School Science Lessons
Appendix C
2019-06-02
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au

Chemistry topics
Table of contents
1.0 Abbreviations, chemistry, (Table 1.0)

4.0 Laboratory safety

5.0 Lists of chemicals

8.0 Pigment names, C.I. numbers, (Table 8.0)

6.3.6 SI, CGS and FPS conversion, metric conversion, (Table 6.3.6)

6.3.5 SI prefixes, Decimal fractions and multiples, (Table 6.3.5)

15.1.0 Hazard: Explosive, Flammable, Oxidizing, Poison, Harmful, Corrosive, Irritant


4.0 Laboratory safety
See: Safety, (Commercial)
15.10.0 Chemicals Not permitted in schools
15.9.0 Cryogenic substances
15.1.1 Dust explosions
15.7.0 Flammable organic chemicals
15.8.0 Flammable organic chemicals with low flash point below 32oC

5.0 Lists of chemicals
See: Chemicals, (Commercial)
1.1 Acids, List of mineral acids
1.2 Acids, List of organic acids
1.3 Adhesives, List of adhesives
1.4 Alcohols, List of alcohols
1.5 Aldehydes, List of aldehydes, -CHO, suffix -al
1.6 Amides, List of amides
1.7 Amines, List of amines, amino, -NH2
12.19.7 Bromo-compounds
3.71Bromides, hazards
1.9 Chlorides, List of chlorides
1.10 Chloro-compounds, List of chloro-compounds
1.11 Carbonates, List of carbonates
1.12 Esters, List of esters
1.13 Ethers, List of ethers
1.14 Heavy metals, List of heavy metal compounds
1.15 Hydrides, List of hydrides
1.16 Ketones, List of ketones
1.17 Metals, List of active metals
1.18 Metals, List of metal powders
1.19 Nitrates, List of nitrates
1.20 Oxidants, List of oxidants
1.21 Redox indicators, List of redox indicators
1.22 Reductants, List of chemical reductants
1.23 Sulfates, List of sulfates
1.24 Sulfides, List of sulfides
1.25 Sulfites, List of sulfites
1.26 Thiosulfates, List of thiosulfates, (not containing heavy metal ions, e.g. lead thiosulfate)

1.1 Acids, List of mineral acids
Aqua regia
Chloric acid
Chromium (VI)oxide, chromium trioxide, CrO
Chromic acid
Hydriodic acid
Hydrobromic acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrogen fluoride
Nitric acid
Perchloric acid
Periodic acid
Phosphoric acid
Sulfuric acid

1.2 Acids, List of organic acids
Acetic acid, ethanoic acid, CH3COOH
Acroleic acid, acrylic acid, CH2CHCO2H
Adipic acid, hexandioic acid, HOOC(CH2)4COOH, (CH2)4(COOH)2
Ascorbic acid, C6H8O6
Benzenesulfonic acid, C7H6O2, C6H5COOH
Benzoic acid, benzenecarboxylic acid, phenylformic acid, C6H5COOH
Butanoic acid, butyric acid, n-butyric acid, C3H7COOH
Butanedioic acid, C4H6O4, succinic acid
Cinnamic acid, C9H10O2, C6H5CH:CHCOOH
Citric acid, C6H8O7, CH2.COOH.HO.C.COOH.CH2COOH
Dichloroacetic acid, DCA, dichloroethanoic acid, CHCl2COOH
Decanoic acid, capric acid, CH3(CH2)8COOH
Dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid. C18H30O3S
Formic acid, methanoic acid, HCOOH
Fumaric acid, trans-butanedioic acid, HCOOHC:CHCOOH
Gibberellic acid, (GA3), plant growth hormone, Toxic if ingested
Indole-3-acetic acid, 3-indolacetic acid, indol-3-yl-ethanoic acid, C10H9NO2
Lactic acid, C3H6O3, CH3CHOHCOOH
Lauric acid, dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH3)10COOH
Linoleic acid, (C17H31COOH)
Malic acid, fumaric acid, butenedioic acid, cis-butane-1, 4-dioic acid, C4H4O4, HCOOHC:CHCOOH
Malic acid, C4H60O5, HO2CCH2CHOHCO2H
Malonic acid, propanedioic acid, CH2(COOH)2
Oleic acid, CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
Oxalic acid, C2H2O4.2H2O, ethanedioic acid
Propanoic acid, CH3CH2COOH
Salicyclic acid, C6H4(OH)COOH, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid
Stearic acid, octadecanoic acid, C18H36O2, CH3(CH2)16COOH
Sulfamic acid, NH2.SO2OH
Tannic acid, tannin, C76H52O46, (Some chemists do not regard tannic acid as an acid.)
Tartaric acid, C4H6O6, (CHOH)2(COOH)2, 2, 3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid
Trichloroacetic acid, trichlorethanoic acid, C2HCl3O2, CCl3COOH

