School Science Lessons
Food Gardens 7 - Herbs
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Herbs Information and Websites
Table of contents
3.7.0 Plant families, Acoraceae to Zingiberaceae, (monocotyledons).
Family Rutaceae, Citrus species, Rutaceae.

Family Acoraceae, Calamus family
Sweet flag (Acorus calamus), calamus, sweet cane, jerangau, bach, vacha, herbacious perennial, symbol of love, said to be aphrodisiac,
solid spadix said to represent penis from one side of triangular flower stems, small crowded green-yellow flowers, up to 75 cm,
deciduous, grow in wet ground or in pot with saucer under to retain moisture, few culinary uses, banned as human food or food additive
by United States Food and Drug Administration, | Asarone: | Eugenol: | ancient popular herbal medicine and Ayurvedic
medicine, used rhizomes to treat intestinal problems, holy anointing oil (Exodus 30: 23), hallucinogenic, used as incense-strewing and
thatching herb, ornamental pond plant, Northern Hemisphere, India, Acoraceae.
Dried herb sold as root pieces or root powder.
Japanese sweet flag (Acorus gramineus), grassy-leaved sweet flag, grassy clumps of yellow or cream striped leaves, Acoraceae.
Variegated sweet flag (Acorus gramineus variegatus), up to 20 cm, striped leaves, hardy border plant, Acoraceae.
Sweet flag
, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root.

Family Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllis family, e.g. agapanthus, amaryllis, daffodil, narcissus, snowdrop
Allium species
Leek (Allium ampeloprasum), giant garlic, national vegetable of Wales, Amaryllidaceae.
Onions (Allium cepa), common onion, bulb onion, spring onion, Amaryllidaceae.
Dried herb sold as bulb flakes and bulb powder.
Red onion cultivars | Cyanidin | Flavonoids | Amaryllidaceae.
Scallion (Allium cepa var. cepa), spring onion, table onion, harvest before bulbs form, Amaryllidaceae.
Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum), eschalot, Amaryllidaceae.
Chinese scallion (Allium chinense), Rakkyo Chinese scallions, Chinese onion, Asian cooking, folk medicine, Amaryllidaceae.
Chinese scallions, Mudbrick Cottage
Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum), Japanese bunching onion, Welsh onion, escallion, Asian cuisine, miso soup, Amaryllidaceae.
Tree onion (Allium x proliferum), Amaryllidaceae.
Rocambole (Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon), serpent garlic, sand leek, used as garlic, ornamental, Amaryllidaceae.

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), onion chives, perennial, up to 30 cm, grow in clumps, edging plants, grow in containers, insect
pest repellent, companion plant, cut soft leaves often, leaves and pom-pom flowers edible, mild onion flavour, store in freezer, culinary
uses, scrambled eggs, leaves in salads, meats, sandwiches, cream cheese, Hong Kong dumplings "dow choi", herbal medicine, rich in
vitamins and minerals, Amaryllidaceae.
Chives, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
See diagram: Chives.

Garlic chives (Allium tuberosum), Chinese chives, perennial, hardy plant, up to 30 cm, flat leaves, culinary uses, garlic flavour,
attractive white flowers, leaves and green flower buds used in Asian cooking, herbal medicine, Amaryllidaceae.
Garlic chives, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
See diagram: Garlic chives.

Garlic (Allium sativum var. sativum), cultivated garlic, Amaryllidaceae.
A garlic "clove" is single swollen storage leaves surrounding the shoots.
The smell of fresh garlic is caused by the organosulfur compound Allicin.
Garlic has strong anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties.
Garlic has strong garlic odour, insoluble in water, soluble in oils, inhibits moulds and bacteria, skin and stomach-lining irritant, causes
garlic allergy, soak well in lemon juice before storing under oil, but may turn blue-green, garlic breath cause by Methanethiol in the
mouth and Allyl methyl sulfide from the digestive system, culinary uses, stews, omelettes, with lamb, sold as granules, ground garlic,
When a clove of garlic, Allium sativum, is crushed the enzyme allinase acts on alliin (S-allylcysteine), to produce unstable allicin,
(diallyl thiosulfionate), that degrades to diallyl sulfide, CH2.CH.CH2.S-S.CH2.CH.CH2, and other sulfur compounds called ajoenes
and dithiins.
In distilled oil of garlic, allyl disulfide (diallyl disulfide, C6H10S2) can also be prepared by steam distillation.
Folk medicine, treat boils with a warm washer compress of crushed garlic, treat ear infections with topic application of garlic oil.
All these compounds are said to have health benefits owing to their anticlotting, antifungus, antibacterial and antioxidant properties.
However, garlic should be eaten in oil preparations, e.g. olive oil, or cooked or as tincture
Raw garlic may damage the digestive system.
Do not use if taking anticoagulants or before surgery.
Society garlic (Tulbaghia violacea), wild garlic, pink agapanthus, used as chives, South Africa, Amaryllidaceae.
Rakkyo Chinese Scallions, Mudbrick Cottage (Allium chinense), Amaryllidaceae.
Society Garlic, Mudbrick Cottage
Society Garlic - Variegated, Mudbrick Cottage (Tulbaghia violacea), See text below images.

Family Araceae, Arum family
Arum lily Araceae.
Aroids (spadix inflorescence inside spathe) (may contain calcium oxalate raphides), e.g. calamus, coco yam, monsterio.
1.1 Taro (Colocasia esculenta), common taro, "taro", "taro tru", dasheen, Araceae.
1.2 Giant swamp taro (Cyrtosperma merkusii), Oceania, Southeast Asia, Araceae.
1.3 Chinese taro (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), arrowleaf elephant ear, kongkong taro, tannia, yautia, Araceae.
1.4 Giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizos), wild taro, elephant ear taro, Araceae.
Chinese eddoe (Colocasia antiquorum), eddo, Chinese eddoe, Araceae.

Angel wings (Caladium bicolor), heart of Jesus, elephant ear, heart of Jesus, green-white spathe, large, heart-shaped two-coloured
leaves, yellow to green leaves with green or red veins, all parts poisonous irritation, calcium oxalate, raphides, common ornamental
houseplant, South America, Araceae.
See diagram: Caladium bicolor.

Family Arecaceae, Palm family
Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea), Acai palm, Arecaceae.

