Looking Forward, Looking Back 

No 150, February 2014

Theme Editors: Sue Turnbull, Bridget Griffen-Foley and Gerard Goggin

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Abstracts

 

Contents

Editorial

Sue Turnbull

ANZCA News

Terence Lee

Reflections on 150 Issues of MIA

Looking back at MIA

Murray Goot and Rodney Tiffen

The first 30 years of MIA: A commemorative editorial

Helen Wilson

MIA: How it all began

Julie James Bailey

MIA: A recollection

Peter B. White

MIA – Musings In Appreciation Stuart Cunningham
Reflections on MIA on the occasion of its 150th issue Graeme Turner
What’s the next adventure for MIA? Gerard Goggin

 

New research from A Companion to the Australian Media

Censorship: Publish and be damned

Peter Coleman

Stop the presses: Strikes in the Australian news media

Margaret Van Heekeren

Chasing the pictures: Press and magazine photography

Fay Anderson

The Northern Territory Press

Stephen Hamilton and David Carment

Women’s pages in Australian print media from the 1850s

Justine Lloyd

Forgotten histories: Ephemeral culture for children and the digital archive

Leonie Rutherford

A brief history of science communication in Australia

Maureen Burns

‘No propaganda will be broadcast’: The rise and demise of Australian military
broadcasting

Martin Hadlow

From ‘rags’ to ‘riches’: The evolution of the Australian suburban newspaper Nick Richardson
In the stars: Astrology, psychic powers and the Australian media Kate Darian-Smith

 

New voices

Digital television flexibility: A survey of Australians with disability Katie Ellis
Seismic shifts: Platforms, content creators and spreadable media Steinar Ellingsen
Faith-based community radio and development in the South Pacific islands Linda Austin
Australian special-interest magazines: A case study in community
formation and survival
Rosemary Williamson
Have you seen the news? Uncovering the fan-like behaviours of the
news audience
Renee Barnes
Curators of databases: Circulating images, managing attention and making
value on social media
Nicholas Carah

 

General articles

Constructing the meaning of nanotechnology in the United States:
A socio-linguistic analysis of the New York Times coverage, 1985–2004
Ian Weber
Controversial new sciences in the media: Content analysis of global
reporting of nanotechnology during the last decade
Kylie Fisk, Richard Fitzgerald and John Cokley
Transnational publics and environmental conflict in the Asian Century Libby Lester
   

Book Reviews

Edited by Susan Bye and Sheree Gregory

 

 

Abstracts

 

Looking back at MIA

Murray Goot and Rodney Tiffen

Murray Goot and Rodney Tiffen were among the six editors appointed to manage MIA after Henry Mayer’s death in 1991. In this entry from
A Companion to the Australian Media, they provide an overview of the journal’s 38-year history.

 

The first 30 years of MIA: A commemorative editorial

Helen Wilson

Former editor Helen Wilson wrote this editorial in 2006 to commemorate 30 years of MIA. It examines the history of the journal, the people who brought it into being and kept it going, and its unique role in Australia’s media and academic environment. An edited version is reproduced here because of the comprehensive and definitive overview it provides of the journal’s history and vision.

MIA: How it all began

Julie James Bailey

Julie James Bailey was Director of Research at the Australian Film and Television School from 1975–84, and was responsible for the formation of the Media Information Research Exchange, which established MIA. She provided oversight for the first 30 issues of MIA and nurtured the journal through its formative years.

  

MIA: A recollection

Peter B. White

Peter B. White was a guest editor of MIA in 1985 and 1990 and one of the six editors who guided MIA from 1991 until 1997.

 

MIA – Musings IAppreciation

Stuart Cunningham

Stuart Cunningham has been a regular contributor to MIA since 1987, and was one of the six editors appointed to manage MIA after Henry Mayer’s death in 1991.

 

Reflections on MIA on the occasion of its 150th issue

Graeme Turner

Graeme Turner was MIA’s editor from 1998 until 2002, establishing the newly merged Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy in its new home at the Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy at Griffith University in Brisbane.

  

What's the next adventure for MIA?

Gerard Goggin

Gerard Goggin was MIA’s editor from 2006–10, and continues to be an active member of the journal’s editorial board.

  

Censorship: Publish and be damned

Peter Coleman

State censorship in Australia has been rare, controversial and short-lived. There was almost none in the liberal nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, the two world wars, the Great Depression and the new age of terrorism led to more determined, if comparatively temporary, attempts to censor publications that advocated sedition or violence. Moral censorship of obscenity was also rare in the nineteenth century, but enjoyed an ‘heroic’ period following the arrival of a new realism in literature and the age of lurid comic books. The internet
has made such censorship almost totally ineffective. Blaspheming the Christian religion is no longer treated as a punishable offence, although attacking Islam may still sometimes be deemed actionable in law. The advent of multiculturalism has encouraged legislation to restrict free speech deemed to be ‘hate speech’, but its application has been episodic, unpopular and ineffective. The contest between writers demanding freedom and censors demanding standards is unending. But at the moment, the balance favours writers.

