How do I get started?
The flipped classroom is a blended learning model that requires more than dividing a course into face-to-face and online components. Boud and Prosser (2002) recommend that effective blended learning environments take a learning design approach which looks at the learning goals and aligns them with teaching and learning activities and assessment. This ensures the integration and appropriate use of technology.
Key elements of the flipped classroom include:
- Learning outcomes
- Integration of technology
- Planning and design
Learning outcomes (also known as “intended learning outcomes” or “learning objectives”) can help guide the design process, help steer delivery of the course and ultimately help students recognise and navigate key milestones within the course.
Writing clear learning outcomes can be a nuanced exercise, for further help, see the from the ITaLI Teaching Toolkit Series.
A key focus of the flipped classroom is active learning to encourage students to engage deep rather than surface learning (See Student’s Approaches to Learning, University of Technology Sydney). Learning activities should align learning outcomes and be intentional, meaningful and useful. See Examples of Learning Activities (University of Tasmania) as guide to planning activities to based on a particular purpose:
- Content focus
- Critical thinking
- Problems solving
Assessment in the flipped classroom leans towards formative assessment where students are provided opportunities for feedback to promote student learning.
Nicol and McFarlane Dick (2006) recommend Seven Principles of Good Assessment and Feedback practices:
- Provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance.
- Helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, or expected standards).
- Delivers high quality information to students about their learning.
- Facilitates the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning.
- Encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning.
- Encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem.
- Provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching. (Nicol and McFarlane Dick, 2004, p.6)
For further resources, see
Higher Education Academy report case studies on Enhancing Student Learning Through Effective Formative Feedback
Teaching guides Assessment and grading
Biggs (1999) terms the alignment of learning outcomes, activities and “constructive alignment” which has a student-centred focus (See Diagram 1).
Our business, now and into the future, needs to be about learning and technology — "in that order" (Brown, 2009, p.63).
It is important that technologies are selected are deeply connected to the context in which the classroom is offered (McGrath, Groessler, Fink, Reidsema and Kavanagh, in press).
Canole’s 7C Learning Design Framework (2013) can be used to help educators make design decisions that are pedagogically effective and make appropriate use of digital technologies. The key components of the Framework are:
The following resources may help you plan and design your flipped classroom
- Planning and Designing a Blended or Online Course (UNSW)
- Podcasty things – Tip sheets for developing video content (UQ)
- Flipped classroom learning design plan
Staff development workshops
ITALI and ITS provide Flipped classroom workshops through the UQ Staff Development site. This workshop will provide an introduction to the concept of the Flipped Classroom and aims to provide a foundation for planning a flipped classroom.
ITaLI also runs customised workshops for schools, if you are interested, please contact Anthea Groessler, Learning Designer: a[dot]groessler.
The UQ Library
UQ Librarians can help academics with flipped classroom resources as well as hundreds of other databases (with video, journal articles, audio, images etc) plus assignment research skills, training resources and more. The UQ library also has a collection of resources around the flipped classroom
The ITS site Tools A-Z guide provides information about online, face-to-face and blended learning technologies currently available at UQ.
Flipped Classroom: How do you flip?
Click on the images below to view each video on the screen above
Bates, S., & Galloway, R. (2012). The inverted classroom in a large enrolment introductory physics course: a case study.
Abstract: We present a practice-based case study of curriculum redesign in a large-enrolment introductory physics course taught at the University of Edinburgh. The course has been inverted, or 'flipped', in the sense that content and material is delivered to students for self-study in advance of lectures, via a combination of home-grown electronic course materials, textbook reading and external web resources. Subsequent lectures focus on problems students are still having after self-study of the material, which have been self-reported by them as part of a weekly reading quiz assignment. Lectures are transformed from sessions for transmission or initial presentation of information, to guided discussion sessions, with a particular focus on peer instruction techniques and discussion, facilitated by extensive use of clicker questions. We present details of student engagement with pre-class reading and quiz tasks, comment on student perceptions of this different instructional format, and present data that shows evidence for high quality learning on the course.
Milman, N. (2102) The Flipped Classroom Strategy: What Is it and How Can it Best be Used? Distance Learning 9(3) 85-87 http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/docview/1140334863
Abstract: In K-12 and higher educational circles, the 'flipped classroom' instructional strategy (also known as the 'inverted classroom') has been receiving a lot of attention. The idea is that rather than taking up limited class time for an instructor to introduce a concept (often via lecture), the instructor can create a video lecture, screencast, or vodcast that teaches students the concept, freeing up valuable class time for more engaging (and often collaborative) activities typically facilitated by the instructor. It is important to note that the strategy should involve more than just the 'take home' video lecture (or screencast or podcast). It should also incorporate formative and summative assessment, as well as meaningful face-to-face (F2F) learning activities. Although many instructors at all educational levels and from various settings have been incorporating this strategy for years, the term is most often attributed to two Colorado high school teachers, Jonathan Bergman and Aaron Sams, who began creating screencasts and podcasts for their students in 2006 (Makice, 2012).
Hughes, H. (2012). Introduction to Flipping the College Classroom. In T. Amiel & B. Wilson (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2012 (pp. 2434-2438). Chesapeake, VA: AACE
Abstract: 'Flipping the classroom' is a pedagogical concept and method that replaces the standard lecture-in-class format with opportunities for students to review, discuss, and investigate course content with the instructor in class. There are many ways that a classroom can be flipped, but the underlying premise is that students review lecture materials outside of class and then come to class prepared to participate in instructor-guided learning activities. This paper provides an introduction to classroom flipping and the instructional design strategies for flipping the college classroom developed at one university.
Pierce, R., & Fox, J. (2012). Vodcasts and Active-Learning Exercises in a 'Flipped Classroom' Model of a Renal Pharmacotherapy Module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10).
Abstract: To implement a 'flipped classroom' model for a renal pharmacotherapy topic module and assess the impact on pharmacy students' performance and attitudes.
Students viewed vodcasts (video podcasts) of lectures prior to the scheduled class and then discussed interactive cases of patients with end-stage renal disease in class. A process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) activity was developed and implemented that complemented, summarized, and allowed for application of the material contained in the previously viewed lectures.
Students' performance on the final examination significantly improved compared to performance of students the previous year who completed the same module in a traditional classroom setting. Students' opinions of the POGIL activity and the flipped classroom instructional model were mostly positive.
Implementing a flipped classroom model to teach a renal pharmacotherapy module resulted in improved student performance and favorable student perceptions about the instructional approach. Some of the factors that may have contributed to students' improved scores included: student mediated contact with the course material prior to classes, benchmark and formative assessments administered during the module, and the interactive class activities.
Brown, B. (2012). Flipping the classroom. In Proceedings of the 43rd ACM technical symposium on Computer Science Education, 681-681. New York: ACM.
Abstract: Flipped classrooms are shifting the way teachers provide instruction by inverting traditional teaching methods to engage students in the learning process. Using technology, lectures are moved out of the classroom and delivered online as a means to free up class time for interaction and collaboration. In order to effectively implement a flipped classroom, teachers must possess a set of requisite technical skills, conceptual knowledge and pedagogical expertise. Through this study, a web-based instructional module was developed to provide this information to prospective teachers interested in implementing a flipped classroom. Results indicated that the module was effective in delivering an overview of the required material, but could have benefitted from the inclusion of added examples of working implementations to raise the confidence level of the participants. Added support through a learning community, either in-person or online, would help to provide guidance through initiation and expand on the shared experiences of the individuals.