Betel tree (Areca catechu), areca nut palm, areca palm, betel nut palm, pinang palm, up to 20 m, large compound leaves, small
male and female flowers in same bunch, oval fruits have layer of husk around a single seed, orange ripe fruit called betel nut, kernel of
seed chewed with betel leaf and lime, Arecoline, arecaidine alkaloid C7H11NO2 | Choline | Gallic acid | Tannic acid | masticatory quid
called a paan which may be antidepressant but addictive and cause mouth cancers | Chavicol | Safrole | herbal medicine, root decoction
for stomach ailments, nut decoction for diarrhoea, Philippines, South East Asia, Papua New Guinea, Arecaceae.
(paan = Betel leaf + nut of Areca catechu).

Jelly palm (Butia capitata), wine palm, tender palm, yatay palm, Brazil palm, medium palm, evergreen, fast growing, very
cold-hardy palm, stout trunk, pinnate leaves, fruit large, yellow, in clusters, used as jelly, fresh, fruit has strong tasting fruit with contents
like jelly, propagation from seeds, South America, Arecaceae.

Solitary fishtail palm (Caryota urens), jaggery palm, toddy palm, alcoholic drinks, palm sugar, fishing rod from leaf, India, Arecaceae.
Fishtail palm (Caryota mitis), beridin, up to 25 m, compound leaves with wedge-shaped, fish tail-like leaflets, flowers on tassel-like
clusters, ripe fruits dark red like string of beads fruit and leaves poisonous, sap stings skin, unripe fruits irritating, calcium oxalate
raphides, garden and roadside ornamental, Arecaceae.
Caryota rumphiana, native fishtail palm, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, Arecaceae.

Cocos (Cocos nucifera), tall large palm, evergreen, fruit and ornamental, fruit contains coconut oil, fatty reserves as a solid, fibrous
outside, used as fresh, juice, grated, oil, propagation from seeds, herbal medicine (bark and roots), South Pacific, Arecaceae.
Cocos nucifera, cv. dwarf, dwarf coconut palm, horticulture, Arecaceae.
Cocos weddeliana, dwarf coconut palm, small palm, thin leaflets (houseplant), Arecaceae.
Coconut Project.

Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, Sabal serrulata), up to 3 m, fanspined petioles, leaves up to 2 m, yellow-white, fruit red-black drupe
contains fatty acids and phytosterols, flowers, palm, native American food and medicine, prostate gland, anti-inflammatory, used to
treat PBH (benign prostatic hyperplasia), other urinary problems, may affect testosterone levels, coastal South Atlantic, USA and
Gulf, Arecaceae.
Dried herb sold as crushed berries or crushed berries powder.

Family Asparagaceae, Asparagus family
Agave species, Asparagaceae.
Century plant (Agave americana) maguey, (Agavoideae), Asparagaceae
| See diagram: Agave americana 1
| raphides, beware of spines! |
American aloe, xerophyte, to 1.2 m, blue-grey strap-like spiny leaves, tall cluster of flowers inflorescence, up to 12 m, flowers only
once up to 30 years, not after 100 years, long leaf fibres, sap natural insecticide, herbal medicine, diuretic, constipation, burns,
as houseplant usually variegated varieties, in tub on patio used to make pulque and tequila, national drink of Mexico, succulent,
drought resistant, ornamental, Asparagaceae.

Sea onion (Albuca bracteata, Ornithogalum caudatum), false sea onion, pregnant onion, herb of healing, house plant, inedible
"onions" (bulb-like stems), grows above the ground, herbal medicine, crushed leaves to cover cuts and bruises, syrup against colds,
dermatitis health risk, South Africa, Asparagaceae.
Some other genera are called "sea onion!".

Asparagus species, Asparagaceae.
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, var. Mary Washington), sparrow grass, perennial, up to 1 metre, hardy plant, deciduous, deep
loose soil, companion plant, culinary uses, spring table vegetable, delicious and nutritious, eaten raw, tastes like fresh green peas, used
cooked, asparanin, herbal medicine, high nutritional value, Asparagaceae.
Asparagus racemosus, wild asparagus, "Shatavari", widely used Ayurvedic medicine to treat premenstrual syndrome (PMS),
uterine bleeding and encourage breast milk, India, Asparagaceae.
Asparagus, 'Mary Washington', Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), wild asparagus, cladodes like pine needles, tiny white flowers, tuberous roots | asparagamine A
alkaloid | saponins | roots used for widely-used traditional herbal medicine, stomach problems, improve breast milk, tonic for uterus,
South Asia, Asparagaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Asparagus, Daley's Fruit Trees

Lily-of-the-valley, (Convallaria majalis), ladder-to-heaven, may lily, herbaceous perennial, possibly up to 40 herbal cardiac
glycosides and saponins, poisonous, | azetine-2-carboxylic acid (C4H7NO2), | Convallatoxin | herbal medicine, cardiac tonic, diuretic,
all parts poisonous, dangerously attractive red berries, ornamental, perfume industry, leaves used for dye, Europe, Asparagaceae.
See diagram: Convallaria majalis.

Star of Bethlehem, (Ornithogalum umbellatum), grass lily, sleepy dick, chincherinchee, up to 20 cm, deciduous, star-shaped flowers,
essence for mental and physical shock, an ingredient in rescue medicine, Asparagaceae.
See diagram: Ornithogalum umbellatum.

Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa), perennial, up to 1 metre, white waxen, perhaps the most powerfully scented of all flowers and produce
perfume long after it has been picked, aphrodisiac, used to make perfume, several blooms can appear on each stem, mild fragrance
during the day and a strong fragrance during the night, Mexico, Asparagaceae.
See diagram: Polianthes tuberosa.

Solomon's seal (Polygonatum biflorum), smooth Solomon's seal, drooping, white-green flowers, seal-like scars between sections
of rhizome, herbal medicine, potato-like food, Asparagaceae.
See diagram: Polygonatum biflorum.
Angular Solomon's seal (Polygonatum odoratum, P. officinale), fragrant Solomon's seal, jointed rhizome, scented tubular flowers,
young shoots cooked, poisonous red or black berries, poisonous azetine-2-carboxylic acid (C4H7NO2), ancient herbal medicine,
poultice for bruising, tonic for many disorders, Europe, Asparagaceae.
See diagram: Polygonatum odoratum.

Jew's myrtle (Ruscus aculeatus), butcher's broom, knee holly, box holly, pettigree, sweet broom, herbal medicine, perennial,
evergreen, hardy plant, cladodes look like spine-tipped leaves, up to 1 metre, herbal medicine, internal and external leaves, steroid
saponins, improve circulation by restricting veins and reducing pooling in extremeties, relieve constipation and water retention
discomfort, England, Europe, Asparagaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
See diagram: Ruscus aculeatus.