 

Stop the presses: Strikes in the Australian news media

Margaret Van Heekeren

Despite a preference for conciliation and arbitration, and a commitment to the public service role of information provision, the Australian news media have a long history of strikes disrupting news production. In detailing this history, from 1829 to the present day, this article draws from archival and newspaper research to supplement previously published accounts of major strikes to create a chronology of strikes that halted news production for a day or longer. The sector’s strike history can be categorised into three distinct eras: nineteenthcentury printers’ strikes; major impact journalists’ and printers’ strikes of the mid-twentieth century; and low-impact strikes of the 2000s.

 

Chasing the pictures: Press and magazine photography

Fay Anderson

For over a century, press and magazine photography has influenced how Australians have viewed society, and played a critical role in Australia’s evolving national identity. Despite its importance and longevity, the historiography of Australian news photography is surprising limited. This article examines the history of press and magazine photography and considers its genesis, the transformative technological innovations, debates about images of violence, the industrial attitudes towards photographers and their treatment, the use of photographs and the seismic recent changes. The article argues that while the United States and United Kingdom influenced the trajectory of press and news photography in Australia, there are significant and illuminating differences.

  

The Northern Territory press

Stephen Hamilton and David Carment

The history of print media in the Northern Territory is one of parish pumps and media moguls, Cold War tensions and human rights crusades. Locally printed and published newspapers have been pivotal to the development of a Northern Territory identity and the cultivation of the Territory’s sense of difference from the rest of Australia. From the earliest newspapers – part news-sheet, part government gazette – to the colourful online edition of the NT News, the Territory has been defined by its press and has in turn defined it, in response to its remoteness and to its increasing non-Indigenous population. This article provides a brief overview of the Northern Territory press, the history of which remains poorly documented.

 

Women’s pages in Australian print media from the 1850s

Justine Lloyd

For roughly a century, from the 1870s to the 1970s, most Australian newspapers ran a section directed towards a woman reader written from a woman’s perspective and edited by a female journalist. The rise and fall of the women’s editor’s ‘empire within an empire’ provides insight into female journalists’ industrial situation, as well as a window on to gender relations in colonial and post-Federation Australia. This history matches wider struggles over the notion of separate spheres and resulting claims for equality, as well as debates over mainstream news values. This article investigates the appearance and disappearance of women’s sections from Australian newspapers, and argues that this story has greater impact on contemporary digital formats than we perhaps realise.

  

Forgotten histories: Ephemeral culture for children and the digital archive

Leonie Rutherford

The history of children’s popular culture in Australia is still to be written. This article examines Australian print publication for children from the mid-nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries, together with radio and children’s television programming from the 1950s to the 1970s. It presents new scholarship on the history of children’s magazines and newspapers, sourced from digital archives such as Trove, and documents new sources for early works by Australian children’s writers. The discussion covers early television production for children, mobilising digital resources that have hitherto not informed scholarship in the field.

 

A brief history of science communication in Australia

Maureen Burns

Early science reporting in Australia – up to and including the 1940s – was often sourced from overseas. During and after World War II, attention turned to applied science, at first for the war effort and afterwards to rebuild the nation. From the late 1950s to the late 1970s, entrepreneurs in science and media in Sydney worked together to provide science material in commercial outlets as well as for the ABC. In the context of the space race, the Cold War and atomic energy, science communication flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s. Since then, science content has been widespread in the television schedules of commercial networks in forms such as children’s television, lifestyle programs and news items, and is also apparent in community radio schedules as well as on ABC television and radio. Claims that Australia has little science communication may be based on too narrow a view of what constitutes science content.

 

‘No propaganda will be broadcast’: The rise and demise of Australian military broadcasting

Martin Hadlow

Radio broadcasting has played an important role as a medium of information, news and entertainment for Australian military personnel in wartime and conflict situations. However, while many nations have comprehensive units tasked to the full-time provision of broadcasting services, such as the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) in the United States and the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) in the United Kingdom, Australia has relied on more ad hoc measures. As contingencies have required, the Australian military has introduced radio broadcasting elements into its table of organisation, the most comprehensive having been the Australian Army Amenities Service (AAAS) during World War II. Now, in a new technological era, perhaps specialised radio for troops will fade completely from the agenda.

