with copper and vinegar: 12.11.1
Prepare vinegar from wine: 19.1.4
Prepare vinegar with Acetobacter aceti: 4.2.6
Secret writing inks: 3.2.5.7
Tests for acetic acid in vinegar: 12.11.3.

Vinegar
"Kitchen Science", vinegar, baking soda, cornstarch, lemon (toy product)
Low cost, Distilled white vinegar (FCC grade), 5% acetic acid, approximately 0.83 M
Vinegar (acetic acid), Acetic acid, Low cost: distilled white vinegar
Acetic acid, Low cost: distilled white vinegar
Use vinegar + Condy's crystals to neutralize bad smells.
Use vinegar + kerosene for floor polish.
Use vinegar, added to shoe cleaner for quick drying tennis shoes.
Use vinegar, brown vinegar, solution to remove shine from seats of skirts or blue serge suits.
Use vinegar, brushed on inside of tight shoes, to make them fit.
Use vinegar to clean bathroom tiles, glass, spectacles, washing machine.
Use vinegar to remove "fur" from kettles, gravy stains on clothes, stains on marble, cooking smells.
Use vinegar to marinate meat, make soil more acid, treat upset stomach
Vinegar bacteria medium: 9.2.22.

Ethanol
Ethanol, "alcohol", ethyl alcohol
See: Data-logging (Commercial)
Ethanol (Alcohol) Sensor, measure ethanol during fermentation or in sample
Ethanol, C2H5OH: 16.5.0
Cleaning agents, solvents: 2.20.4
Ethanol safety: 16.1.3.1a
Alcohol abuse: 11.11.3
Alcohol alizarin test: 16.1.4 (Milk tests)
Spirit burner, alcohol lamp, methylated spirit burner, alcohol burner: 8.3.1
Alcohol test: 16.1.3 (Milk tests)
Alcohols, phenols, thiols: 16.1.3.0
Alcohol (ethanol): 1.2
Carbon dioxide and fermentation for brewing: 3.38
Fatty alcohols, lauryl alcohol: 3.8.0
Boiling point of inflammable liquids: 3.6
Boiling point of a mixture of two liquids, water and alcohol: 7.5.3
Breath test for alcohol using potassium dichromate: 15.2.11
Burn (Monopoly, fake money) bank notes, ethanol: 8.6.1
Degrees proof, proof spirit: 3.7.3, (Alcohol concentration)
Methylated spirits
Prepare detergent, alcohol-based detergent: 12.13.9
Ratios when purchasing pre-made ethanol extracts: 17.6 (Tinctures)
See: Refractometers (Commercial)
Separate a mixture of ethanol and water: 10.6.1
Tests for organic acids and alcohols: 16.4.1.0.

Ethanol, ACS reagent, 99.5% (200 proof), absolute, Ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH
Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, methyl carbinol, methyl carbinol, spirit vini meth, alcohol, grain alcohol, fermentation alcohol
Ethanol, rectified spirit (4.43% water, BP 78oC), constant boiling mixture = 95.6% ethanol and 4.4% water, 95% rectified spirits
Absolute alcohol, pure ethanol fixative, 800 px alcohol.

Ethene, C2H4
Ethylene, C2H4
Ethene (ethylene) (C2H4 | CH2.CH2 | H2C=CH2), the simplest alkene, Highly flammable, asphyxiating gas, can cause anaesthesia
Ethene gas is a plant growth substance produced in wounded, diseased and ripening tissues, where it reacts with auxins to induce fruit
ripening and abscission of leaves or diseased parts.
Ethylene is used to ripen stored fruit artificially, e.g. bananas: 17.0 Banana ripening.
Ethene, ethylene, Table 1.0.0, Molecular weight, Density
Ethylene gas, CH2, abscission: 9.1.7.3
Alkenes (CnH2n), olefins: 16.1.1.2.0
Alumina as a catalyst in the cracking process: 12.1.10
Auxins: 9.1.7.1 (See: 2.)
Breakdown ethanol to ethene: 3.96
Burn ethylene in chlorine: 13.4.8.7
Chemical sources of polymer materials, ethylene (LD), ethylene (LLD), ethylene (HD)
Density of gases, Ethene (Table)
zz Prepare preserving agents for cut flowers: 19.6.5
Prepare ethene (ethylene), C2H4: 16.1.1.2.1.