Yucca species, Asparagaceae.
Yucca (Yucca filamentosa), common yucca (Adam's needle, Genesis 3:7), Spanish bayonet, needle palm, hardy perennial, up to
1-2 metres, white bell of beautiful white bell flowers, poisonous, ornamental, woody, the yucca moth Pronuba yuccasella, transfers
pollen for fertilization, lays eggs in the ovules, and eats only some of the ovules, herbal medicine, dry regions of South America,
Central America, Asparagaceae.

Family Asphodelaceae, Aloe family (formerly Family Xanthorrhoeaceae)
Aloe species
Candelabra aloe (Aloe candelabra, Aloe arborescens), tree-like aloe, perennial, succulent, erect growth, fleshy leaves, more than
60 cm, forms roots easily from stem cuttings, root easily from stems, bitter glucoside Aloenin, herbal medicine, analgesic, anaesthetic,
antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, clear inner gel of leaves used for cuts, bruises and sunburn, used for many internal and external uses,
tonic, cuts, bruises, cold sores, scalds, nappy rash, dandruff, after-shave, sunburn, called "living First Aid plant", culinary uses, invasive
weed (houseplant), Asphodelaceae.
Do not take dried leaf internally. Do not use gel externally on surgical incision. Juice extract and aerials sold as powder.
Candelabra Aloe, Mudbrick Cottage.

Quiver tree (Aloe dichotoma), tall branching plant, used for arrows, South Africa, Asphodelaceae.

Cape Aloe (Aloe ferox), bitter aloe, red aloe, thick, fleshy leaves, red-brown spines, stem up to 45 cm, red-brown spines on leaf
margins, herbal medicine, purgative, leaf gel in cosmetics (houseplant), South Africa, Asphodelaceae.
Cape Aloe, Mudbrick Cottage
Dried herb sold as aerials powder.

Rubble aloe (Aloe perfoliata), mitre aloe, prostrate, branching stems, along the ground, fleshy blue-green leaves, spines around
edges, red flowers on stalks, common landscaping plant (houseplant), South Africa, Asphodelaceae.
See diagram Aloe perfoliata

Perry's aloe (Aloe perryi), socratine aloe, rocky areas, leaves with red spines, aromatic odour like saffron, unpleasant bitter taste,
herbal medicine, burns, sunburn, Yemen, Asphodelaceae.
Perry's Aloe, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.

Barbados aloe (Aloe vera, A. barbadensis), true aloe, Chinese aloe, Indian aloe, burn aloe, "First Aid Plant", perennial,
stemless, rosette of tapering toothed succulent leaves,, fleshy lamina modified for water storage, up to 100 cm, thick and fleshy,
green to grey leaves containing thick, colourless juice, leaf margins serrated with small white teeth, erect spike with yellow pendulous
flowers with tubular corolla on a spike up to 90 cm high, very bitter-tasting cramping sap so do not swallow, used in baby powder,
cosmetics, Anthraquinone in yellow latex resin exudate from under plant skin | aloe-emodin | aloin | in clear aloe gel
in inner part of plant leaf, Coumarin, herbal medicine, antibacterial, antiviral, immune stimulant, nutrients to stimulate wound healing,
fresh leaf mucilage used to treat bed sores, burns, itching, radiation burns, shingles, skin problems, sunburn, wound healing, psoriasis,
however many drug interactions (commercial product specifies it contains "inner leaf gel", to avoid containing anthroquinone),
no culinary uses, other ornamental Aloe species contain astringent sap so do not use them on damaged skin, (houseplant),
Mediterranean region, Asphodelaceae.
See diagram: Aloe vera
Barbados Aloe, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images
Dried herb sold as leaf powder.
Aloe vera extract powder will reconstitute into Aloe vera gel.
Aloe vera, Daley's Fruit Trees

Tiger aloe (Aloe variegata), partridge-breasted aloe, up to 30 cm, rosette of triangular, dark green leaves, V-shaped white bands,
(houseplant), Asphodelaceae.

Bulbinella (Bulbine frutescens), perennial, drought-hardy plant, up to 50 cm, leaves rich in anthraquinones, herbal medicine, internal
and external, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, Asphodelaceae.
Bulbine lily (Bulbine bulbosa), yellow flowers, Australian aboriginals ate corms, leaves poisonous, garden flower, Australia.
Leek lily (Bulbine semibarbata), wild onion, native food, Australia, Asphodelaceae.

Daylily (Hemerocallis citrina), perennial, herbal medicine, antibacterial, culinary uses, yellow to purple flowers supposed to last
for only one day, flower buds and young shoots eaten raw and cooked, Eurasia, Asphodelaceae.
Orange day lily (Hemerocallis fulva), ornamental, Asphodelaceae.

Grass-tree (Xanthorrhoea australis), black boy, blue-green leaves hang down to skirt trunk blackened by bush fires, widespread
in Australia, Asphodelaceae.

Family Berberidaceae, Barberry family, e.g. Berberis
Sacred bamboo (Nandina domestica), heavenly bamboo, perennial, up to 1-2 metres, green / bronze / red ferny leaves, traditional
herbal medicine, Berberidaceae.

Family Bromeliaceae, Bromeliad family, pineapple family
Ananas species, Bromeliaceae.
Pineapple Project (Ananas comosus), Tropical America, Bromeliaceae.

Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), air plant, perennial, epiphyte, cylindrical leaves on slender drooping stems, cascading from
plant's support (novelty plant) (houseplant), hang over fence or tree, no need to water, plant will thicken and lengthen, use as garden
mulch, stuffing cushions, herbal medicine, in ointments, Bromeliaceae.

Family Cannaceae, Canna family (Canna is the only genus in the family.)
Achira (Canna edulis)
Queensland arrowroot, perennial, 2 metres, hardy plant, some of first plants to be cultivated by Incas, ornamental, used for quick
growing windbreaks, leaves for animal feed and mulch, herbal medicine, poultices, digestive, culinary uses, large round red rhizomes
eaten raw or cooked, or flour for thickening agent, young shoots as green vegetable, stir-fry, chips, tuber as vegetable, herbal medicine,
poultices, digestive, South America, Cannaceae.
See diagram Queensland arrowroot, Canna edulis, Cannaceae
Arrowroot, Daley's Fruit Trees
Indian shot (Canna indica), small, black globular seeds like shot, horticulture cultivars, Cannaceae.

