How do I get started?
The following are some tips to getting started:
- As the flipped classroom is a blended learning strategy you will benefit from a teaching plan that shows how the face-to-face and online components of your course are sequenced and where these align with learning outcomes, activites and assessment.
- Where possible, discuss your plan with a learning designer in your faculty or ITaLI, or seek advice from a colleague to review the robustness of your design. If you are on limited resources (time and money) then don’t try to make big changes. Sometimes small changes can have a big impact. You can also learn from colleagues' experiences through the UQ the Case studies section.
- Ask the UQ Library. UQ Librarians are keen to help search for flipped classroom resources.
- To pre-record lecture material there are a number of desktop recording systems available. This is an initial time investment, however once recordings are created they can be used for future iterations of your course. It is recommended that you divide recorded lecture material into 5-7 minute topic areas so key content is readily accessible to students. This will also make it easier for you to locate and edit your lectures when needed. For more information on options for creating videos, see the 'Top ten uses' section of the Video for teaching and Learning site.
As the flipped classroom is a blended learning strategy, learning activities can be online or face-to-face. As most lecture spaces are tiered, consider activities (Paulson & Faust) that are suitable for that space, such as 'think, pair share' to allow students to discuss a topic and then answer key questions through polling tools. Further tips are as follows:
- Design activities to reinforce learning objectives that require students to use higher order thinking skills such as evaluation, synthesis and analysis. These are on the upper end of Blooms taxonomy--a common model used for classifying learning objectives. The diagram of Bloom's rose demonstrates types of learning objectives with descriptions of each and can assist to write learning objectives.
- Use a variety of activities to reinforce learning objectives to help your students grasp key concepts. These can range from group disucssions to more structured active learning pedagogies.
- Consider the overall instructional strategy for your course. This resource, Designing courses for significant learning(Dee Fink), is a guide to designing meaningful learning interactions in your course.
First year students tend to require much more scaffolding than in future years so your expectations of learners will need to cater to their experience. To help students prepare:
- Inform students in a variety of ways (ECP, BlackBoard announcements, email, SMS) of what is expected of them before and during the semester in terms of preparing before class and engaging with others in class,
- Explain that active learning learning has proven to be an effective effective way for students to learn. See the Active learning section for the literature on this,
- Develop some ice-breaker activities (Curtain University) to help set a collegial learning atmosphere. For more tips see the Face-to-Face Engagement section.
Ownership: It is important for students to feel responsible for their learning and be willing to contribute to class discussion and group learning. One method is to set tasks where students set their own group rules. For example, ask them to design protocols for how to work with each other in class or online (e.g. respect each others opinions, talk in turn, contribute to group work, etc). Jude Seaboyer claims that when students come to class prepared it is a much happier and productive atmosphere to learn in. Asking students to create content also supports ownership and higher order thinking.
Resistance: in this short essay Svinicki provides advice on making the shift from passive to active learning. Some lecturers who use the flipped classroom method simply require students to come prepared to class or risk 'missing out' and they quickly learn to adapt to expectations (see Andy Fairbairn case study). Carl Sherwood, makes students pair up in his statistics classes so they 'have a friend' to learn difficult concepts with. Carl found that although students were initially shy/ reticent with this approach, they learnt to adapt to this rule which helped to drastically reduce the failure rate.
Motivation: The Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching has several strategies for motivating students. Sharing your enthusiam for a topic can help students see the value in what you are teaching (see the Jason Tangen case study). Students also need to see the relevance of learning so where possible embed topical and real world issues as part of key activities.
Assessment: The flipped classroom model focusses more on formative than summative assessment to provide greater opportunities for feedback (self, peer, tutor) and to guide learning.
The following are key principles of formative assessment:
Establishment of a classroom culture that encourages interaction and the use of assessment tools.
Establishment of learning goals, and tracking of individual student progress toward those goals.
Use of varied instruction methods to meet diverse student needs.
Use of varied approaches to assessing student understanding.
Feedback on student performance and adaptation of instruction to meet identified needs.
Active involvement of students in the learning process. (OECD)
Assessment can be used to direct students to prepare by assessing online quizzes and short essays before class (see the Jude Seaboyer case study). In Engineering, peer assessment for group work is heavily weighted (see the Carl Reidsema case study). Another method is disclosed random marking where students are informed that they need to complete regular brief assignments, worksheets or problems before class which are then randomly marked. Students can also be given weekly assignments and be marked on the top 3-5.
There are a number of options for support for the Flipped Classroom
Staff development workshops
ITALI and ITS provide Flipped classroom workshops through the UQ Staff Development site. This workshop will provide an introduction to the concept of the Flipped Classroom and aims to provide a foundation for planning a flipped classroom.
ITaLI also runs customised workshops for schools, if you are interested, please contact Anthea Groessler, Learning Designer: a[dot]leggett1.