 

From ‘rags’ to ‘riches’: The evolution of the Australian suburban newspaper

Nick Richardson

This article attempts to begin the process of acknowledging the important historical role that suburban newspapers have played in the Australian print media landscape. It canvasses some reasons for this lack of recognition across the media, including the stigma of a ‘free’ publication. It also identifies the foundations that have shaped the suburban press, and reveals some important, and hitherto unrecognised, collective initiatives that the suburban press undertook to protect their interests. Finally, it raises the prospect that there are significant opportunities for the suburban press to capitalise on the digital era’s focus on local news.

 

In the stars: Astrology, psychic powers and the Australian media

Kate Darian-Smith

Although astrological divinations, demonstrations of psychic powers and the teachings of non-conventional and New Age spirituality have had a ubiquitous presence in the Australian print and broadcast media for almost a century, they have attracted scant attention from media scholars. This article surveys the history of astrological and psychic content in the Australian media from the 1920s, arguing that such content generated new genres of programming and entertainment, and challenged the established authority of religion and scientific knowledge in the public sphere.

 

Digital television flexibility: A survey of Australians with disability

Katie Ellis

Flexibility for many viewers comes from digital technologies and their interaction with television broadcasting. Significantly, as television is switched to digital transmissions, viewers with disability have the potential to experience flexibility in the form of accessibility features such as audio descriptions, captions, lipreading avatars, signing avatars, spoken subtitles and clean audio. This flexibility may in fact provide some people with access to television for the first time. This exploratory study reports results from an online survey of Australians with disabilities conducted during the final months of the simulcast period before analogue signals were switched off in 2013. While captioning emerged as the most desired accessibility feature, differences surfaced when the data were broken into specific impairment types. This article highlights the importance of digital flexibility specific to impairment type, and locates people with disability as a significant group to consider as more changes take place around digital television broadcasting via the NBN.

 

Seismic shifts: Platforms, content creators and spreadable media

Steinar Ellingsen

While traditional media are grappling with an increasingly fragmented audience and (the further threat of) declining revenue, some players are excelling in the new landscape. The increasing popularity of Netflix and other online broadcasters and platforms is signalling seismic shifts in the way that content is created, consumed and distributed/circulated. As part of this shift towards what Chuck Tryon (2013) broadly describes as an ‘on-demand culture’, we are experiencing an accelerating trend in which digital platforms are beginning to act as TV networks, and amidst this transition independent content creators are empowered by the flexibility of digital media and the proliferation of funding and release possibilities.

 

Faith-based community radio and development in the South Pacific islands

Linda Austin

Faith-based broadcasters comprise half of all community radio stations in the South Pacific islands. As such, they reflect the deep indigenisation of Christianity and its central role in Pacific cultural identity. But their position within the media environment is surprisingly contentious. For secular community media practitioners, Pacific faith-based media are seen to interject foreign voices and capital into island communities. For the international development sector, partnership with faith-based organisations around development agendas brings fears that aid funds will be used for evangelism. This article explores the role of faith-based community radio in the South Pacific, and argues that they have achieved levels of sustainability that have thus far eluded secular community media through application of culturally appropriate and self-defined development pathways.

 

Australian special-interest magazines: A case study in community formation and survival

Rosemary Williamson

Special-interest titles represent a dynamic sector of the Australian magazine industry, yet few studies have been undertaken on them or their histories. Quilt-making titles serve as a case study of one of the most successful specialinterest categories – craft – and special-interest magazines more generally. By tracing the evolution of magazines for quilters and by taking as its premise the rhetorical function of magazines in forming communities, this article illustrates the symbiotic interaction between publishing histories, including the exploitation of new technologies, and the sense of self engendered by magazines. In quilters’ magazines, this sense of self is most recently pronounced in content describing the ‘modern quilter’, for whom digital media literacy is characteristic. The article’s findings are used to advocate further research into the rhetorical and practical responses made by special-interest titles to a competitive publishing environment that is no longer dependent on paper-based delivery of content.

 

Have you seen the news? Uncovering the fan-like behaviours of the news audience

Renee Barnes

Traditionally, the study of journalism has been undertaken in rationalist terms. This has had particular implications for the study of the journalistic audience focusing on news serving a primarily informational purpose and not as a pleasurable experience. Drawing on fan theory, as well as the cultural concepts of emotion and affect, this article argues that the keen ritual engagement that characterises the investment of fans helps illuminate the dynamics of online participation in relation to news consumption. Ultimately, it argues that this approach enables a better conceptualisation of the online news audience and forms of engagement.