Ethylene compounds
Acrylamide: 16.1.5.6.1
Antifreeze, ethylene glycol, ethane-1, 2-diol
Chelates
Cracking: 7.9.15.1
Cracking
EDTA, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: 9.10.0
EDTA, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, EDTA: 9.10.0
EDTA, Mineral deficiency experiment, hydroponics: 9.9.18.5
EDTA, synthetic chelating agent: 16.4.4, (See: 3.)
EDTA, Test for water hardness, Calmagite indicator: 12.13.12.0
EDTA, Tests for water hardness, Eriochrome Black T indicator: 12.13.12.1
Ethephon phosphonate, Plant growth regulators: 9.88.1
Ethylene chlorohydrin, Yam project
Ethylene absorption by oxidation with sodium permanganate: 19.2.9.2
Ethylene aldehyde: Acrolein
Ethylene aldehyde, Tests for glycerine: 12.7.4
Ethylene bisthiocarbamate, Mancozeb: 16.6.13
Ethylene bromide, Cassava project, 17., (See: 9.)
Ethylene chlorohydrin, C2H5ClO, 2-chloroethyl alcohol, 2-chloroethanol,   highly toxic
Ethylene dibromide, Tests for unsaturated hydrocarbons, bromine water tests for unsaturation: 16.4.7.0
Ethylene dibromide, 1, 2-Dibromoethane: 12.18.16
Ethylene dibromide, Fumigants: 16.18.9.2
Ethylene dibromide: Dibromo
Ethylene dichloride (1.2-dichloroethane, Freon 150), C2H4Cl2, (ClH2C-CH2Cl), Toxic, highly flammable
Ethylene dichloride, 1, 2-dichloethane, Solution < 1%, Not hazardous
Ethylene glycol, C2H6O2, antifreeze
Ethylene glycol monomethylene ether, 2-methoxyethanol, CH3OCH2CH2OH, methyl cellosolve, Toxic by all routes
Ethylene oxide, C2H4O
Ethylene oxide, a cyclic ether, Epoxy, epoxy resin: 16.9.8
Ethylene vinyl acetate (C2H4)n(C4H6O2)m, (EVA),   used in sports shoes
Ethylenediamine, C2H4(NH2)2
Iron (II) ethylenediammonium sulfate tetrahydrate, C2H10N2O4S.FeSO4.4H2O
Flowering and forcing 6.0 (See 6. Pineapple project)
Birefringent clear plastics, polyethylene terephthalate (PET): 27.189
Plant growth regulators: 9.1.7.0
Polytetrafluoroetheylene, PTFE: 3.7.32
PFOA, perfluorooctanoic acid, CF3(CF2)6COOH, TeflonTM: 16.14.2
Stain removal, tetrachloroethylene, 19.4.2.1, (See: Treatments 2.)
Synthetic fatty alcohol ethoxylate, ethylene oxide: 12.12.03.1c
Tests for gases from burning hydrocarbons: 16.4.6.0
Triethylenetetramine, TET, curing agent for epoxy resin adhesive, surface coating, irritant
Vinyl ethylene, Butadiene, 1, 3-Butadiene, C4H6, CH2:CHCH:CH2.

Ethylene glycol
Ethylene glycol, Poisons and First Aid (Table): 3.10.0
Abuse of volatile substances, inhalants: 11.01
Dihydric alcohols, glycol: 16.1.3.0.1
Melting point of ice and freezing point (fp), of water, antifreeze: 7.4.3.0 (See: 1.)
Vapour pressure of water and non-volatile solvent: 24.1.02 (See: Repeat the experiment)
Fracking, by Josie Garthwaite: 35.23.10a, (ethylene glycol, See: 3.)
Melting point of ice and freezing point of water: 7.4.3.0
See: Refractometers Testing Antifreeze, (Commercial)
Tests for unsaturated hydrocarbons, acidified potassium manganate (VII) solution: 16.4.9.0
Vapour pressure of water and non-volatile solvent: 24.1.02.