1.3 Adhesives, List of adhesives
Adhesive, paper glue, "Bostik"
Adhesive, rubber solution, cow gum, contact or shoe glue
Animal glues
Building adhesives, liquid nails, max bond
Contact cement
Ethyl cyanoacrylate, C6H7NO2, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, "Superglue": 16.2.4.7
Epoxy resins, uncured resins used for fibreglass, may contain isocyanate residues, strong irritants to eye nose / respiratory organs
Hot melt adhesives
PVA, "Aquadhere"
Resorcinol, spray adhesives
Starch gums
Urea / formaldehyde, "Araldite"
Wall paper adhesive
Woodworking adhesive, wood glue, "Aquadhere"

1.4 Alcohols, List of alcohols
Allyl alcohol
Butanol
Cetyl alcohol
Cyclohexanol
Dodecanol, lauryl alcohol
Ethanol
Hexanol
Isoamyl alcohol, 3-methylbutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, isopentyl alcohol, (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH, Toxic
Isobutyl alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol
Methanol
Methylated spirits
Octadecan-1-ol
Octanol
Pentan-1-ol
Pentan-2-ol

1.5 Aldehydes, List of aldehydes
Acetaldehyde, ethanal
Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Butyraldehyde, butanal
Chloral hydrate
Formaldehyde, methanal
Glutaraldehyde
Metaldehyde
Paraldehyde
Propionaldehyde

1.6 Amides, List of amides
Acetamide
Acrylamide: 16.1.5.6.1
Benzamide, C6H5CONH2, Harmful if ingested
Dimethyl formamide
Sulfanilamides, sulfa drugs, H2NC6H4SO2NH2, p-Aminobenzenesulfonamide

1.7 Amines, List of amines
Aminopropane, 1-aminopropane, n-propyl amine, C3H9N
Aniline
Butylamine
Diaminoethane
Diethylamine
Diethylphenylenediamine
Ethylamine
Ethylenediamine
Naphthylamine
Tolidine
Triethanolamine

1.9 Chlorides, List of chlorides
Aluminium chloride
Ammonium copper (II) chloride, tetramine copper (II) chloride
Ammonium chloride
Antimony (III) chloride
Barium chloride
Beryllium chloride
Bismuth (III) chloride
Cadmium chloride
Calcium chloride
Cerium chloride
Caesium chloride
Calcium hypochlorite, chlorinated lime
Chromium (II) chloride, chromic chloride, Cl2Cr
Chromium (III) chloride, Cl3Cr
Chromium (III) chloride hexahydrate, Cl3Cr.6H2O
Chromium oxychloride
Cobalt (II) chloride
Copper (II) chloride
Germanium (IV) chloride
Iron (III) chloride
Lead (II) chloride
Lithium chloride
Magnesium chloride
Manganese (II) chloride
Mercury (I) chloride
Mercury (II) chloride
Nickel (II) chloride
Phosphorus (III) chloride, phosphorus trichloride
Phosphorus (V) chloride
Potassium chloride
Silver chloride
Sodium chloride
Strontium (II) chloride
Sulfur dichloride
Thallium (I) chloride
Tin (II) chloride
Tin (IV) chloride
Titanium (IV) chloride
Zinc (II) chloride

1.10 Chloro-compounds, List of chloro-compounds
1-chlorobutane, C4H9Cl, butyl chloride, chlorobutane, n-butyl chloride, Highly flammable, Toxic by all routes
1, 1, 2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, C2H3Cl3, Irritant, environmental danger, harmful if inhaled, ozone-depleting chemical being phased out
1, 2-dichloroethane, C2H4Cl2, ethylene dichloride, dichloroethylene, Freon 150, Toxic, highly flammable
2-chlorotoluene, benzyl chloride
2, 2-dichlorodiethyl ether, dichloroether, dichlorodiethyl ether, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene
2, 6-dichlorophenol, 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol, dichloroindophenol, dichlorophenol, DCPIP, DIP, Toxic if ingested
3-chloropropane, allyl chloride
3, 3-dichlorobenzidine, 3, 3'-dichlorobenzidine, dichlorobiphenyl-4, 4'-diamine, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
Acetyl chloride, CH3COCl
Adipoyl chloride, C6H8Cl2O2, adipyl chloride, hexanedioly dichloride, Toxic by all routes
Allyl chloride, CH2:CHCH2Cl, 3-chloropropene, (plastics production) Toxic by all routes
Aniline hydrochloride, C6H8ClN
Benzoyl chloride, benzene carbonyl chloride, C7H5COCl
Benzyl chloride, α-chlorotoluene, C6H5CH2Cl
"Butyl chloride", (C4H9Cl): n-butyl chloride, (1-chlorobutane), tert-butyl chloride, (2-chloro-2-methylpropane), sec-butyl chloride
(2-chlorobutane), isobutyl chloride, (1-chloro-2-methylpropane)
Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, tetrachloromethane, perchloromethane, "dry cleaning fluid", "carbon tet", Not permitted in schools
Chlorethene, H2C:CHCl, vinyl chloride, vinyl chloride monomer VCM
Chloroacetic acid, chloroethanoic acid, monochloroacetic acid, (use small quantities < 10 mL)
Chloroacetic acid, solution < 0.2%, Not hazardous
Chloroacetic anhydride
Chlorobenzene, C6H5Cl, monochlorobenzene, Toxic by all routes
Chlorobenzene, Solution < 5%, Not hazardous
Chloroethane, C2H5Cl, ethyl chloride
Chlorofluorcarbons, CFCs, freon
Chloroform, CHCl3, trichloromethane, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
Chloromethane, CH3Cl, methyl chloride, Methane with chlorine: 16.1.1a.2
Chloromethylbenzene, benzyl chloride
Chloromethyldimethylsilane
Chlorophenol, C6H4ClOH, p-chlorophenol, Phenols: 16.1.3.2
See diagram 16.1.4.4: 2, 4, 6 chlorophenol
Chlorophenol red: 8.0
Chlorine: 7.2.2.12
Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b: 16.3.5.2.3,
Chloroplatinic acid, hexachloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6(H2O)6 or [H3O]2[PtCl6]4H2O, [platinic chloride PtCl4], (dust may trigger
asthma, skin sensitivity)
Chloroprene, CH2CClCH:CH2, 2-chlorobuta-1, 3-diene, (make elastomeric polymers and copolymers, synthetic rubber)
Chlorosulfonic acid, HSO3Cl., Toxic by all routes
Chlorotoluene, ortho-, meta-, and para-, C7H7Cl, C6H4ClCH3
Chlorous acid, Oxyacids, oxoacids: 13.3.6
Chlorpromazine
Dichloroacetic acid, dichloroethanoic acid, DCA, CHCl2COOH, Toxic by all routes, Vapour irritates lungs
Sebacoyl chloride
Trichloroethanoic acid, trichloroacetic acid, CCl3COOH
Trichloroethane, CH3CCl3, 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane, methyl chloroform, Toxic if ingested
Trichlorethylene, trichlorethene, TCE, C2HCl3, Toxic if ingested or inhaled, carcinogenic