Family Colchicaceae, Flame lily family
Meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale), autumn crocus, naked lady, large crocus-shaped pink flowers, can flower without soil,
corms and seeds poisonous, colchicine in corms and seeds, herbal medicine, used to treat gout, possibly anticancer, ornamental,
Gloriosa superba, flame lily, Colchicaceae.

Family Dioscoreaceae, Yam family

Family Illiciaceae, Star anise family
Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), highly toxic, used in incense, anisatin, shikimin and sikimitoxin, safrole, Eugenol
Chinese star anise (Illicium verum), star anise, star aniseed, badiane, spice like anise in flavour, in Indian garam masala,
small to medium, rounded, evergreen tree, glossy foliage, small green-white to pink- purple flowers, aromatic seed pods open to
star shape when ripe, brown pods and the seeds source of essential oil and ground spice, Chinese and northern Vietnamese cuisine,
an ingredient in five-spice powder, used to flavour liqueurs, e.g. Pernod, aniseed flavour in confectionary, in cough mixtures.
| Anethole | Estragole | Limonene | Linalool | Viet Nam, Illiciaceae.
Dried herb sold as fruit and as fruit powder.

Family Iridaceae, Iris family
Crocus species, Iridaceae.
Saffron (Crocus sativus), saffron crocus, autumn crocus, up to 30 cm, deciduous, red-orange stigmas, spice for flavouring and
coloring food | Crocetin | Crocin | Safranal | Chinese traditional medicine and general folk medicine, used to treat heart disorders, blood
disorders, stroke, suppress tumour necrosis, as decoction, medicine, pistils used to produce rare flavouring spice, also used for yellow
dye from crocetin esters in saffron stigmas, Iridaceae.

Iris species, Iridaceae, Iris rhizome, perennating food storing and propagating organ, parenchyma contains inulin and amylum starch,
Orris (Iris florentina), orris root, perennial, 50 cm, herbal medicine, isoflavone glycosides,
Morocco, Iridaceae.
Orris, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root powder.
Gladwin iris (Iris foetidissima), stinking iris, stinking gladwin, woodland, roast beef plant, bruised leaves have unpleasant beefy smell,
but do not eat plant, attractive garden seed pods, Iridaceae.
Iris kemaonensis, contains the quinone 1, 4-benzoquinone, Iridaceae.
Yellow flag (Iris pseudacorus), Iridaceae.
Blue flag (Iris versicolor), perennial, 1 metre, lavender / blue flowers, hardy plant, culinary uses, herbal medicine, Iridaceae.
Blue Flag, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as rhizome particles.

Family Liliaceae, Lily family
Lilium, Lilium species, Liliaceae.
Madonna lily (Lilium candidum)
possible origin of "fleur de lis" in heraldry, columns of King Solomon's temple, toxic to cats, flower stem to 1 m, Greece, Mexico,

Family Marantaceae, Arrowroot family, Prayer plant family
Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)
obedience plant, South American arrowroot, perennial but may go deciduous in winter, hardy plant, more than 1 metre, large starchy
rhizomes, source of commercial arrowroot flour, culinary uses, root raw and cooked, made into flour for thickening and baking, high
nutritional value, herbal medicine, digestive aid, Central America, Marantaceae.
The edible starch from Maranta arundinacea may be called "arrowroot".
Prayer plants.

Family Musaceae, Banana family, Musa
Musaceae. species
Banana (Musa acuminata), most edible bananas, dessert bananas, Southeast Asia, Musaceae.
Banana Project
Musa acuminata (Musa, AAA group "Dwarf Cavendish"), banana, Musaceae.
Plantain (Musa x paradisiaca), cooking bananas, triploid, Southeast Asia, Musaceae.
Musa hybrids, plantain, cooking banana, large herb, evergreen, fast growing, fruit large, yellow or red, starchy, used cooked.
Lady finger banana (Musa (AA) 'Lady Finger'), diploid, small sweet fruit with thin skin, Australia, Southeast Asia, Musaceae.
Latundan banana (Musa acuminata x Icacinaceae, Icacina family
Illiciaceae, Star anise family, Musa balbisiana), triploid, desert banana, ornamental, Philippines, Musaceae.
Red banana (Musa acuminata 'Red Dacca'), Red Dacca banana, West Indies, Musaceae.
Wild banana (Musa balbisiana), butuhan, seeded banana, Southeast Asia, Musaceae.

Family Orchidaceae, Orchid family
Vanilla species, Orchidaceae.
Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), flat-leaved vanilla, vanilla vine, Bourbon vanilla, Mexican vanilla, Reunion vanilla, perennial, climbing
orchid, warm climate, aromatic pods used in soup, flavour ice cream, cakes, icing, drinks, fruit salad | Eugenol | Linalool | Vanillin |
Mexico, India, Indonesia, Orchidaceae.
Dried herb sold as whole pods, cut pods 1-2 mm, pods powder.

Family Pandanaceae, Screw-pine family.
Pandanus species, pandan, screw pine, screw palm
Pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius), edible pandanas, rumpa, perennial, 1 metre +, herbal medicine, culinary uses, flavour rice,
savoury sweets dishes, leaf wraps, Pandanaceae.
Screwpine (Pandanus odifer), pandanus palm, pandang, padang, attar of kewda oil, attar of keora oil, palm-like evergreens,
sword-shaped spiny leaves, fruit like a pineapple, leaves used to flavour rice dishes and wrap meats, aromatic flowers
used to flavour sweets, Acetylpyrrolidine, tropical and sub-tropical, India, Pandanaceae.

Family Poaceae, Grass family, e.g. Poa, grasses, wheat, barley, rice, oats, rye, bamboo
Oatstraw (Avena sativa), Poaceae
6.6.11 Tropical grasses
Vanilla grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), sweet vernal grass, holy grass, up to 30 cm, hardy plant, tufting grass, soup sachets,
bath bags, leaves pleasant tea, herbal medicine, temporary relief of pain, tincture sniffed for hay fever, Coumarin, hay smell when dry,
Vanilla grass, Mudbrick Cottage.

Love grass (Chrysopogon aciculatus), amorseco, lesser spear grass, perennial, creeping stout rhizomes, up to 50 cm, sharp
spikelets stick to clothing and animal fur, hydrocyanic acid, herbal medicine, expel intestinal worms, rheumatism, invasive weed, prevent
soil erosion, Southeast Asia, Australia, Poaceae.
Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides, Vetiveria zizanioides), perennial, up to 1, 5 metres, clumping grass, moisture conservation
and erosion control, mulch, aromatic root yields valuable oil used in perfumery, drinks, foods, cosmetics, soaps,
crafts, insect repellent, herbal medicine, tonic, digestive, temporary relief of arthritis, fevers, stress, aromatherapy, culinary
uses, herbal medicine, Poaceae.
Vetiver Grass, Mudbrick Cottage.

Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), perennial, up to 1 metre high, animal fodder, multi-coloured seeds ideal in dried flower
arrangements and crafts, herbal medicine, lung and chest disorder, rheumatism, traditional Chinese uses, culinary uses, used in Chinese
recipes where called "Chinese pearl barley", natural beads for necklaces, India, Poaceae.

Cymbopogon species, Poaceae.
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), citronella grass, oil grass, nardus, tanglad, barbed wire grass, West Indian lemon grass,
Madagascar lemon grass, Guatemala lemon grass, pin yin, sugandha trina, perennial, up to 1 metre, dense clumps of of shoots with
coarse narrow leaves, mulch, erosion control, companion plant, garden herb, contains geraniol, may cause drop in cholesterol
concentrations, culinary uses, food flavouring, soups, Thai cooking, curries, salads, rich in vitamins A and C, thick stem in curries,
stir fries, fish, as tea refreshing hot, or cold, and added to fruit cups | mainly Citral | also: cCitronellal | Geraniol | Limonene | Linalool |
herbal medicine, decoction to treat headaches, coughs, colds, and many other disorders, rinse as hair conditioner and remove body
odour, used to produce citronella oil seen as a "natural insecticide" and safe insect repellent but banned in the European Union as an
insecticide, Southeast Asia, Egypt, Poaceae.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus sold as West Indian Lemongrass Oil, Indian melissa oil, to be used as pesticide or preservative
and possibly antifungal properties.
See diagram: Lemongrass
East Indies lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexousus), red base, grows taller and tolerates, cold well, same uses as Cymbopogon citratus,
Lemongrass, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Lemongrass products, Mudbrick Cottage
Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii), Indian geranium, ginger grass, rosha, perennial, hardy plant, up to 1 metre, for palmarosa oil
and geranoil oil, herbal medicine, lumbago, skin conditions, added to perfumes, cosmetics, insect repellents, Poaceae.
Palmarosa, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), perennial, more than 1 metre height, hardy plant, companion plant, mulch, oil as repellent,
soaps, culinary uses, food flavouring, leaves and thick base rich in vitamin C, refreshing tea, rub leaves on body to deter insects,

Cat grass (Dactylis glomerata), cocksfoot grass, orchard grass, perennial, hardy plant, up to 20 cm, lawn grass, orchard grass,
natural medicine for healthy cats, dogs, guinea pigs, rabbits, can also be chopped and added to animal's food, Poaceae.
Cat Grass, Mudbrick Cottage.

Incense grass (Hierochloe odorata), holy grass, manna grass, Mary's grass, seneca grass, perennial, up to 50 cm, traditional
ceremonial grass used in peace and healing rituals, leaves dried and braided, also made into smudge sticks, herbal medicine, in distilled
beverages, e.g. Zubrowka Vodka, Northern Asia and North America, Poaceae.
Sweet grass, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.

Phalaris (Phalaris aquatica), pasture grass, tolerates wet soils, erect and prostrate types, some varieties may cause poisoning of
livestock, phalaris staggers, Poaceae.
Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), gardener's garters, ribbon grass, hardy plant, up to 2 m, herbal medicine, ornamental,
forage crop, invasive weed, psychedelic drugs, euphoric, Europe, Asia, North America, Poaceae.
Canary grass (Phalaris canariensis), grown for birdseed, also street food, Canary Islands, Italy, North Africa, Poaceae.

Zebra grass (Miscanthus zebrinus), perennial, hardy plant, striking green and cream, stripes cross-ways on the leaves, used for
landscaping, erosion control, mulch, Poaceae.
5.0.0, Maize (Zea mays, Indian corn), Poaceae.

Family Smilacaceae, Catbrier family
Sarsaparilla (Smilax ornata, S. aristolochifolia), Jamaican sarsaparilla, perennial, trailing vine, used in sarsaparilla and root beer soft
drinks, contains saponin glycosides, herbal medicine, anti-inflammatory, Mexico, Smilacaceae.
Dried herb sold as root powder.

Family Zingiberaceae, Ginger family
See diagram: Zingiber.
See diagram: Zingiber officinale
Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta), ossame, Guinea pepper, trumpet-shaped purple flowers, red seeds taste like pepper,
aromatic ketones, swamp habitats, West Africa, Zingiberaceae.

Cape York Turmeric, Curcuma australatica, Zingiberaceae
a ginger (not a lily), which produces showy flower spike emerging from dormant rhizome, pink bracts enclose the yellow flower buds,
fading to green, then sprouting of leaves up to 80cm, rhizome is edible but not the fruit, harvest outer rhizomes and use as with turmeric
striking ornamental with mauve bracts and yellow flowers.
See diagram: Cape York turmeric
See diagram: Curcuma australatica
See diagram: Curcuma domestica

Galangal, A "galangal" is a Zingiberaceae. rhizome.
Native ginger, (Alpinia caerulea), 1.5 to 2m, very hardy, white shell-like flowers, clusters of blue berries, roots and berries eaten by
Aboriginal people, Australian native food, Zingiberaceae
See diagram: Alpinia caerulea.
Greater galangal (Alpinia galangal), "galangal", Thai galangal, Thai ginger, perennial, orchid-like flowers, tasty knobby root, culinary
use, rhizome slices in Thai curries and Indonesian rendang, roots contains volatile "oil galangol", karempferid | alpanin | Camphor | Cineole
| Eugenol | Galangin | Geranyl acetate | Methyl cinnamate | Pinene | African and Indian folk medicine, antifungal, for sore throat, colds,
South Asia, Zingiberaceae.
Galangal, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root powder.
Lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum), "galangal", perennial ornamental, lesser galangal, "small ginger", galangal root, colic root,
preferred ginger for Thai cooking, tight clumps of green foliage, cream flowers, 1.5 to 2m, cold tolerant, full sun to part shade, needs moist
well drained soil, rich in organic matter, flowers in summer
See diagram: Alpinia officinarum.
See diagram: Galangal

Chinese ginger, Thai ginger, East Indian ginger, more than 1 metre, white flowers, ginger-shaped, root, narrow leaves, similar growth
and uses to greater galangal | Cineole | Galangin | folk medicine, Zingiberaceae.

