Jack Pettigrew, Queensland Brain Institute (QBI), The University of Queensland
Baobab trees (Figure 1) attract attention because of their striking shape and the large number of different uses to which they can be put by human cultures (including food, water storage, medicine, raw materials for rope, cloth, twine, boats etc.). There are eight extant species of baobab (Adansonia spp.): six in Madagascar, one (A. digitata) on the African continent and one (A. gregorii) in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia. The Kimberley species is an obvious geographical outlier, and there are several different scenarios for the presence of the A. gregorii in Australia.
One theory proposes that Adansonia spp. share a common origin in Western Gondwana (Wickens 2008). However, recent molecular analysis has demonstrated that the Australian baobab, A. gregorii, is very closely related to the African species, A. digitata (Baum 1998). The genetic distance between the two species is far smaller than would be expected for a >100 Myr Gondwananconnection. This led to the suggestion that the baobab must have undergone transoceanic dispersal (Baum et al 1998), presumably via floating seed pods. However, this theory is mechanistically constrained by several factors: (a) A. gregorii seed pod has the thinnest shell of all Adansonia spp., making it unlikely that seed pods would survive such a long oceanic journey (b) oceanic currents are unfavourable for the observed dispersal pattern and (c) A. gregorii is not present at other locations on the North-West Australian coast where it would readily grow and where oceanic dispersal would be expected to have delivered seeds.
We are investigating a third scenario based on the very close genetic relationship between A. gregorii and A. digitata: transoceanic dispersal mediated by human migrations out of Africa around 60-70,000 yrs ago. Interestingly, the geographical distribution of the Kimberley species overlaps almost perfectly with a particular type of ancient rock art known as Bradshaw paintings. The aetiology of these painting is under hot debate: some maintain that they are part of the extensive Aboriginal rock art found across Australia, and some maintain that these images were painted by a distinct culture which no longer survives in Australia. Bradshaw rock art is significantly different from other rock art in Australia in terms of style and materials used. Scenes from daily life are strikingly well executed and fauna is very accurately depicted (Pettigrew et al 2008). Moreover, there are many references in art that support a relationship between the artists, the baobab trees and intercontinental travel, for example: (1) the fruit and flowers of baobabs appear to be well represented in the images (2) large boats are featured in some paintings; these boats carry up to 30 passengers and have a very high prow indicating oceanic capability; they also have longitudinal striations like Thor Heyerdahl¹s ³Kon Tiki² and ³Ra² that could be boab fibres rather than reeds. One of the most striking things about these paintings is that they are remarkably reminiscent of modern African culture. It seems very likely that a stone-age African oceanic migrant might have chosen such a useful cargo as baobab, with its two dozen separate roles (Appendix), not to mention the durability of the nutritious fruit (the Vitamin C-rich pulp lasts more than a year).
If this species was brought to Australia by a culture from Africa, it should be possible to identify an ancestral population which should be found in a coastal location; if not, genetic diversity should be relatively similar across the Kimberly (Phase I). If we can identify an ancestral coastal population in Australia, we may then be able to identify the source of the ancestral baobab population by sampling from A. digitata populations in Africa (Phase II).
Using a 10 km grid, we have collected leaf samples from 250 A. gregorii trees across the Kimberley for analysis in Phase I of this project. Included in these samples are leaves from a number of island-located trees; these might enable time calibration of a haplotype network based on the 11 Kyr period since island-mainland divergence was driven by flooding at the end of the last glacial.
Haplotype Analysis: After DNA extraction using Qiagen Plant Kit, a number of different approaches will be used to explore intra-specific variation in A. gregorii:
These analyses will be performed on a sub-sample of 10 leaves to determine the most appropriate method for identifying intraspecific variation. Once the best technique has been identified, all samples will be analysed, any population characteristics will be identified and a haplotype network constructed and dated.
This project could provide an interesting conjunction between molecular plant biology and anthropology if A. gregorii proves to be as young in Australia as we suggest.
Baum DA, Small RL,Wendel JF, 1998 Biogeography and Floral Evolution of Baobabs (Adansonia, Bombacaceae) as Inferred from Multiple Data Sets: Systematic Biology, 47: 181-207
Pettigrew JD, Nugent M, McPhee A,Wallman J, (2008) An Unexpected, Stripe-faced Flying Fox in Ice Age Rock Art of Australia¹s Kimberley. Antiquity 82: #318 December
GE & Lowe P
2008 Baobabs - Pachycauls of Africa, Madagascar &
Appendix: Utility of Baobabs
Water: Storage in hollowed tree; tap from trunk; masticate sub-cortical fibres.
. Leaves: salad when green; dried and ground addition to coucous; infusion.
. Tap root: sliced in salad.
. Fruit: Seeds give edible oil, ground meal; eaten whole if roasted.
Pulp is highly nutritious and high in Vitamin C.
(NB. fruit will keep for over a year in its convenient packaging, to suit a long voyage).
.Trunk and roots: Edible; can be completely consumed by a cow or elephant.
.Leaves: Infusion for cosmetic use, for gastrointestinal upsets, rickets etc
.Pollen: Flowers have abundant pollen that can be used to make glue.
.Fibres: Twine, nets, cloth, rope (very high quality with a performance comparable to nylon), boats (a la Ra of Thor Heyerdahl).
ŒPod Shell: Bowls, balers, merakas, breast covers.
Hollow trees used as jails, garages, shops, bars, music rooms etc
Art and Religion:
Roots: Red dye.
Pod Shell: Ceremonial oval object; decorated.
Fruit pulp: Organic acids (e.g. malic) used as mordants for inks
Hollow tree: Entombment of deceased from selected professions.
Base of tree: Meeting place for worship and discussion; campfires
Longevity and Resilience:
Baobabs may have played a role in the survival of cultures that fostered them because of the trees¹ ability to carry through a catastrophe (such as the Toba event), when other sources of food might have disappeared.