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  • Possible uses/learning activities
    Written interaction between learner and instructor
    Students access at own rate
    Self-paced


  • Advantages
    No special equipment required
    Wide range of versatile and flexible teaching and learning strategies Serves the needs of a wide range of learners, eg overseas, on/off-campus, second-language students
    High level of learner independence
    Economical option in terms of development and production


  • Disadvantages
    Limited in the level and forms of interaction with teacher and other students
    May only be used to present information
    Often more effective when used in conjunction with other media and communication technologies
    Requires publishing resources


  • Issues for special consideration
    Role of instructional design in development is essential
    Use of support materials to enhance learning program
    In-house desktop publishing of materials to reduce costs and improve quality


  • Face-to-face instruction
  • Possible uses/learning activities
    Lectures, tutorials, seminars, discussion groups
    Any forum where information is to be disseminated, shared and discussed


  • Advantages
    Enables variety of stimulating and informative methods
    Presenter can stimulate and enthuse
    Economical
    Interactive
    Enables questioning techniques
    Enables students to clarify information and interact with each other


  • Disadvantages
    Restricts students to being in a particular place, at a particular time Important information can be missed
    Depends heavily on the skills of the teacher
    Can be a problem for people whose first language is not English
    Intensive note-taking may dominate the experience


  • Issues for special consideration
    Teacher's role paramount in the success of this delivery option Presentation skills and questioning techniques will be examined closely. Needs adequate facilities, eg physical infrastructure


  • Broadcast or narrowcast television/radio simulcasting
  • Possible uses/learning activities
    Enables one-to-many delivery
    Delivery of information and/or education to either the public or specific groups of people
    Presentation of information - prerecorded video/radio and live presentations
    Explaining, providing examples possible


  • Advantages
    Can be transmitted widely or specifically to a range of audiences
    Instruction can be dynamic and stimulating.
    Can be recorded and replayed at learner's convenience
    Can utilise different instructional formats
    Widely used as high literacy of the medium


  • Disadvantages
    Limited interactivity
    High expenses in the development of programs
    Public nature of the medium may limit the format, style and specificity of content
    Transmission costs may be high
    Learners expect high quality television production


  • Issues for special consideration
    Instructional design
    It is difficult to plan all elements of content delivery and interactions in advance.
    Presenter training
    These forms of instruction place a high level of emphasis on presenter skills.
    Possibility of degraded quality of vision, sound, depending on-site


  • Computer networks
  • Possible uses/learning activities
    Electronic transfer of instructional material and assessment tasks in two-way interaction between teacher and learner
    Both formal and informal interactions
    Access to library databases and instructional materials
    Can enable online tutorials, discussions, seminars, peer-counselling and group project work
    Email, bulletin boards and noticeboards can be used


  • Advantages
    Time and location independent
    Provides learners with high degree of autonomy
    Can include a high level of interactivity
    Simultaneous use - many users on a range of computers
    Efficient and timely
    Rapid and reliable
    Can be used to broadcast to multiple users or targeted to specific learners or groups
    Formal and informal networking allowed
    Reduced sense of isolation, compared with print and video


  • Disadvantages
    Users need a degree of computer literacy
    Poor quality telephone lines mean it cannot be used reliably in many locations
    Extended system use can become expensive
    Difficult to control the forms of use and communication
    Issues such as security and privacy are a problem.


  • Issues for special consideration
    Access to technology
    Both the teacher and learners need access to appropriate equipment and resources, with continual upgrading of these required.
    User training required for both teacher and learner to take full advantage of technology.
    Communication costs for both the institution and users need to be addressed.
    System security and server access need to be addressed.


  • Teleconferencing (audio, video, satellite)
  • Possible uses/learning activites
    Use of telephone or television systems for teacher-learner and learner-learner links
    Group participation at one site and with others on a number of other sites Immediate


  • Advantages
    Shares advantages of television but adds interactivity
    Allows for questions, feedback, transmitting information, clarification
    Less isolation than one-way TV
    Allows teacher to respond to visual/auditory cues
    Enables conventional teaching to be delivered at distance


  • Disadvantages
    Can be difficult to establish infrastructure
    Level of learner independence drops with instantaneous delivery and viewing
    The more people participating, the more confusing and less interactive it could become.
    Expense


  • Issues for special consideration
    Instructional design
    It is difficult to plan all elements of content delivery and interactions in advance.
    Presenter training
    These forms of instruction place a high level of emphasis on presenter skills.
    Possible poor quality of vision/sound


  • Computer Based Learning - interactive multimedia
  • Possible uses/learning activities
    Provides the user with a range of ways of interacting with the material
    In the case of simulations, games and role-plays, it allows students to test theoretical knowledge in a simulated environment.
    Can be used for tutorials, competency-based assessment, information dissemination, skills development, simulations and case studies


  • Advantages
    Able to deliver an instructional program that is time and location independent
    High levels of interactivity and learner independence
    Dynamic learning environment
    Facilitates problem-based learning
    Can be tailored to individual needs
    Can include in-built assessment and feedback
    Suits a range of learning styles
    Potential to improve with new developments (eg recent research shows that learning is facilitated by multisensory immersion that can occur with CBL)


  • Disadvantages
    Learners need access to appropriate computer technology.
    Expensive to produce
    Can be quite costly to alter
    Current computer systems can quickly become obsolete.
    Is more effective for students who already have some background knowledge
    "Naive" students may flounder.
    Students who need a lot of structure and guidance find simulations confusing.


  • Issues for special consideration
    Page-turning software
    To be effective, software must be interactive and stimulating.
    Much of the current CBL is replicated textbooks.
    Compatibility of different platforms, systems and applications
    Student access to equipment


  • Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)
  • Possible uses/learning activities
    Virtual communities, such as virtual classrooms. eg "Classroom with electronic walls", "Teaching Tele-apprenticeships", CECIL


  • Advantages
    Enhances team performance
    Facilitates collective activities
    Mentoring capacity (especially over distance)
    Social - motivating, reinforces learning
    Prepares students for similar technology in business environment
    Contributions from experts
    General advantages of computer networks apply


  • Disadvantages
    Can be difficult to create a sense of community among a dispersed group People may prefer face-to-face interaction
    Requires people to have good group work skills
    General disadvantages of computer networks apply


  • Issues for special consideration
    Appropriate levels of skill are required by teachers and learners. These need to be identified and developed prior to the learning experience.
    Structuring of tasks and progress requires ongoing monitoring.




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