1.11 Carbonates, List of carbonates
Ammonium carbonate, smelling salts: 12.16.3.5
Barium carbonate
Bismuth (III) carbonate, basic, CBi2O5
Bismuth carbonate, bismuth subcarbonate, Harmful if ingested
Cadmium carbonate, CdCO3, Not permitted in schools
Calcium carbonate
Calcium magnesium carbonate, CaCO3MgCO3, dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2: 35.19.1
Cobalt (II) carbonate, CoCO3.xH2O
Copper (II) carbonate, CuCO3
Lead (II) carbonate, PbCO3, lead carbonate, lead carbonate basic, white lead ore, cerussite, ceruse, Highly toxic by all routes
Lithium carbonate, Li2CO3 for craft, flux, glaze, tranquillizer for mental disorders, white solid, Toxic, Irritant
Lithium carbonate, Low cost: from pottery supplies stores
Magnesium carbonate
Nickel (II) carbonate, basic hydrate, nickel carbonate pigment, Toxic if ingested, allergic reaction, use only < 2g of wet solid
Nickel (II) carbonate, Low cost: from pottery supplies stores
Potassium carbonate
Potassium hydrogen carbonate, KHCO3, potassium bicarbonate
Sodium carbonate
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
Strontium carbonate, SrCO3, in strontianite mineral, Harmful if ingested, skin irritant
Strontium carbonate, Low cost: from pottery supplies stores
Zinc carbonate, ZnCO3, Harmful if ingested

1.12 Esters, List of esters
n-amyl acetate
Ethyl acetate, ethyl ethanoate
Ethyl benzoate, Toxic if ingested, Flammable
Ethyl cinnamate, 3-phenylpropenoate, Toxic, Flammable
Ethyl formate, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable
Ethyl propionate, ethyl propanoate, Toxic by all routes, flammable
Isoamyl acetate
Methyl acetate, methyl ethanoate, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable, skin irritant
Methyl benzoate, C6H5COOCH3, Toxic if ingested
Methyl methacrylate, CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3, 2-methyl-2-propenoic acid, methyl ester, Toxic by all routes
Methyl salicylate, C6H4OHCO.OCH3
Phenyl benzoate, Toxic if ingested, skin irritant, flammable
Phenyl salicylate, phenyl-2-hydroxybenzoate, salol, Toxic if ingested, flammable
Propyl acetate, propyl ethanoate, n-propyl acetate, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable

1.13 Ethers, List of ethers
2, 2-dichlorodiethyl ether, dichloroether, dichlorodiethyl ether, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
2-ethoxyethanol, C4H10O2, ethyl cellosolve, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether
2-methoxyethanol, ethylene glycol monomethylene ether, methyl cellosolve, Toxic by all routes
Anisole, CH3OC6H5, methyoxybenzene, smells like anise seed, skin irritant, Harmful if ingested
Anisole is a clear straw-coloured liquid, aromatic odour, insoluble in water and same density, used to make perfumes, flavourings and as a solvent.
Diethyl ether
Ethoxyethane, C2H5OC2H5, (C2H5)2O, diethyl ether, anaesthetic "ether", Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
Phenetole, ethoxybenzene, use in fume cupboard or < 10 g in cross ventilation, Toxic by all routes

1.14 Heavy metals, List of heavy metal compounds
Antimony compounds
Arsenic compounds
Barium compounds
Beryllium compounds
Bismuth compounds
Cadmium compounds
Chromium compounds
Chromates
Cobalt compounds
Copper compounds
Dichromates
Lead compounds
Manganese compounds
Mercury compounds: 3.1.0
Molybdenum compounds
Nickel compounds
Selenium compounds
Silver compounds
Thallium compounds
Tellurium compounds
Tin compounds
Uranium compounds
Vanadium compounds

