• Use of paralinguistic cues (eg emoticons)
    Expresses attitudes, communicates a vivid, dynamic and graphic impression of the instructor?s feelings

  • Chronemics - timing
    Manages timing of content delivery and consultation time
    Works towards providing more immediate responses to questions

  • Frequent messaging
    Increases the instructor?s social presence in the learning process and engages students

  • Longer messages
    Increases the instructor?s social presence

  • Timely response
    Affects the instructor?s non-verbal immediacy, which has a significant, positive effect on the students' evaluation of the instructor, eg select a "virtual" office schedule during which students may ask questions

  • Detailed syllabus
    Creates an initial positive impression
    Engages students at the beginning

  • Student feedback
    Anonymous online surveys

  • Accurate messages
    No typing/spelling errors

  • Verbal
  • Language norms
    Greetings, support, expressions of interest

  • Narrative and interpersonal schemas
    Narrative: bulletin boards, other content delivery systems
    Interpersonal: private email, online chats, online student forum

  • Intense language
    Use language in place of voice tone or facial expression to emphasise the importance of a content item

  • Immediate language
    Use involving, community-minded pronouns (eg "we")

  • Extensive vocabulary
    An advantage of the online scenario is the instructor's ability to select a wide range of words and responses asynchronously.

  • Powerful language
    Online instructor has enough time to carefully craft written messages, and can avoid the verbal "hedges" sometimes used in face-to-face communication.

  • Active-participation language strategies
    When involved in disagreements or persuasive learning tasks, the instructor can actively participate in these learning tasks by posting appropriate evidence strong enough to convince students.
    Focus on reciprocity between students and instructors

  • Appropriate use of irony
    Instructor can use written words to make ironic remarks in open public forums or through email ? to reduce students? emotional frustration, such as when the student has become involved in an inappropriate posting on a bulletin board.

  • Impression Management (Liu and Ginther, 2001)

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