 

Curators of databases: Circulating images, managing attention and making value on social media

Nicholas Carah

This article examines the relationships between cultural spaces, the image-making practices of smartphone users and social media platforms. I argue that social media platforms depend on the curatorial capacities of smartphone users who observe everyday life and register it online. Social media platforms use databases and analytics to continuously assemble identities, cultural practices and social spaces in relation to one another. In addition to targeted advertising, value is created by leveraging a continuous circulation of meaning and attention. Using the example of a music festival, I examine how the production of value involves channelling the productive activity of smartphone users in material cultural spaces.

 

Constructing the meaning of nanotechnology in the United States: A socio-linguistic analysis of the New York Times coverage, 1985–2004

Ian Weber

This study employed a content analysis approach to consider the coverage of nanotechnology reports in the New York Times from 1985 to 2004. Patterns and trends of discourse within the national newspaper in terms of political, economic, social, cultural and technological factors were examined using a socio-linguistic approach. Results from the analysis of 243 news articles show a significant rise in the number of reports in general, with a specific focus on political, economic and technological factors. Analysis revealed that the three categories not only increased in relation to the rise in the number of articles, but also tended to positively reinforce each other over time. The implications of these findings are significant in relation to how the media reports on nanotechnology and the social and cultural dimensions of technology during the critical start-up phases of the innovation. Furthermore, this study brings into focus the issues of transparency of risk and sustainability of future nanotechnology applications.

 

Controversial new sciences in the media: Content analysis of global reporting of nanotechnology during the last decade

Kylie Fisk, Richard Fitzgerald and John Cokley

The potentially controversial science of nanotechnology is only now beginning to infiltrate mainstream public consciousness through media channels. This article suggests the infiltration is taking different forms, depending on the nationality of journalists reporting on the science. Having completed analysis of a large longitudinal international sample of news and feature articles about nanotechnology, we report that journalists in Australia and New Zealand deploy sources ‘direct from the lab’ to highlight scientific advancements; those in Asia emphasise the nation-building potential of nanotechnology; US journalists provide positive coverage across all areas; and those in the United Kingdom offer the most critical analysis and risk reporting. These messages have also evolved over time in each region. Results are integrated with existing research about public perceptions of nanotechnology, and suggest several themes common to all media reporting of nanotechnology, the most important of which reflects positive reporting or acceptance, although safety concerns and health risks also arise.

 

Transnational publics and environmental conflict in the Asian Century

LIbby Lester

Conflict over landscape use, resource access and environmental futures has become a central feature of contemporary political life. Increasingly, these conflicts are articulated, negotiated and potentially resolved across national boundaries and complex networks of media and communications. Within the context of intensifying pressure for resources, market opportunities and changing media practices, this article examines the multi-directional and multi-layered flows of political communication and action that are developing within the Asian region. It outlines a case of recent environmental protests targeted at Japanese and Malaysian companies involved in the procurement and sale of Australian forest products, and reveals how distant supporters are being enabled to join with those affected locally to resist development, end resource procurement and undermine growth strategies.

 

Reviews in This Issue

Allan, Stuart, Citizen Witnessing: Revisioning Journalism in Times of Crisis

Arnaudo, Marco, The Myth of the Superhero

Bogost, Ian, Ferrari, Simon and Schweizer, Bobby, Newsgames: Journalism at Play

Cammaerts, Bart, Mattoni, Alice and McCurdy, Patrick (eds), Mediation and Protest Movements

Carlson, Matt, On the Condition of Anonymity: Unnamed Sources and the Battle for Journalism

Danesi, Marcel, Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives, 2nd edn

Dwyer, Tim, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Media

Eide, Elisabeth and Kunelius, Risto (eds), Media Meets Climate: The Global Challenge for Journalism

Goggin, Gerard, New Technologies and the Media

Greenberg, Joshua M., From Betamax to Blockbuster: Video Stores and the Invention of Movies on Video

Hartley, John, Potts, Jason, Cunningham, Stuart, Flew, Terry, Keane, Michael and Banks, John, Key Concepts in Creative
Industries

Huhtamo, Erkki, Illusions in Motion: Media Archaeology of the Moving Panorama and Related Spectacles

Jenkins, Henry, Ford, Sam and Green, Joshua, Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture

Keane, Michael, China’s New Creative Clusters: Governance, Human Capital and Investment

Krinsky, Charles (ed.), The Ashgate Research Companion to Moral Panics

Lacey, Kate, Listening Publics: The Politics and Experience of Listening in the Media Age

Leigh, Jacob, The Cinema of Eric Rohmer: Irony, Imagination, and the Social World

Moore, Tony, Dancing with Empty Pockets: Australia’s Bohemians Since 1860

Phillipov, Michelle, Death Metal and Music Criticism: Analysis at the Limits

Phillips, Louise, Carvalho, Anabela and Doyle, Julie (eds), Citizen Voices: Performing Public Participation in Science and Environment Communication

