Bradshaw Rock Art
Two Recent Findings in Bradshaw Rock Art:
1. Floating, Abstract Classic, Figure.
depiction: From the extinct Australian megafauna.
3. Two Rejections.
4. Rejections and Rejoinders.
Dysfunction in Australian Professional Rock
What's Wrong with Calling It Gwion gwion?
Interhemispheric Switching and Binocular Rivalry
Mania Cured with
in the Ear
Jet Lag Triggers Episodes
Physiology of Binocular Vision; Photo Gallery from 1997 SFN Special Lecture, New Orleans
Owl, Strigid Owl, Letterwing
1.Objections to Flying Primates;
Flying Primate Source Book
of Flying Primate Hypothesis
Summary of Molecular Data
5. Literal and
Tree: Flying Primate Hypothesis Illustrated.
6. 25 Year Update on
an echolocating megabat,
the Sandlance, Limnichthyes fasciatus
extinct flying fox depicted in ice-age art from the Kimberley
Flying Fox Debate
Input from Feduccia on the Dino-Bird
Kids4coral.com: This is the website of my kids campaign to save the
putting some material here because the site is playing up at the
moment. Recent Letters Sent by Children.
Failure to Confirm the New African Diploid Baobab, Adansonia kilima: New
Cron GV, Karimi N,
Glennon KL, Chukwudi A, Udeh, E, Witkowski TF, Venter SV, Assogbadjo AE
& Baum D.(2016)
Taxon 65(5) 1037-1049
Commentary on Cron et
al. (2016): If a new tree species has gone unrecognised in plain sight
for decades, it is to be expected that its eventual recognition will
not prove to be easy or straightforward. In this paper, David Baum and
colleagues completely reject the hypothesis that there is an
unrecognised African diploid baobab, using similar techniques to those
first used to define the new species, with a beautiful crowning
observation of a DAPI-stained tetraploid karyotype, purportedly from
the diploid species, that no doubt charmed the reviewers at Taxon.
Without any corroboration, we cannot be sure that the striking sample
does not actually come from the tetraploid species, A. digitata, that
is found in the same locality as the target sample. In view of the
overlap between measurements already published for these two very
similar species, as well as the difficulty in always linking a field
identification securely to complex laboratory investigations like DNA
sequencing and DAPI karyotyping, questions can arise that can cloud an
apparently definitive picture like the blue karyotype.
There are therefore some unanswered
questions in this paper. For example, the large karyotype illustrated
may be a misidentified specimen of A. digitata from the Venda, on the
edge of the African baobab distribution where A. digitata and A. kilima were both found together,
unlike highland stands. The choice of a Type specimen for A. kilima from this mixed Venda
population was a mistake by the original investigators, inexperienced
in botanical lore, who had been advised that this would be a convenient
location because of its easy access by road, instead of a more secure
location from a pure stand of A.
kilima in the Tanzanian highlands.
Pollen Size Confirms Original
Findings: Another major question concerns the data on pollen that have
been collected in the study. These data confirm the original study by
showing much smaller pollen in A.
kilima than in A. digitata,
as expected for the contrast in DNA content of diploids and tetraploids
respectively. This observation is not consistent with their own results
of flow cytometry and DAPI karyotyping in the same study, and could be
explained by the fact that they give no determinations of both
karyotype and pollen on the same samples, with the risk of possible
misidentification already mentioned. It is also hard to justify the
subsequent exclusion of these pollen -size data from the later analysis
using the collective data set, when they show a contrast central to
their study. Leaving out these data, without explanation, could explain
the lack of differentiation in their Fig. 1.
Resolution of these difficulties
would require a variety of measures on the same tree, not separate
pollen, karyotype, and other measurements of different samples. In the
original study, stomata, pollen, karyotype, nITS sequence, floral
characterisation and biogeography determinations were sometimes all
carried out on the same tree to fix its identity. In contrast, their
presented, single DAPI-stained tetraploid karyotype is very beautiful,
but might be derived from A. digitata
instead of A. kilima, without
individual corroboration from the any of the other relevant
quantitative features that have helped to define A. kilima.
Blog: Baobabs and Humans
and Bottle Trees
Blog: The Dancer.
Gallery, China. Turkey,
Mt Freeling Antarctica2003
Min Min Lights
for ISN Newsletter
Josh Wallman: A Life Guided by Science and Birds
Peter Orlebar Bishop: The
Engineer of Visual Science: 1917-2012.Science
Forum with the Dalai LamaPrime
Minister's Working Party on Neuroscience
Bertie the Boobook's
Note on Web Banner
Bert in Flight
(was VETS 2011)
of the Diamantina
With Dorelle and
Ancient History (to
Wing-Suit past Ball’s Pyramid:
Caltech in the 70's