Black cardamom (Amomum costatum), hill cardamom, larger pods used in Chinese and Vietnamese cuisine, Zingiberaceae.

Nepal cardamom (Amomum subulatum), greater Indian cardamom, black cardamom, seeds in red pod with sweet surrounding pulp,
| Camphor | Cineole |, strong harsh flavour if smoke dried, used in Indian cuisine, meat dishes, pickles, North India, Nepal, Zingiberaceae.

Chinese ginger (Boesenbergia rotunda), fingerroot, kencur, aromatic ginger, sand ginger, Zingiberaceae.
Chinese keys (Boesenbergia pandurata), finger root, perennial, up to 40 cm, deciduous, rare root spice, flavouring, Zingiberaceae.
See diagram: Chinese keys
See diagram: Boesenbergia

Curcuma species, Zingiberaceae.
Curcuma aromatica, wild turmeric, fragrant rhizomes used in cosmetics, South Asia, Zingiberaceae
Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Indian saffron, Indian yellow root, thick cylindrical orange rhizome, perennial, up to 1 metre, deciduous,
yellow dye, gives foods brilliant orange colour and earthy flavour as in ballpark mustard, used to produce commercial curry powder,
culinary uses, Indian curries, asian dishes, rice, vegetarian dishes, pickles (E100 Curcumin) | Cineole | Phellandrene | herbal medicine,
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, aids digestion, may have chemopreventative effects against cancer, India, Nepal, Zingiberaceae.
Turmeric, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as root fingers and as root powder.
See diagram: Turmeric
Temulawak (Curcuma zanthorrhiza), Java ginger, curcuma, perennial, more than 1 metre, pink flowers, herbal medicine, culinary
uses, Zingiberaceae.
Zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria), E Zhu, kentjur, white galangal, herbaceous perennial, up to 0.15 m, aromatic pungent root in Swedish
bitters, starch called shoti | Cineole | herbal remedy, India, Zingiberaceae.
Do not use if you have stomach ulcers, gallstones or bile obstruction.
Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), true cardamom, green cardamom, "Queen of spices", commercially cultivated for its dried fruits
(capsules), the cardamom of commerce, cultivar Malabar (prostrate panicle) sold after bleaching, cultivar Mysore (erect panicle)
sold green , cultivar Vazhukka, natural hybrid (semi-erect panicle), seeds in fibrous capsules ripening differently so must be picked
by hand just before ripe, delicate warming taste, Southern India, Zingiberaceae,
| Camphor | Cineole | Limonene | Linalool | Pinene | Sabinene | Terpineol | Terpinyl acetate | Ascaridole |
Dried herb sold as whole seed pods and whole seed pods powder.
Cardamom fruit oil is used as a flavour, in flatulent indigestion and as an appetite stimulator.
It is antibacterial, antiseptic, carminative and antispasmodic.
See diagram: Ginger cardamom.

Kencur (Kaempheria galanga), lesser galangale, aromatic ginger, perennial, up to 12 cm, deciduous, rare spice, aromatic pungent
root in Asian cooking and curries, herbal medicine, orchid-like flowers, Zingiberaceae.
Kencur, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Round-rooted galangal (Kaempferia rotunda), "galangal", perennial, up to 60 cm, herbal medicine, culinary uses, leaves, and roots
eaten raw and cooked, Zingiberaceae.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Garden ginger, eating ginger, herbaceous, perennial, to 1 metre, narrow green leaves, yellow flowers,
deciduous, foliage dies down in late Autumn then rhizomes harvested as cooking spice, pungent flavour, not-volatile, rhizome
contains phenols, mainly 6-gingerol, culinary uses, savoury and sweetener, dried ginger more pungent than fresh ginger, curries,
pickles, chutneys, Chinese and Thai dishes, cakes, biscuits called "ginger nuts", gingerbread cake, ginger beer, ginger ale,
as tincture | Cineole | Citral | Linalool | Phellandrene |, herbal medicine, ginger tea after meals to cut gas production, reduce burping and heartburn,
crystalline or root ginger for motion sickness, ginger ale or gingernut biscuit for mild nausea and vomiting, antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, antitumor, southern China, Nepal, Zingiberaceae.
Ginger, Mudbrick Cottage.
Dried herb sold as root and root powder.
Essential oils: Gingerol
See diagram: Garden ginger
See diagram: Native ginger (Australia)

Shell ginger (Alpinia zerumbet), perennial, up to 3 metres, funnel-shaped flowers, insect repellent, culinary used, herbal teas,
herbal medicine, skin conditions, many other uses, Zingiberaceae.
False cardamom ginger (Alpinia mutica), small shell ginger, cardamon-scented ginger plant, orchid ginger, narrow-leaved alpini,
perennial, up to 1-1, 5 metres, culinary uses, sweet, culinary uses, flavour meat, curries, herbal medicine,
rhizome extracts may have cytotoxic effects on human carcinoma cells, Zingiberaceae.

Torch ginger (Etlingera elatior), ginger flower, red ginger lily, pink torch ginger, herbaceous, perennial, leaves contain chlorogenic acid
(CGA), and high antioxidant, antibacterial, and tyrosinase inhibition activities, Zingiberaceae.
See diagram: Etlingera elatior

Family Rutaceae.
Agathosma species
Rue family, e.g. wampi, elephant apple, boronia.
Trees are easily grafted to produce hybrids and have a single tap root with a mat of horizontal lateral roots, so it is a surface feeder.
Fruits a berry called hesperidium, have thick, leathery peel, with epidermis, thick cuticle and stomata, with outer peel exocarp
photosynthetic in young fruit, then xanthophyll and carotene in yellow-orange fruit, oil glands contain citrus oil, white peel mesocarp
(albedo) contains pectin, and thin, transparent peel endocarp forms pulp vesicles containing sugars and citric acid in fruit segments along
with seeds.
Juice is extracted for squashes and cordials and essential oils are produced from flowers, leaves and peel.

Acronychia species, Aspens, Rutaceae.
Acronychia acidula, lemon aspen, commercial Australian native food, Australia, Rutaceae.
Acronychia oblongifolia, white aspen, Australian native fruit tree, Rutaceae.
Acronychia wilcoxiana, silver aspen, Australian native fruit tree, Rutaceae.