1.15 Hydrides, List of hydrides
Hydrides, compound with hydrogen, e.g. sodium hydride, NaH, or covalent compound, e.g. borane, B2H6
Calcium hydride, CaH2, hydrolith, Toxic if ingested or by skin contact
Lithium aluminium hydride, LiAlH4, lithium tetrahydroaluminate, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
Lithium hydride, LiH, Toxic by all routes, fine particles with air explosive, reacts violently with water forming dangerous hydrogen
Sodium hydride, NaH, Highly toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin, with water forms sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas that may
ignite or explode if mixed with air

1.17 Metals, List of active metals
Calcium
Lithium
Magnesium
Potassium
Sodium
Strontium

1.18 Metal powders, List of metal powders
Aluminium
Beryllium
Iron
Magnesium
Nickel
Selenium
Zinc

1.19 Nitrates, List of nitrates
Aluminium nitrate, aluminium nitrate nonahydrate, Harmful if ingested
Ammonium nitrate
Barium nitrate
Calcium nitrate
Chromic nitrate, chromic nitrate hydrated, chromium (III) nitrate nonahydrate
Chromium (III) nitrate nonahydrate, CrN3O9.9H2O
Cobalt (II) nitrate
Copper (II) nitrate
Iron (II) nitrate
Iron (III) nitrate
Lead (II) nitrate
Lithium nitrate
Magnesium nitrate
Mercury (I) nitrate
Mercury (II) nitrate
Nickel (II) nitrate
Potassium nitrate
Silver nitrate
Strontium nitrate
Zinc nitrate

1.20 Oxidants, List of oxidants
Ammonium chlorate, Toxic, Explosive
Ammonium dichromate
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium perchlorate, Toxic if ingested, Explosive, Not permitted in schools
Ammonium persulfate, (NH4)2S2O8, ammonium peroxydisulfate, solutions < 25%, may be used for etching of copper and printed
circuit boards.
Solid dust may damage intestinal tract and cause allergy reaction. Use safety glasses.
Aqua regia
Barium nitrate
Barium peroxide, BaO2, barium dioxide, bleaching agent
Benzoyl peroxide, C14H10O4, dibenzoyl peroxide, Harmful by skin contact, highly flammable, Not permitted in schools
Calcium hypochlorite
Calcium nitrate
Chromium (IV) oxide, CrO2, insoluble black powder
Cobalt (II) nitrate
Hydrogen peroxide
Iron (II) nitrate
Lauryl peroxide, di(docecanoyl) peroxide, dilauroyl peroxide, Toxic if ingested
Lead (II) nitrate
Lead (IV) oxide
Lithium nitrate
Magnesium nitrate
Magnesium perchlorate
MEKP, C2H5C(OOH)(CH3)OOC(OOH)(CH3)C2H5, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
Nickel (II) nitrate
Nitric acid
Oxygen gas
Perchloric acid, HClO4
Periodic acid
Potassium bromate,
Potassium chlorate
Potassium dichromate
Potassium hydrogen phosphate
Potassium iodate (V)
Potassium nitrate
Potassium nitrite
Potassium perchlorate
Potassium permanganate
Potassium persulfate
Silver nitrate
Sodium chlorate
Sodium cobaltinitrite
Sodium dichromate
Sodium iodate
Sodium nitrite
Sodium perchlorate
Sodium peroxide
Strontium nitrate
Zinc nitrate

1.21 Redox indicators, List of redox indicators
1, 10-phenanthroline
Potassium permanganate, KMnO4, potassium manganate (VII), Toxic if ingested
Starch
Xylenol orange, (metal indicator), Toxic if ingested
Xylene, C6H3(CH3)2OH, dimethylbenzene, Toxic by all routes, highly flammable

1.22 Reductants, List of chemical reductants
Aluminium powder, Barium metal, Calcium metal, Calcium carbide,
Calcium hydride, hydrolith, Toxic if ingested or by skin contact
Calcium phosphide, solid, Toxic if ingested or by skin contact
Carbon C graphite, Lithium metal
Lithium aluminium hydride, lithium tetrahydroaluminate, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
Lithium hydride, Toxic by all routes, fine particles mixed with air is explosive, reacts violently with water to form dangerous hydrogen
Magnesium powder
Phosphorus
Potassium amide
Potassium metal
Potassium sulfide
Selenium metal
Sodium metal,
Sodium amalgam Highly toxic if ingested
Sodium amide, sodamide, Extremely toxic if ingested, reacts violently with water, Not permitted in schools
Sodium borohydride, Harmful if ingested, skin irritant
Sodium hydrosulfite, Na2S2O4.2H2O, sodium dithionite, Toxic by all routes
Sodium hydrogen sulfite, NaHSO3, sodium bisulfite, Toxic by all routes, use fume cupboard
Sodium sulfide, Strontium metal
Thorium, Th, Toxic by all routes, Not permitted in schools
Zinc metal

