Use pyramiding, buzz groups, and debate to encourage discussion.

Pyramiding or “Think, Pair, Share”
Start this process by asking students to think about their ideas or response to a question, topic, or problem on their own, then after a couple of minutes, turn to their partner and share their response.

Each pair then joins with another pair and this group of 4 shares their responses and negotiates a common set of ideas.
After a few minutes ask one member of each group to report back to the whole class.

Buzz Groups
Students discuss ideas in pairs or small groups of 3 or 4, and one student acts as reporter and/or scribe. Groups then report on their discussion.
Group generated points can be summarised by students or teacher on an OHT or whiteboard or the teacher can provide their own solution or summary of important points.

Debate
Divide students into groups that represent particular points of view on a controversial topic. Each group works to develop an argument to support its allocated point of view.