Antifreeze
Ethanediol, C2H6O2 (CH2OH)2, CH2OHCH2OH, ethylene glycol, ethane diol, ethane-1, 2-diol, ethan-1, 2-diol, 1, 2-ethanediol,
1, 2-dihydroxyethane, "EG", "glycol", glycol alcohol, ethylene dihydrate, monoethylene glycol, most common antifreeze
Ethylene glycol, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous
Colourless, odourless, viscous, syrup-like liquid, dihydroxy alcohol, dissolves in water, flash point 111-121oC.
Short term exposure from oral intake can cause vomiting, relative sweetness 1.3, poisonous
Permittivity, dielectric constant, ethylene glycol 37
Ethylene glycol is widely manufactured as an antifreeze, coolant, hydraulic fluid, and for manufacture of dynamite and resins.
Potassium permanganate is spontaneously flammable on contact with ethylene glycol.
The most common antifreeze is ethylene glycol, C2H6O2
An antifreeze depresses freezing point and raises boiling point.
The term "antifreeze" usually refers to ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol, MEG) (C2H6O2) (HOCH2CH2OH), and is used in
motor car and smaller aeroplane cooling systems.
However it is toxic, so use other antifreezes, e.g. propylene glycol (C3H8O2), a non-toxic antifreeze, or glycerol (C3H8O3), or
methanol (CH3OH).
Propylene glycol, propane-1, 2-diol, [C3H8O3], is a "Non-toxic antifreeze", but should not be ingested.

Ethers
Ethers group: (-O-), in organic compound
Ethers: 16.1.3.4
Diethyl ether, C2H5OC2H5, anaesthetic "ether"
16.1.3.5 Ethyl cellulose
Polyethers: 3.7.15.

Ethoxyethanol, C4H10O2
Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, C4H10O2, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethyl cellosolve
Colourless liquid, organic solvent, sweet odour, dissolves in water and organic solvents.
Solvent, in surface coatings, varnish removers, printing inks, duplicating fluids, wood stains, and epoxies, colourless liquid.
Irritant when breathed in or by passing through the skin, possible teratogen, (cause birth defects).
Ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, C6H12O3, ethylene glycol monoethylether acetate, ethyl cellosolve acetate
Clear, colourless, volatile liquid, mild sweet odour.
In automobile lacquers to retard evaporation and impart high gloss, solvent for oils, resins, and nitrocellulose, wood stains, leather and
cosmetic ingredients.
Used in the semiconductor industry.
Irritant when breathed in or by passing through the skin.

Ethyl
Ethyl acetate, CH3COOC2H5, ethyl ethanoate
Ethyl acetoactonate, CH3COCH2COOC2H5, (ethyl 3-oxobutanoate): 16.5.01
Ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH, Ethanol, "alcohol", ethyl alcohol
Ethyl amine, CH3CH2NH2, Ethylamine, ethanamine, aminoethane, monomethyamine
Ethyl ammonium chloride,   C2H8ClN,   Ethylammonium chloride,
Ethyl benzene, C8H10
Ethyl benzoate, C9H10O2, Toxic if ingested, Flammable
Ethyl butanoate, C6H12O2, Prepare ethyl butyrate (pineapple oil): 16.5.7
Ethyl carbamate ester, CO(NH2)OC2H5, urethane
Ethyl cellosolve, C4H10O2, 2-ethoxyethanol, "Cellosolve", primary alcohol, solvent cleaner that dissolves many substances
Ethyl cellulose, C20H38O11: 16.1.3.5
Ethyl chloride, C2H5Cl, Prepare ethyl chloride, chloroethane: 16.5.1
Ethyl cinnamate, C11H12O2
Ethyl cyanoacrylate, "Superglue": 16.2.4.7
Ethyl ether, C2H5OC2H5, diethyl ether
Ethyl iodide, C2H5I, iodoethane, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable
Ethyl isobutyl ketone, C7H14O
Ethyl ethanoate, CH3COOC2H5, ethyl acetate
Ethyl lactate, C5H10O3
Ethyl mercaptan, CH3CH2SH, Ethanethiol: 16.1.3.3.3
Ethyl propionate, C5H10O2, ethyl propanoate, used in fruity rum flavours, in apple, pineapple-like odour
Ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2
Ethylbenzene, C8H10
Ethylene, C2H4, Ethene
Ethylenediamine, C2H4(NH2)2
Ethylene dibromide, BrCH2CH2Br, 1, 2-Dibromoethane: 12.18.16
Ethylhexylglycerin, C11H24O3, 3-[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]-1, 2-propanediol, skin care, deodorizer
Ethyloctanal, C10H20O, 4-ethyloctanal, , aldehyde, food additive, male goat smell, pheromone
Ethylphenol, C8H10O.