1.23 Sulfates, List of sulfates
Aluminium potassium sulfate
Aluminium sulfate
Ammonium nickel sulfate, ammonium nickel (II) sulfate 6H2O, Harmful if ingested
Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, sulfate of ammonia
Barium sulfate
Cadmium sulfate
Calcium sulfate
Cerium sulfate
Caesium sulfate
Chromium sulfate, chromium (III) sulfate
Copper (II) sulfate
Iron (II) ammonium sulfate
Iron (II) sulfate
Lead (II) sulfate
Magnesium sulfate
Nickel (II) sulfate
Potassium aluminium sulfate, aluminium potassium sulfate, alum, aluminium potash, potash alum, Harmful
Potassium chromium sulfate, K2SO4.Cr2(SO4)3.24H2O,
KCr(SO4)2.12H2O, chrome alum, chromium alum, Toxic if ingested
Potassium hydrogen sulfate, potassium bisulfate, Toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin and eyes
Potassium sulfate, K2SO4
Silver sulfate, Ag2SO4, Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed, dust irritates eyes and skin
Sodium hydrogen sulfate, NaHSO4, Toxic if ingested, corrosive to skin and eyes, heated solution forms sulfur dioxide gas
Sodium sulfate
Thallium (I) sulfate, Extremely toxic if ingested or absorbed through skin, cumulative poison, Not permitted in schools
Zinc sulfate

1.24 Sulfides, List of sulfides
Ammonium sulfide solution, (>20% in water), (10% solution), (20% solution), Highly toxic fumes
Barium sulfide, Harmful if ingested
Copper (I) sulfide, CuS, covelite, indigo copper, (in luminous paints, catalyst), Harmful if ingested
Copper (II) sulfide, Cu2S, in coins and electrical wiring, chalcocite mineral, copper glance, redruthite, Harmful if ingested
Iron (II) sulfide, Toxic if ingested
Lead (II) sulfide, PbS, lead sulfide, lead glance, blue lead, Highly toxic by all routes, cumulative poison
Potassium sulfide, Highly toxic if ingested, releases hydrogen sulfide gas, Not permitted in schools
Sodium sulfide, Highly toxic if ingested
Zinc sulfide, ZnS, sphalerite, zinc blende, mock ore, mock lead, black jack, Toxic if ingested, skin irritant

1.25 Sulfites, List of sulfites
Sodium hydrogen sulfite, NaHSO3, sodium bisulfite, white solid but yellow solution, Toxic by all routes
Sodium hydrosulfite, Na2S2O4.2H2O, sodium dithionite, Toxic by all routes
Sodium sulfite, Toxic if ingested

1.26 Thiosulfates, List of thiosulfates, (not containing heavy metal ions, e.g. lead thiosulfate)
Ammonium thiosulfate, diammonium thiosulfate, (NH4)2S2O3, photography rapid fixer, fertilizer, reducing agent, Environment danger
Barium thiosulfate, Harmful if ingested
Sodium thiosulfate, Harmful if ingested

15.1.0 Hazards: Explosive, Flammable, Oxidizing, Poison, Harmful, Corrosive, Irritant
Preparing explosives is Not permitted in schools. Explosives include gun powder, TNT, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, solid rocket fuel
propellants, manganese heptoxide, "touch powder", (nitrogen triiodide complex formed by ammonia with solid iodine),
diesel / ammonium nitrate mixtures.
The classification is based on IMO, (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code), and the, (ACTDG).
Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail. In this document, hazard classification is shown, (in square
brackets), and is followed by the United Nations Chemical Number to identify all classified dangerous goods.
Explosive Class 1 Explosive, can explode due to flame shock or friction
Flammable Class 2.1 Inflammable gases, can readily burn or catch fire
.
Class 3.1 Inflammable liquids, flashpoint below -18oC
.
Class 3.2 Inflammable liquids, flashpoint between -18oC and 23oC
.
Class 3.3 Inflammable liquids, flashpoint between 23oC and 61oC
.
Class 4.1 Inflammable solid, can readily burn or catch fir
.
Class 4.2 Inflammable solid, liable to spontaneous combustion
.
Class 4.3 Inflammable solid, emits inflammable gases when wet
Oxidizing Class 5.1 Oxidizing agents, can react with substances to form great heat
.
Class 5.2 Organic peroxides
Poison Class 6.11. Toxic substances, severe risk if absorbed
Harmful Class 6.12. Harmful substance, some health risk if absorbed
Corrosive Class 8 Corrosives, can destroy living tissue on contact
Irritating Non-corrosive, but can damage skin if prolonged contact

15.1.1 Dust explosions
Dusts have a huge surface / volume ratio so have a huge potential for explosive chemical reactions.
The conditions necessary for a dust explosion to occur are combustible dust, confinement of dust by walls, dispersion of dust into a
cloud above a certain concentration, oxidant present, e.g. air.
The ignition temperatures of dust explosion may be comparatively low, e.g. sugar dust at density 60 g / m3 ha ignition temperature
370oC.
The ignition of Lycopodium powder, icing sugar, dusting sugar, vanilla bean dusting sugar, or any other powders or dusts in sealed
coffee tins is not recommended in school science laboratories.