Potter, Simon J., Broadcasting Empire: The BBC and the British World, 1922–1970

Sterritt, David, Spike Lee’s America

Suber, Peter, Open Access

Voltmer, Katrin, The Media in Transitional Democracies

 

 

 

 

 

Broadband Futures: Content, Connectivity and Control

No 151, May 2014

Theme Editors: Matthew Allen, Sora Park, Catherine Middleton and Peter Thompson

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Abstracts

 Contents

Editorial

Sue Turnbull

ANZCA News

Terence Lee

General Articles

The ABC, the Australian Children’s Television Foundation and the emergence of digital children’s television in Australia 

Leonie Rutherford

Open or closed? An assessment of how blogs can contribute to policy-making

Vicki Bamford

Manufacturing a crime wave: The Gold Coast saga

Emily Schindeler and Jacqui Ewart

‘You posted what on Facebook?’ Sport, sex and the ‘St Kilda Schoolgirl’

Deb Waterhouse-Watson

‘An image of hope in a week of despair’: Representations of Sam the Koala in the Australian mainstream news media Clemence Due, Kirrilly Thompson and Danielle Every
The press and public service broadcasting: Neville Petersen’s News Not Views and the case for Australian exceptionalism Denis Cryle

 

New Voices

Contested publics: Racist rants, bystander action and social media acts of citizenship

Anthony McCosker and Amelia Johns

Beyond graphic novels: Illustrated scholarly discourse and the history of educational comics

Aaron Humphrey

 

CCTV’s global outreach: Examining the audiences of China’s ‘new voice’
on Africa

 

Lauren Gorfinkel, Sandy Joffe, Cobus Van Staden and Yu-Shan Wu

‘Honey, they stole my Flickr!’ Social network typologies, online trust and dissent, and the monetisation of immaterial labour

Philip Bagust

Ambient affiliation in Microblogging: Bonding around the quotidian

Michele Zappavigna

Sexting, selfies and self-harm: Young people, social media and the performance of self-development

Fleur Gabriel

 

Broadband Futures: Content, Connectivity and Control

Broadband futures: Content, connectivity and control Matthew Allen, Sora Park, Catherine Middleton and Peter Thompson
Asynchronous speeds: Disentangling the discourse of ‘high-speed broadband’ in relation to Australia’s National Broadband Network Marcos P. Dias, Michael Arnold, Martin Gibbs, Bjorn Nansen and Rowan Wilken
Broadband as civic infrastructure: The Australian case Ian McShane, Chris Wilson and Denise Meredyth
The role of local intermediaries in the process of digitally engaging non-users of the internet  Sora Park
Wired-up or wind-up? The political economy of broadband policy in
New Zealand/Aotearoa
Peter Thompson
New Zealand’s Ultra-Fast Broadband Plan: Digital public works project for the
twenty-first century or playfield of incumbent interests?
Dwayne Winseck
Hindsight in 2020? New Zealand’s ‘wait and see’ approach to mobile broadband regulation Michael S. Daubs
The race between the dragon and the elephant: Comparing China and India’s
national broadband plans
Krishna Jayakar and Chun Liu

Book Reviews

Edited by Sheree Gregory

   

Abstracts 

The ABC, the Australian Children’s Television Foundation and the emergence of digital children’s television in Australia

Leonie Rutherford

This article analyses the campaign to establish terrestrial digital children’s public service broadcasting in Australia. It finds that the development of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s digital children’s channel (ABC3), an initiative initially embraced somewhat opportunistically, enabled an expansion strategy for the public service broadcaster that ultimately helped determine the shape of its current digital channel portfolio. Contrasting the collective and divergent interpretations of future audience behaviours and needs developed by the Australian Children’s Television Foundation (ACTF) and the ABC, it argues that both organisations developed strategies and made policy decisions that were influential in conditioning the current digital television ecology.

 

Open or closed? An assessment of how blogs can contribute to policy-making

VIcki Bamford

This article analyses the processes and outcomes of communication by two Australian government departments – the Departments of Broadband, Communication and the Digital Economy (DBCDE) and Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR – that used blogs to consult with citizens on a policy that was under development. The researcher also interviewed managers of the blog processes of both departments to secure their feedback. The findings indicate that closed community blogs create excellent conditions for rich policy input, while open blogs (available to all citizens) provide less specific and less useable policy input. This is partially because public blogs are easily skewed off topic by participants who wish to dictate a particular view or as a result of ‘the vibe’ in the public sphere, affected by media and other people’s commentary that can set the agenda for discussion. Nevertheless, open blogs can provide government with a litmus test of the immediate concerns of active members of the public.