Ethyl cinnamate, C11H12O2,
Ethyl cinnamate, 3-phenylpropenoate, cinnamic acid ethyl ester, Toxic, Flammable, in oil of cinnamon, fruity balsamic odour.

Ethyl ethanoate, C4H8O2
16.1.3.6 Acetates
17.3.15 Ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide, autocatalytic hydrolysis
16.5.2 Prepare ethyl acetate 1
16.5.8 Prepare ethyl acetate 2.

Ethyl ethanoate, C4H8O2, CH3COOC2H5, ethyl acetate, ethanoic acid ethyl ester, Flammable, Toxic, Irritant,
Colourless flammable liquid, explosion hazard, slightly soluble in water, but soluble in most organic solvents, pleasant fruity odour.
Solvent for varnishes, lacquers, dry cleaning, stains, fats, nitrocellulose, nail polish, nail polish remover.
In wines and naturally-fermented products.
Ethyl acetate, colourless liquid, fruity odour, b.p. 77oC (medicine, lacquer solvent).

Ethyl lactate, C5H10O3
L-ethyl lactate, ethyl L-lactate, ethyl-2-hydroxypropionate, 2-hydroxypropionic acid ethyl ester, L-lactic acid ethyl ester, C5H10O3,
lactic acid ethyl ester, a monobasic ester from lactic acid and ethanol, colourless liquid, mild smell, butter-like taste, water soluble,
biodegradable "green" solvent, used a water rinsable degreaser, in alcoholic beverages, vinegar, bread, roasted chicken, cabbage, peas.

Ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2
Ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2, ethanamine, aminoethane, monomethyamine, simple aliphatic amine, colorless liquid, B.P. 17oC, ammonia
smell, Toxic if ingested, Irritant, corrosive to skin and eyes, vapour heavier than air, heated closed container may rupture violently
Ethyl amine, Solution < 20%, Not hazardous.

Ethylbenzene, C8H10
Ethylbenzene, C8H10, EB, ethylbenzol, phenylethane, Colourless liquid solvent, petrol odour, flammable, combustible to form irritant vapours heavier than air.
Used to produce styrene and other chemicals, e.g. cellulose acetate.
In asphalt, naphtha, synthetic rubber, fuels, paints, inks, carpet glues, varnishes, tobacco, insecticides, automotive and aviation fuels.

Ethylene oxide, C2H4O
Ethylene oxide, C2H4O, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
Ethylene oxide, 1, 2-epoxyethane, ETO, ethene oxide, dimethylene oxide, oxacyclopropane, oxane, oxiran, oxyfume, amprolene
Used to produce ethylene glycol (automotive antifreeze coolant), sterilize hospital equipment
[C2H4O + water --> ethylene glycol HOCH2CH2OH]
Colourless, flammable gas, irritating but sweet ether-like odour, highly reactive, dissolves in water, probable carcinogen, long-term
toxicity to aquatic life.

Ethylenediamine, C2H4(NH2)2
Ethylenediamine, 1, 2-diaminoethane, C2H4(NH2)2, ligand, chelating agent, Toxic by all routes, Corrosive
Ethylenediamine, 1, 2-diaminoethane, Solution < 1% Not hazardous
Ethylenediamine (en), bidentate ligand
EDTA, C10H14N2Na2O8.2H2O, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt: 9.10.0
Ethylenediamine triacetate (ED3A), pentadentate ligand.