15.7.0 Flammable organic chemicals
Do NOT use in school laboratories
Table 15.7.0 Flammable organic chemicals
Chemical Flashpoint
UN No.
Formula, comment
Benzene, benzol -11oC 1114 C6H6, Harmful, possibly carcinogenic, (use cyclohexane or methylbenzene)
Butan-1-ol +29oC 1120 CH3(CH2)2CH2OH
Butan-2-ol +24oC 1120 CH3CH2CHOHCH3, sec-butyl alcohol
Carbon disulfide -30oC 1131 CS2, Poison, (alcohol sulfuris)
Cyclohexane -20oC 1145 C6H12, (students may use < 2 mL in fume cupboard, as substitute for benzene)
Diethyl ether -40oC 1155 (C2H5)2O, ethoxyethane, anaesthetic ether, ether, sulfuric ether
Iso-octane -12oC 1262 C8H18, 2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane
n-Octane +13oC 1262 CH3(CH2)6CH3
Methanol +12oC 1230 CH3OH, methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, (in methylated spirits), Harmful, highly toxic causes blindness
Petroleum spirit <-18oC 1271 petroleum ether, spirit, benzine
Propan-1-ol +15oC 1274 C2H5CH2OH, Isomer propan-1-ol, n-propyl alcohol, 1-propanol
Propan-2-ol +22oC 1219 (CH3)2CHOH, Isopropyl alcohol, 2-propanol, Iso amyl alcohol, rubbing alcohol
Toluene +7oC 1294 C6H5CH3

15.8.0 Flammable organic chemicals with low flashpoint, below 32oC
Acetaldehyde, Acetone, (nail polish remover), Acetonitrile, Acetyl chloride, Acrylonitrile, Allyl iodide, Chloromethane,
1, 2-Dichloroethane, Diethylamine, Diethyl carbonate, 1, 3-difluorobenzene, Dimethyl ether, Dioxan, (dioxane), Ethanol, Ethyl acetate,
Ethyl acrylate, Ethyl chloroformate, Ethyl formate, Hexane, n-hexane, Methylated spirit, Methyl ethyl ketone, Methyl Isobutyl ketone,
(MIBK), Octane, Pentane, Piperidine, Isopropyl alcohol, Pyridine, Tetrahydrofuran, Triethylamine, Vinyl acetate

15.9.0 Cryogenic substances
These chemicals should be handled only by teachers trained in the safe storage and dispensing of cryogenic substances,
e.g. liquid nitrogen, oxygen and helium, and also solid carbon dioxide, "dry ice".
These substance evaporate briskly at room temperature to increase pressure to dangerous levels in closed containers.
Students should be kept at least one metre away from these substances to avoid frost bite.
Children have been injured when allowed to lick "dry ice" used by ice cream sellers.