The UQ Library
UQ Librarians can help academics with flipped classroom resources as well as hundreds of other databases (with video, journal articles, audio, images etc) plus assignment research skills, training resources and more. The UQ library also has a collection of resources around the flipped classroom
The ITS site Tools A-Z guide provides information about online, face-to-face and blended learning technologies currently available at UQ.
The UQ Critical Thinking Project (UQCTP)
The UQ Critical Thinking Project (UQCTP) is designed to support teachers embed critical thinking into curricula. If you would like to find out more about this proejct, visit the UQCTP website or contact one of the researchers.
Flipped Classroom: How do you flip?
Click on the images below to view each video on the screen above
Bates, S., & Galloway, R. (2012). The inverted classroom in a large enrolment introductory physics course: a case study.
Abstract: We present a practice-based case study of curriculum redesign in a large-enrolment introductory physics course taught at the University of Edinburgh. The course has been inverted, or 'flipped', in the sense that content and material is delivered to students for self-study in advance of lectures, via a combination of home-grown electronic course materials, textbook reading and external web resources. Subsequent lectures focus on problems students are still having after self-study of the material, which have been self-reported by them as part of a weekly reading quiz assignment. Lectures are transformed from sessions for transmission or initial presentation of information, to guided discussion sessions, with a particular focus on peer instruction techniques and discussion, facilitated by extensive use of clicker questions. We present details of student engagement with pre-class reading and quiz tasks, comment on student perceptions of this different instructional format, and present data that shows evidence for high quality learning on the course.
Milman, N. (2102) The Flipped Classroom Strategy: What Is it and How Can it Best be Used? Distance Learning 9(3) 85-87 http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/docview/1140334863
Abstract: In K-12 and higher educational circles, the 'flipped classroom' instructional strategy (also known as the 'inverted classroom') has been receiving a lot of attention. The idea is that rather than taking up limited class time for an instructor to introduce a concept (often via lecture), the instructor can create a video lecture, screencast, or vodcast that teaches students the concept, freeing up valuable class time for more engaging (and often collaborative) activities typically facilitated by the instructor. It is important to note that the strategy should involve more than just the 'take home' video lecture (or screencast or podcast). It should also incorporate formative and summative assessment, as well as meaningful face-to-face (F2F) learning activities. Although many instructors at all educational levels and from various settings have been incorporating this strategy for years, the term is most often attributed to two Colorado high school teachers, Jonathan Bergman and Aaron Sams, who began creating screencasts and podcasts for their students in 2006 (Makice, 2012).
Hughes, H. (2012). Introduction to Flipping the College Classroom. In T. Amiel & B. Wilson (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2012 (pp. 2434-2438). Chesapeake, VA: AACE
Abstract: 'Flipping the classroom' is a pedagogical concept and method that replaces the standard lecture-in-class format with opportunities for students to review, discuss, and investigate course content with the instructor in class. There are many ways that a classroom can be flipped, but the underlying premise is that students review lecture materials outside of class and then come to class prepared to participate in instructor-guided learning activities. This paper provides an introduction to classroom flipping and the instructional design strategies for flipping the college classroom developed at one university.
Pierce, R., & Fox, J. (2012). Vodcasts and Active-Learning Exercises in a 'Flipped Classroom' Model of a Renal Pharmacotherapy Module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10).
Abstract: To implement a 'flipped classroom' model for a renal pharmacotherapy topic module and assess the impact on pharmacy students' performance and attitudes.
Students viewed vodcasts (video podcasts) of lectures prior to the scheduled class and then discussed interactive cases of patients with end-stage renal disease in class. A process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) activity was developed and implemented that complemented, summarized, and allowed for application of the material contained in the previously viewed lectures.
Students' performance on the final examination significantly improved compared to performance of students the previous year who completed the same module in a traditional classroom setting. Students' opinions of the POGIL activity and the flipped classroom instructional model were mostly positive.
Implementing a flipped classroom model to teach a renal pharmacotherapy module resulted in improved student performance and favorable student perceptions about the instructional approach. Some of the factors that may have contributed to students' improved scores included: student mediated contact with the course material prior to classes, benchmark and formative assessments administered during the module, and the interactive class activities.
Brown, B. (2012). Flipping the classroom. In Proceedings of the 43rd ACM technical symposium on Computer Science Education, 681-681. New York: ACM.
Abstract: Flipped classrooms are shifting the way teachers provide instruction by inverting traditional teaching methods to engage students in the learning process. Using technology, lectures are moved out of the classroom and delivered online as a means to free up class time for interaction and collaboration. In order to effectively implement a flipped classroom, teachers must possess a set of requisite technical skills, conceptual knowledge and pedagogical expertise. Through this study, a web-based instructional module was developed to provide this information to prospective teachers interested in implementing a flipped classroom. Results indicated that the module was effective in delivering an overview of the required material, but could have benefitted from the inclusion of added examples of working implementations to raise the confidence level of the participants. Added support through a learning community, either in-person or online, would help to provide guidance through initiation and expand on the shared experiences of the individuals.