 

Manufacturing a crime wave: The Gold Coast saga

Emily Schindeler and Jacqui Ewart

Crime waves make great headlines, and can be an ongoing source of stories for news media. In this article, we track the news media promotion of the spectre of a crime wave at Queensland’s Gold Coast and the interplay between politics and policy responses to the media campaign. By analysing news media reports, government, local government and police-documented responses, we explore how the media framed this crime wave and the politically driven policy responses that were disproportionate to the reported (statistical) level of crime. Despite attempts by the Queensland Police Service to defuse the claims of an out-of-control crime problem, followed by its attempts at managing community responses, the local news media continued their campaign with significant consequences. Our findings are important for those charged with publicly managing responses to media-driven crime waves.

 

‘You posted what on Facebook?’ Sport, sex and the ‘St Kilda Schoolgirl’

Deb Waterhouse-Watson

Throughout 2010–11, a series of sex scandals involving a young woman, AFL players and staff occurred, largely enabled through both social and traditional media. Through this case study, this article questions the power of social media to facilitate an individual’s challenge to traditional power hierarchies, exploring the interactions between social media and the news media in gaining public attention. I also uncover the patriarchal ideologies that shaped the way the scandals played out, highlighting the narrative and discursive strategies employed to dismiss Duthie’s actions. She was portrayed as a child, a ‘woman scorned’ and/or mentally ill, ultimately disempowering her. The case is a powerful illustration of the continued influence of patriarchal ideologies in curtailing women’s power, which is only amplified by the interactivity of social media.

 

‘An image of hope in a week of despair’: Representations of Sam the Koala in the Australian mainstream news media

Clemence Due, Kirrilly Thompson and Danielle Every 

Natural disasters are events with far-reaching humanitarian implications that frequently receive international attention through the use of an image that comes to represent the disaster in question. The most successful images often comprise ‘identifiable’ and therefore human victims. What is more unusual is for a single animal image to become representative of an entire disaster. This was the case with the 2009 Victorian bushfires in Australia, when the image of a firefighter offering a koala a drink gained international fame. Given that this image of ‘Sam’ the koala does not conform to traditional disaster imagery, we undertook a thematic analysis of mainstream news media representations of Sam in order to identify how she was represented by the media. In this article, we discuss these themes in relation to the ‘identifiable victim’, together with the implications of Sam’s success in terms of disaster-relief campaigns.

 

The press and public service broadcasting: Neville Petersen’s News Not Views and the case for Australian exceptionalism 

Denis Cryle

This article revisits historical rivalries between established and emerging media, namely the press and broadcasting, during the first half of the twentieth century. To this end, the author constructs a dialogue between Neville Petersen’s broadcasting research and his own press research over a similar period. In his major work, News Not Views: The ABC, Press and Politics (1932–1947), Petersen (1993) elaborates in detail the ongoing constraints imposed by Australian newspaper proprietors on the fledgling Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) in their ultimately unsuccessful struggle to restrict its news supply and influence. Drawing on subsequent press research based on international forums, the author revisits this rivalry, particularly Petersen’s thesis that Australian press proprietors exercised disproportionate influence over the national broadcaster when compared with other English-speaking countries, such as Britain and Canada.

 

Contested publics: Racist rants, bystander action and social media acts of citizenship

Anthony McCosker and Amelia Johns

While social media tools enable new kinds of creativity, cultural expression and forms of public, civic and political participation, we often hear more about the harms that arise from instances of trolling and ‘aberrant’ online participation, including racist provocation. In media and communications research, these issues have been framed in a number of ways, usually focusing on new tools for civic engagement, political participation and digital inclusion. Government policy has been shifting steadily towards potential regulation of social media ‘misuse’ in relation to appropriate forms of ‘digital citizenship’. It is in this evolving context that we consider several instances of cultural or nationalistic provocation and conflict in which social media platforms (YouTube and Facebook in particular) have been central to the social dynamic that has unfolded. We examine the recording and uploading of racist rants and associated bystander actions on public transport in Australia and elsewhere around the world. In this article, we contend that while racism remains an issue in uses of social media platforms such as YouTube, this focus often overshadows these platforms’ productive potential, including their capacity to support agonistic publics from which productive expressions of cultural citizenship and solidarity might emerge.

  

Beyond graphic novels: Illustrated scholarly discourse and the history of educational comics

Aaron Humphrey

Comics are increasingly being used in higher education for teaching and research, as demonstrated by the recent publication of comics in The Annals of Internal Medicine and other academic journals. This article examines how the ascendance of graphic novels to the realm of ‘proper’ literature has simultaneously paved the way for this acceptance of comics as scholarly discourse while obscuring the much longer tradition of pedagogical comics dating to before World War II. In the process, it will highlight some of the ways comics can be used in education, and suggest the benefits of using comics as multimodal scholarship.