15.10.0 Chemicals Not permitted in schools
(Chemicals banned from government schools, NSW, Australia)
4-aminobiphenyl, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
ammonium chlorate, Violently explosive
ammonium perchlorate, Violently explosive
anaesthetic ether, diethyl ether, Extremely flammable
aniline, phenylamine, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
arsenic, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
arsenic triiodide, arsenic (III) iodide, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
arsenic trioxide, arsenic (III) oxide, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
arsenic (III) iodide, arsenic triiodide, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
arsenic (III) oxide, arsenic trioxide, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
arsenious acid, arsenic trioxide, toxic, carcinogenic
asbestos, crocidolite, blue asbestos, Extremely toxic if inhaled into lungs, carcinogenic
benzene, benzol, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
benzidine, 4, 4'-diaminobiphenyl, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
benzol, benzene, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
beryllium, metal, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
beryllium chloride, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
bis(chloromethyl) ether, dichlorodiniethyl ether, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
blue asbestos, asbestos, Extremely toxic if inhaled into lungs, carcinogenic
cadmium, Highly toxic
cadmium carbonate, Highly toxic
cadmium chloride, Highly toxic
cadmium oxide, Highly toxic
cadmium sulfate, Highly toxic
carbazotic acid, picric acid, Explosive when dry and compacted
carbon disulfide, Extremely flammable, extremely toxic
carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloromethane, Extremely toxic, possibly carcinogenic
chloral, trichloroacetaldehyde, Moderately toxic, drug addiction
chloral hydrate, 1, 1, 1-trichloroethanediol, Moderately toxic, drug addiction
chloric acid, chloric (V) acid, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
chloric (VII) acid, perchloric acid, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
chloroform, Toxic
chromic acid, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
chromic anhydride, chromium (VI) oxide, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
chromium trioxide, chromium (VI) oxide, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
Chromium (VI) oxide, chromium trioxide, CrO3
chromium (VI) oxide, chromium trioxide, chromic anhydride, chromic acid, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
Copper arsenite, copper acetoarsenite, CuAsHO3, Toxic
crocidolite, asbestos, Extremely toxic if inhaled into lungs, carcinogenic
di(2-chloroethyl) ether, 2, 2'-dichlorodiethyl ether, Highly toxic
4, 4'-diaminobiphenyl, benzidine, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
3, 3'-dichlorobenzidine, dichlorobiphenyl-4, 4'-diamine, Highly toxic
dichlorobiphenyl-4, 4'-diamine, 3, 3'-dichlorobenzidine, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
2, 2'-dichlorodiethyl ether, Highly toxic
dichlorodimethyl ether, bis-(chloromethyl) ether, Highly toxic and carcinogenic
diethyl ether, anaesthetic ether, ether, sulfuric ether, ethoxyethane, Extremely flammable
diethyl sulfate, Extremely toxic, probably carcinogenic
dimethyl sulfate, Extremely toxic, probably carcinogenic
3, 3'-dimethylbiphenyl-4, 4'-diamine, o-tolodine, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
4-dinitrobiphenyl, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
ether, diethyl ether, Extremely flammable
ethoxyethane, diethyl ether, Extremely flammable
ethylene oxide, oxirane, oxiran, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
5-fluorouracil, Highly toxic
Hardite, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
hydrocyanic acid, hydrogen cyanide, Extremely toxic
hydrofluoric acid, Extremely toxic
hydrogen cyanide, hydrocyanic acid, Extremely toxic
lithium aluminium hydride, lithium tetrahydroaluminate, Explosive mixture if fine particles mixed with air
lithium tetrahydroaluminate, Lithium aluminium hydride, Explosive mixture if fine particles mixed with air
magnesium perchlorate, anhydrone, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials, organic
compounds, ammonium compounds
mercury, Highly toxic
mercury salts, Highly toxic
mercury (I) chloride, Highly toxic
mercury (II) chloride, Highly toxic
magnesium perchlorate, anhydrone
naphthalene-l-amine, 1-naphthylamine, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
naphthalene-2-amine, 2-naphthylamine, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
1-naphthylamine, α-naphthylamine, naphthalene-1-amine, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
2-naphthylamine, beta-naphthylamine, naphthalene-2-amine, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
α-naphythylamine, 1-naphthylamine, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
beta-naphythylamine, 2-naphthylamine, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
4-nitrobiphenol, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
nitrogen triiodide, Explosive when dry
2-nitrosophenol, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
3-nitrosophenol, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
4-nitrosophenol, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
l-nitronaphthalene, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
2-nitronaphthalene, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
osmium tetroxide, osmic acid, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
o-tolodine, Highly toxic if ingested
oxirane, oxiran, ethylene oxide, Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
3.7.13 Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs, Moderately toxic, probably carcinogenic
perchloric acid 50-72%, chloric (VII) acid, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
perchloric acid <50%, chloric (VII) acid, perchloric acid 50-72%, Explosive mixtures with combustible materials
phenol, carbolic acid
phenylamine, aniline, Extremely toxic
phosphorus, white, white phosphorus, yellow phosphorus, Extremely toxic, ignites spontaneously,
extreme fire hazard
picric acid, 2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol, trinitrophenol, carbazotic acid, Explosive when dry and compacted
polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs, Moderately toxic, probably carcinogenic
potassium, metal, Reacts violently with water to form hydrogen, which ignites or explodes
potassium amide, Highly toxic, highly corrosive, reacts violently with water
potassium chlorate, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
potassium cyanide, Extremely poisonous
potassium perchlorate, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
potassium sulfide, Highly toxic, highly corrosive, may ignite in air
sodium amide, sodamide, Highly toxic, flammable, reacts violently with water
sodium azide, Extremely toxic
sodium chlorate, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
sodium cyanide, Extremely poisonous, with acids forms toxic hydrogen cyanide gas
sodium perchlorate, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
sodium peroxide, Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
sulfuric ether, diethyl ether, Extremely flammable
tetrachloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, Extremely toxic, possibly carcinogenic
thallium chloride, Extremely toxic
thallium nitrate, Extremely toxic
thallium sulfate, Extremely toxic
thorium, Radioactive
o-tolidine, 3, 3'-dimethylbiphenyl-4, 4-diamine, Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
trichloroacetaldehyde, chloral, Moderately toxic, drug addiction
1, 1, 1-trichloroethanediol, chloral hydrate, Moderately toxic, drug addiction
trinitrophenol, picric acid, Explosive when dry and compacted
2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol, picric acid, Explosive when dry and compacted

Table 1.0 Abbreviations, chemistry
alc. alcohol L
litre
alk. alkali M
molar conc. e.g. 2 M, (2 molar)
aq. water M P melting point
bp
boiling point max. maximum
cryst. crystals min. minimum
decomp. decomposes mL millilitre
del. deliquescent mm millimetre, (10-3 m)
dil. dilute non-vol. non-volatile
fp
freezing point org. organic
g / mL r.d. ox. oxidized
g gram polyp. polypropylene
ign. ignition ppt. precipitate
ind. indicator PVC polyvinyl chloride
inorg. inorganic soln. solution
insol. insoluble W / V weight to volume ratio
kg. kilogram W / W weight to weight ratio