Ethyne, C2H2, acetylene
Acetylene (C2H2, HCCH), ethyne, Highly flammable
Acetylenes (CnH2n-2, triple carbon bonds), alkynes
Alkynes (CnH2n-2), acetylenes: 16.1.1.3
Acetylene: 16.1.1.3.0
Flowering and forcing 6.0 (See 6. Pineapple project)
Acetylene black, Carbon properties: 16.4.1
Alkynes (CnH2n-2), acetylenes: 16.1.1.3
Density of gases, Ethyne (Table)
Ethanoic acid, ionization reaction: 16.3.6.1.4
Oxyacetylene welding: 16.4.6.1
Prepare ethyne (acetylene): 16.1.1.3.1
Tests for acetylene (ethyne): 16.1.1.3.2
Tests for gases from burning hydrocarbons: 16.4.6.0

Eucalyptus oil
Eucalyptus mainly from Eucalyptus globulus
Steam distillation of eucalyptus leaves: 10.5.6
Cineole, C10H18O, eucalyptol
Eucalyptol, C10H18O, 1, 8-cineole, cyclic ether, monoterpene, is a paint stripper, adhesive solvent, sticky spot remover, flavouring,
fragrance, mouth wash, anti-inflammatory, releases vapours for medical use.
Eucalyptus oil is useful for getting chewing gum out of children's hair and turning stuck nuts and bolts.
Eucalyptus oil, flammable liquid, inhalation harmful, pharmaceutical grade contains at least 70% cineole.
Use eucalyptus oil to remove chewing gum from child's hair, to remove grease stains from suede shoes.
Use eucalyptus oil + methylated spirits + soap flakes solution to prevent woollen garments shrinking.
Use eucalyptus oil, rubbed in before washing, to remove lipstick stains.

Europium
Europium
, Eu (Greek Eurōpē), lanthanide element, future supply shortfall, used for blue and red phosphorescence in LEDs
Europium (with Terbium and Yttrium in television screens).

3.98 Elements in food
See diagram 3.2.98: Find nitrogen in foods
1. Collect small pieces of different foods together, such as cheese, bread, flour, sugar, leaves, maize.
Heat a piece of each, about the size of a rice grain, on a tin lid or metal bottle top.
Hold the lid with tongs.
Black carbon is always left on the lid.

2. Heat small amounts of food with copper oxide in a small test-tube.
Copper oxide releases oxygen to the food.
Test the gas in the test-tube with lime water by withdrawing a little gas in a teat pipette and bubbling the gas through the lime water.
The lime water turns milky indicating the presence of carbon dioxide.
Also, water is condensed on the cooler parts of the test-tube.

3. Put a small amount of crushed food in a test-tube and add three times that volume of soda lime.
Mix the substances thoroughly then heat the test-tube.
See diagram 1.13: Smelling gases
Use your hand to fan gases from the mouth of the test-tube towards you to smell ammonia at the mouth of the tube.
Test the gases with wet blue and red litmus paper.
The red litmus paper turns blue.
If the food gives off ammonia gas, the nitrogen in the ammonia must have come from the food.

4. Mix separately cane sugar, vegetable oil and egg white with soda lime, then heat the mixtures.
Note any smell of ammonia at the mouth of the test-tube containing the egg white.
The nitrogen in the ammonia came from the protein in the egg white.

5. Heat a mixture of 0.5 cm of sucrose and 1.0 cm of concentrated sulfuric acid gently for 2 seconds and then leave to stand.
Note the vigorous reaction and the colour change from white sugar to black carbon.
C12H22O11 + (H2SO4 catalyst) --> 12C + 11H2O.

7.2.2a Elements experiment
Describe each example.
1. Note the state of matter at room temperature, solid, liquid or gas.
2. Note whether the solid has a shiny surface or has a lustre when the surface is clean.
3. Note whether the metal can be bent or twisted with pliers, or whether it fractures.
4. Note whether the element conducts electricity when held between two alligator clips as electrical contacts.
5. Put a piece of the element on a combustion spoon and set it alight with a burner flame.
Observe the burning element.
6. Shake the products of the combustion in a test-tube containing water.
Test the solution with moist litmus paper.