 

CCTV’s global outreach: Examining the audiences of China’s ‘new voice’ on Africa

Lauren Gorfinkel, Sandy Joffe, Cobus Van Staden and Yu-Shan Wu

This scoping article introduces key issues surrounding the globalisation of China Central Television (CCTV), focusing on its African operations, content and reception, specifically in Kenya and South Africa. At a time when the Chinese government is seeking to enhance positive perceptions of China and China–Africa relations, and its associated media outlets are seeking to compete with other major global players like CNN and the BBC, this article takes steps towards understanding the extent to which CCTV may be succeeding in these missions. Some of the challenges identified for CCTV-Africa in our small-scale pilot study include attempting to simultaneously target ‘African’, ‘Western’ and Chinese audience groups, which may detract from its ability to appeal to specific international audiences; competition from other international and local broadcasters who already have a strong spectator base; and a lack of accessibility, awareness and sustained interest in the channel. It calls for more in-depth research into global audiences’ reception of CCTV-Africa, and CCTV more generally, in order to track CCTV’s brand awareness and assess whether China’s global media soft power activities actually have any leverage in enhancing cross-cultural relations and international audiences’ perceptions of China in Africa and the world.

 

‘Honey, they stole my Flickr!’ Social network typologies, online trust and dissent, and the monetisation of immaterial labour

Philip Bagust

In May 2013, Flickr – one of the first great social media platforms and a pioneer in the use of the digital image as ‘social glue’ – launched a new platform design, unannounced, to its 80 million-plus user community. The changes brought Flickr more into line with newer mobile-focused Web 2.0 competitors, and were arguably inevitable if Flickr’s owner, Yahoo, was to persist with the platform. However, the changes elicited a storm of protest from existing Flickr users. The author followed the progress of this ‘revolt’ for a month on Flickr’s own user forums, and uses the insights gained to ask questions about current theorising of Web 2.0 platform typologies, their corporate governance and business models, and the apparent quietism of their massive immaterial labour ‘workforces’. The article concludes by asking whether we need to think beyond current Web 2.0 governance models that seem so welded to dichotomies of public and private ownership.

  

Ambient affiliation in Microblogging: Bonding around the quotidian

Michele Zappavigna

Microblogging is an increasingly prevalent communicative practice for negotiating identity and engaging in networked publics. It is currently of particular interest to new media and communication theorists, due to the lens it provides to view ‘real-time’ expression of online opinion and sentiment about both public events and domestic life. While many studies have investigated microblogging in relation to large-scale political events and crises, this article focuses on the latter private domain, exploring the interfacing of the personal realm with mass communicative discourse. A million-word corpus of Twitter posts (MORPHEUS) will be used to investigate a form of ‘ambient affiliation’ that is enacted as microbloggers bond around expressions of the quotidian. This corpus features discourse in the semantic domain of sleep, a surprisingly frequent topic in microblogging posts. Drawing upon corpus linguistic methods, combined with close discourse analysis of communicative patterns, the focus will be on the role of hashtags in supporting ambient communion about the everyday.

  

Sexting, selfies and self-harm: Young people, social media and the performance of self-development

Fleur Gabriel

As platforms for self-expression, social media sites require users to consciously, visibly, and deliberately perform their identity. While a dominant developmental discourse encourages young people to test and explore different identities, a self-conscious and highly visible performance of identity via social media brings into question the form and value of this activity. This article reviews a range of popular arguments about how young people use media, and demonstrates how this use comes into conflict with a broader developmental discourse. It proposes that this conflict contributes to the perception that young people’s media use is dangerous for healthy development, and that a different kind of approach to youth is needed. Engaging Judith Butler’s notion of performativity, the article argues that social media and the structures of performative display are a way to reconceptualise youth and the relationship between social media and young people’s self-development.

 

Broadband futures: Content, connectivity and control

Matthew Allen, Sora Park, Catherine Middleton and Peter Thompson

This introduction to the Broadband Futures: Content, Connectivity and Control special issue begins with the claim that we are at the start of a new period of debate and analysis about network infrastructure and use that declares government failure and reinvigorates the drive to a free-market solution in Australia and New Zealand. But questions remain about the effectiveness and social value of network developments, regardless of the degree of government investment and regulation. As canvassed in this introduction, and the articles that make up the special issue, we can only move forward, both in research and practical implementation, if we accept the intricate weaving together of past, present and future interactions between governments, service providers and their consumers in broadband development.