Table 8.0 Pigment names, C.I. numbers
(Sample of list of dyes from supplier, not full list of C.I. numbers)
Serial number
Pigment name
C.I. number
1. C.I. Pigment Green 7 (Y) 74260
2. C.I. Pigment Green 7 (B) 74260
3. C.I. Pigment Blue 15.0 74160
4. C.I. Pigment Blue 15.3 (G) 74160
5. C.I. Pigment Blue 15.3 (R) 74160
6. C.I. Pigment Yellow 1 11680
7. C.I. Pigment Yellow 3 11710
8. C.I. Pigment Yellow 12 21090
9. C.I. Pigment Yellow 13 21100
10. C.I. Pigment Yellow 14 21095
11. C.I. Pigment Yellow 17 21105
12. C.I. Pigment Yellow 62 .
13. C.I. Pigment Yellow 74 11741
14. C.I. Pigment Yellow 83 21108
15. C.I. Pigment Red 2 12310
16. C.I. Pigment Red 3 (Y) 12120
17. C.I. Pigment Red 3 (B) 12120
18. C.I. Pigment Red 4 12085
19. C.I. Pigment Red 48.1 15865.2
20. C.I. Pigment Red 48.2 15865.2
21. C.I. Pigment Red 48.3 15865.3
22. C.I. Pigment Red 48.4 15865.4
23. C.I. Pigment Red 52.2 15860.2
24. C.I. Pigment Red 49.1 15630.1
25. C.I. Pigment Red 53.1 15585.1
26. C.I. Pigment Red 57.1 (Y) 15850.1
27. C.I. Pigment Red 57.1 (B) 15850.1
28. C.I. Pigment Red 112 12370
29. C.I. Pigment Red 146 12485
30. C.I. Pigment Red 170 12475
31. C.I. Pigment Orange 5 12075
32. C.I. Pigment Orange 13 21110
33. C.I. Pigment Orange 34 21115
34. C.I. Pigment Violet 23 (R) 51319
35. C.I. Pigment Violet 23(B) 51319


6.3.5 SI prefixes, Decimal fractions and multiples
Table 6.3.5 SI prefixes, Decimal fractions and multiples
Symbol
Prefix
Decimal
Short scale
10n
Y
yotta
1 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000
septillion
1024
Z
zetta
1 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000
sextillion
1021
E
exa
1 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000
quintillion
1018
P
peta
1 000, 000, 000, 000, 000
quadrillion
1015
T tera
1 000, 000, 000, 000 trillion
1012
G giga
1 000, 000, 000 billion
109
M mega
1 000, 000 million
106
k kilo
1 000 thousand
103
h hecto
100 hundred
102
da deca
10 ten
10
.

1
one
100
d deci
0.1 tenth
10-1
c centi
0.01 hundredth
10-2
m milli
0.001 thousandth
10-3
mu, micro
0.000 001 millionth
10-6
n nano
0.000 000 001 billionth
10-9
p pico
0.000 000 000 001 trillionth
10-12
f
femto
0.000 000 000 000 001 quadrillionth
10-15
a
atto
0.000 000 000 000 000 001 quintillionth
10-18
z
zepto
0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001 sextillionth
10-21
y
yocto
0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001 septillionth
10-24
Some people also want "hella" for 1027.
Myria (10, 000) is no longer used.
Water is measured in kilolitres, megalitres and gigalitres, e.g. gigalitres per year, GL / Y.
A Short Scale "trillion" = a Long Scale, (now discarded), "billion",
and a Short Scale "trillionth" = a Long Scale, (now discarded), "billionth".

6.3.6 SI, CGS and FPS conversion, metric conversion
CGS = centimetre-gram-second (system)
FPS = foot-pound-second (system) (British Weights and Measures Act, 1824)
The FPS unit of mass is the slug, i.e. the mass that will accelerate at 1 ft sec-2 when a one pound force acts on it.
MK or MESA = metre, kilogram, second, (ampere)

Table 6.3.6 SI, CGS and FPS conversion, metric conversion
Physical
quantity
CGS unit
.
FPS unit
.
Length
(m = metre)
centimetre, 1 cm
= 10-2 m
foot, 1 ft
= 0.3048 m
" . inch, 1 in
= 2.54 × 10-2 m
" . mile, 1 mile
= 1.61 km
Mass
(kg = kilogram)
gram, 1 g
= 10-3 kg
pound, 1 lb
= 0.4536 kg
" . ounce, 1 oz
= 28.35 g
" . ton, 1 ton
= 1.016 × 103 kg
Volume 1 cm3
= 10-6 m3
1 ft3
= 2.832 × 10-2 m2
"
"
1 litre,
L =10-3 m3
1 in3 = 1.639 × 10-5 m2
1 cubic inch = 16.39 cc
" 1 millilitre,
1 mL = 1 cm3

Density
.
1 g cm-3
= 10-3 kg m-3
.
Velocity
or speed
1 cm s-1
= 10-2 m s-1
.
" 100 km/hour 62.5 miles/hour
Force
.
dyne, 1 dyne
= 10-5 N
.
Pressure,
stress
1 dyne cm2
= 10-1 Pa
.
" bar, 1 bar
= 105 Pa
1 bar
= 750.07 mm Hg
" millibar
= 100 Pa
.
Energy, work
(J = joule)
erg, 1 erg
= 10-7 J
.
Power
(W = watt)
1 erg S-1
= 10-7 W
horsepower,
1 hp = 745.7 W
Viscosity
.
poise, 1 P
= 10-1 NM-2s
.
Thermal
energy
International calorie
= 4.186 J
British thermal unit
1 BTU = 1.055 × 103 J