Bael (Aegle marmelos), only one species, wood apple, Bengal quince, stone apple, vilvam, kuvilam, is a large, thorny, slow-growing,
deciduous tree with dimorphic branches, trifoliate leaves and globose fruits, with hard, smooth, grey-yellow pericarp shell, used fresh
or dried or in shebert or tasty marmalade which smells of roses, herbal medicine, root and bark decoction for fevers, inflammation,
propagation from seeds (holy fruit linked to Lord Shiva), India, Ceylon, Rutaceae.

White sapote (Casmiroa edulis), Mexican apple, matasano, spreading tree, palmate leaves, deciduous, fast growing, fruit, large,
sweet, yellow-green fruit skin, white flesh, fruits cause drowsiness, seeds contain anti-cancer zapotin, vanilla custard taste, fresh,
grafting, grown from seeds, Mexico, Rutaceae.
Wooly-leaved sapote (Casimiroa tetrameria), medium tree, deciduous, leaves have white, furry underside, fast growing, fruit is large,
yellow custard-like, sweet, fresh, grown from grafting, seeds, Mexico, Central America, Rutaceae.

Horsewood (Clausena anisata), Africa, Southeast Asia, India, Queensland, Rutaceae.
Clausena brevistyla, native wampi, Australian native fruit tree, Rutaceae.
Wampi (Clausena lansium), small tree, evergreen, fast growing, strongly scented, fruit, small, round, yellow-green, aromatic, used
fresh or juice, jelly, propagation from seeds, cuttings, grafting, good ornamental, South Asia, Rutaceae.

Citrus species, Rutaceae.
The genetic "parent" species are | Citron | Mandarin orange | Pomelo |.
See diagram: Sweet orange fruit, transverse section
The term "lime" may refer to Citrus species or other species, e.g. the lime tree, linden, is Tilia species.
Limes have high concentration of citric acid and are the most acid citrus fruits.

Australian desert lime, Desert lime (Citrus glauca, Eremocitrus glauca), Australian native food, small tree to 12 m high, greyish green, prominent oil glands, yellowish green berry, widespread in inland eastern Australia, Rutaceae

Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica), understorey rainforest tree, cylindrical fruit, acidic juice, distinct aroma, used in marmalades,
chutneys, sauces, drinks, Rutaceae
See diagram: Finger lime.
Red finger lime (Citrus australasica var. sanguinea), Australia, Rutaceae.
long, tasty fruit, up to 8cm long, can be sliced into rings like cartwheels, grows 3-6 metres, grows in full sun and part shade.
prickly so planted together for a living fence, fire retardant, frost hardy, slow growing but fast growing when budded onto citrus,
tolerates freely-drained poor soils, SE Queensland, Australian native food, Rutaceae.
Australian Finger Lime, Daley's Fruit Trees

Australian round lime (Citrus australis), gympie lime, dooft, Australian native food, Rutaceae.
Australian Round Lime Daley's Fruit Trees

Bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia, Citrus x aurantium subsp. bergamia), bitter orange tree, Bergamot sour orange (Bergamo, Italian
city), perennial, inside pear-shaped fruit is yellow, flavone glycosides, cultivated mainly in Calabria only for green fragrant essence
called bergamot essential oil prepared from rind by pressure, bergamot orange in Earl Grey tea, Bergamot marmalade | Bergapten |
Limonene | herbal medicine, in Turkish delight, Italy, Canary Islands, Rutaceae.
Dried bergamot orange sold as bergamot orange peel.
Bergamot - Lemon Bergamot

Blood lime (Citrus australasica var. sanguinea x other species), Australia, Rutaceae.

Calamondin, calamansi, (Citrus microcarpa X Citrofortunella species), Rutaceae
kumquat hybrid, musk lime, acid orange, calamondin orange, Panama orange, calamansi, small
tree, evergreen, fruit, small, round orange, sour, used juice, preserves, marmalade, propagation from budding, common ornamental in
China, Philippines, Rutaceae. Calamansi, Daley's Fruit Trees

Citron (Citrus medica), cedrat, large fragrant fruit, very aromatic rind, little juice, candied, pickles | Limonene | Pinene | Himalayan
region, Rutaceae.

Clementine (Citrus x clementina), hybrid between mandarin and sweet orange, Mediterranean, Rutaceae.

Grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), medium to large tree, fast growing, fruit, large, yellow, subacid, used fresh, juice, propagation from
budding | CPY3A4 | Limonene | Pinene | bitter taste from Naringin | West Indies, Rutaceae.
Red variety contains Lycopene.

Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), makrut lime, kieffer lime, "Mauritius papeda", perennial, up to 3-5 metres, rough green peel lime-like
aroma, very aromatic tough lemon-scented leaves valued in Thai and Indonesian cooking to flavour rice, meat dishes, curries, soups, as
finely- chopped garnish, small fruit eaten, leaves in rinse for hair, culinary uses Citral | Citronellal | Limonene | Pinene | herbal medicine
combava oil, Rutaceae.
Kaffir Lime, Mudbrick Cottage
Kaffir lime, Citrus macoptera, Melanesian papeda, Rutaceae, may be the same as Citrus hystrix.
Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri), cultivars used as rootstocks, Rutaceae.

Round kumquat (Citrus japonica), cumquat, round cumquat, small orange-like fruit, diameter, "lucky" Chinese pot plant,
some varieties bitter so used for marmalades, other varieties eaten whole including skin, preserved in syrup, candied, monoterpenes,
favanone glycosides, Southeast Asia, Rutaceae.
Oval kumquat (Fortunella margarita), nagami kumquat, cumquat, shrub or small tree, evergreen, small orange-like fruit, 2.5 cm
diameter, sour, used for marmalade, conserves, propagation from budding, South East China, Rutaceae.

Key lime (Citrus x aurantifolia), sour lime, Mexican lime, West Indian lime, bartender's lime, small tree, fruit has many seeds, small
to medium yellow when mature, very sour | Citral | Limonene | aromatic, used juice, pie, budding, air-layering, propagation from seeds,
cuttings, for home planting, South Asia, Rutaceae.
Dried herb sold as lime peel.
Key Lime, Daley's Fruit Trees

Lemon (Citrus x limon), small tree, evergreen, fast growing, fruit, small to large, some rough skin, sour, used juice, flavouring,
propagation from budding, air-layering, cuttings | Limonene | Pinene South Asia, Rutaceae.
See diagram: Lemon
See diagram: Bush lemon, Citrus jambhin
Citrus limon, Lisbon lemon
Dried herb sold as lemon peel.
Lemonade tree, Citrus limon X reticulata

Mandarin lime (Citrus x limonia), Rangpur lime, Canton lemon, marmalade, India, Rutaceae.

Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata), chen pi, mandarin small tree, small, flat, red, sweet fruit easy to peel but fragile, distinctive
aroma of | Thymol | also: Limonene | Pinene | Rutaceae.
Dried herb sold as peel.

Mango Lime, Daley's Fruit Trees

Meyer lemon (Citrus x myeri), lorange, food item | Limonene | Pinene | Thymol | ornamental, China, Rutaceae.
See diagram: Myer lemon

Myrtle-leaved orange tree (Citrus myrtifolia), flavouring in "Chinotto" and "Campari", small compact orange tree. grown in pots,

Pomelo (Citrus maxima), shaddock, pummelo, medium tree, evergreen, large fast-growing fruit, thick skin, large pink or yellow
juice vesicles, used fresh, peel candied, propagation from budding, South Asia, Rutaceae.

Round lime Microcitrus australis, Rutaceae.

Satsuma mandarin (Citrus reticulata subsp. unshiu), unshu orange, cold hardy mandarin, seedless, easy to peel, Japan, Rutaceae.
Tangor (Citrus reticulata x sinensis), temple orange, temple tangor, king orange, medium tree, evergreen, fruit, large, rough skin,
juice used fresh, propagation from budding, Southeast Asia, Rutaceae.

Sour orange (Citrus x aurantium subsp. amara), bitter orange, Seville orange, evergreen, fast growing, medium tree, fruit, large,
sour, essential oil neroli from flowers and bergamot from fruit, bigarade oil, neroli oil, orange flower oil, petitgrain orange oil,
orange flower water used to flavour sweets in Middle East
Citral | neohesperidin | Limonene | used as juice, marmalade, propagation from seeds, air-layering, cuttings, used rootstock for other citrus,
South Asia, Rutaceae.

Sweet lime (Citrus limetta), sweet lemon, sweet limetta, Italian lime, limette oil, Southeast Asia, Rutaceae.

Sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis), "orange", Citrus x sinensis, (Citrus aurantium Sweet Orange Group, sweet oranges, blood
oranges, navel oranges), orange blossom oil, orange peel | Limonene | Pinene | southern China, Turkey, Ghana,
South Africa, Rutaceae.
See diagram: Sweet orange fruit, transverse section)
(Essential oils: neroli oil from flowers, petitgrain oil from leaves, orange oil from peel, also pectin from peel.)
Dried herb sold as sweet orange peel and sweet orange peel fine cut, up to 3 mm, powder, and fruit segments.
Navel orange has second row of carpels, the "navel", at the fruit apex, no seeds, but standing juice may turn bitter with formation of
Limonin terpene.
Blood oranges have red pulp containing anthocyanin pigments.

Tangerine (Citrus tangerina) (possibly a type of mandarin orange), small to medium tree, fruit, round, sweet, loose-skinned, used
fresh, unshu orange, soft sweet fruit, juice, rootstock, budding, propagation from seeds, thought to come from Tangier, Limonene,
South Asia, Rutaceae.

Tahitian lime (Citrus x latifolia), Persian lime, Bearss lime, small tree, fruit medium green, very sour, Citral, aromatic, used juice,
processed products, budding, air-layering, cuttings, Rutaceae.
Tahitian Lime, Daley's Fruit Trees

Tangelo (Citrus x tangelo), honeybells, tangors, medium tree, evergreen, fast growing, fruit, large, sweet, juicy, used fresh, juice,
propagation from budding, Florida, West Indies, Rutaceae.

Trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata), Japanese bitter orange, small tree, large thorns on roots, with trifoliate, deciduous leaves, globose
fruit, used as rootstock and to develop hybrids, fruits too bitter to eat but used in marmalade, ornamental, China, Rutaceae.

Orange berry (Glycosmis trifoliata), Rutaceae
Flowers and fruits as an attractive shrub about 2-4 m tall, foliage is glossy and aromatic, tiny white fragrant flowers, small orange to
pink juicy fruit, sweet and honey flavoured with resinous overtones. fruits used for jam that taste like candied honey, use for mixed screen,
tropical Australia, Rutaceae
See diagram: Orange berry

Curry leaf tree (Murraya koenigii), large shrub or small tree, up to 6 m, main trunk brown-black covered in small white dots,
attractive leafed, tree, or prune as tub specimen, culinary uses in southern India and Malaysia, mild taste not like curry, aromatic
leaves used in curries, stir fries, stews, chutney, contains aromatic terpenes and carbazole alkaloids. antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory | Caryophyllene | Pinene | Terpineol | herbal medicine, traditional folk remedy for indigestion, nausea,
ornamental, hedge, India, Sri Lanka, Rutaceae.
Dried herb sold as leaves.
Curry Leaf Tree, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
See diagram: Curry Leaf Tree
Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata), mock orange, small tree, small orange-red fruit, hardy hedge, bee farms, pastoral weed,
Phellandrene, herbal medicine, timber for handles, Southern China, South Asia, Rutaceae.

Rue (Ruta graveolens), common rue, garden rue, herb of grace o' Sundays ( used to sprinkle holy water), true-love, herb Paris,
one berry, herbygrass, culinary use rare because bitter and gastric discomfort, (extremely bitter taste so symbol of repentance), herbal
medicine, large dose of rue oil is poisonous (Shakespeare's Richard II), India, Balkans, Rutaceae.
Rue, Mudbrick Cottage, See text below images.
Dried herb sold as aerials.
Rue variety (Ruta graveolens, 'Jackman's Blue'), Jackman's Blue, common rue, herb-of-grace, perennial, up to 1 metre, hardy plant,
companion plant, herbal medicine, used as wash for eyes and in oil for rub, contains hydroxy alpha sanshool, C16H25NO2, Rutaceae.

Zanthoxylum species
Prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum, Xanthoxylem), common prickly ash, up to 10 m, membranous leaflets, axillary flower
clusters, antifungal oil from bark used as folk medicine, North America, Rutaceae.
Dried herb sold as bark.
Japanese pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum), sansho, Japanese prickly ash | Citronellal | Linalool | Myrcene | Japan, Rutaceae.
Chinese pepper (Zanthoxylum simulans), Sichuan pepper, Chinese prickly ash, prickly oil | Citronellol | Geraniol | Linalool |
Methyl cinnamate | Myrcene | Phellandrene | Pinene | Sanshool | (Chelerythrine chloride in root) | herbal medicine, China, Rutaceae.