 

Asynchronous speeds: Disentangling the discourse of ‘high-speed broadband’ in relation to Australia’s National Broadband Network

Marcos P. Dias, Michael Arnold, Martin Gibbs, Bjorn Nansen and Rowan Wilken

This article analyses the substantive problems related to the term ‘high-speed broadband’ in relation to the implementation of Australia’s National Broadband Network (NBN). It argues that an understanding of speed in relation to broadband must take into account a complex assemblage of infrastructure networks, communication devices, software, location, user subjectivity and political input. Within this assemblage are varied definitions, discourses and materialities of speed that do not necessarily synchronise. Instead, speed is subject to asynchronous perceptions and implementations, which impact on the potential of the NBN. With the aim of contextualising and problematising the understanding of speed in relation to the NBN, this article explores four key points: first, how the perception of speed is dependent not so much on technical performance, but on the subjectivities of internet experience; second, how the term ‘broadband’ is politically shaped, especially in the context of the Coalition government’s alternative multi-technology mix plan; third, how the assemblage of different social, technical and political actants that constitute high-speed broadband determines the perception of speed; and finally, how asynchronous speeds of broadband implementation and adoption may impact on the potential benefits of the NBN.

 

Broadband as civic infrastructure: The Australian case

Ian McShane, Chris Wilson and Denise Meredyth

 Australian municipal governments have lagged behind many of their international counterparts in local public broadband provision. However, by 2014 there are signs that the gap is closing, with significant new investment in public wi-fi by city governments across Australia. This article contextualises the current interest in public wi-fi by analysing international developments in municipal broadband and the spasmodic involvement of Australian local authorities in this field. We argue that the rhetoric of broadband as a ‘fourth utility’ unduly prioritises the role of higher governments in Australia, constraining a full exploration of how broadband might be imagined as a form of civic infrastructure.

 

The role of local intermediaries in the process of digitally engaging non-users of the internet

Sora Park

This article aims to provide a better understanding of the process of becoming digitally engaged. Those who cannot utilise digital networks are systematically disadvantaged, particularly in a hyper-connected world in which services are provided online by default. By interviewing and observing clients and trainers at a telecentre, the ACT Digital Hub, this study investigated the process that non-internet users undergo – from digital readiness to digital engagement – in order to become adept users. Intermediaries such as telecentres play a crucial role in equipping non-users with digital readiness, which is a precursor to digital media literacy. Social environment also plays a significant role in non-users’ digital readiness. Rather than focusing merely on the provision of access to bridge the digital divide, we need a longer-term investment in adequate environments, such as sustainable community training centres, that nurture digital readiness.

 

Wired-up or wind-up? The political economy of broadband policy in New Zealand/Aotearoa

Peter Thompson

Government policy has played a crucial role in driving the development of broadband technology in New Zealand, but this has evidently been shaped by the interplay of different ministerial imperatives and rationales under different administrations. The Labour-led government’s 2005 Digital Strategy primarily aimed at increasing consumer uptake of basic broadband to overcome the ‘digital divide’. This evolved into the more ambitious 2008 Digital Strategy 2.0 which, consistent with Labour’s ‘third way’ philosophy, focused both on grassroots community engagement and economic goals (involving both the Ministry for Culture and Heritage and the Ministry of Economic Development). However, the election of the National-led government later in 2008 brought a shift in the principles and outcomes driving broadband policy. National’s Ultra-Fast Broadband initiative has seen NZ$1.35 billion allocated to telecommunications companies that won contracts to develop a nationwide fibre-optic infrastructure. The political rationale more strongly reflects macro-economic imperatives informed primarily by the revamped Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment. This more commercial policy orientation has nevertheless led the government into some complex and contradictory positions, particularly with respect to its reluctance to insulate the UFB initiative from demands to re-regulate the media sector in response to convergence and competition issues. Taking a critical institutionalist approach and drawing on evidence from key policy documents and interview data with policy actors, this analysis outlines several policy tensions underpinning the shifts in New Zealand’s telecommunications and broadband policy between 2005 and 2013.

 

New Zealand’s Ultra-Fast Broadband Plan: Digital public works project for the twenty-first century or playfield of incumbent interests?

Dwayne Winseck

This article examines the development of telecommunications, media and internet in New Zealand and the prospects for the government’s Ultra-Fast Broadband and Rural Broadband initiatives. Several factors are identified that could contribute to consolidating the success of recent efforts: increasing telecommunications competition since 2006, a recent growth spurt in internet and mobile wireless use, an improved regulatory environment and the rise of the ‘prime-time’ internet. However, high levels of concentration, low levels of media and internet use made worse by restrictive data caps, the contradiction between a sizable government subsidy for broadband fibre development versus a very hesitant regulator, and powerful incumbents intent on preserving and extending their legacy business models into new areas – including the UFB – diminish such prospects.

 

Hindsight in 2020? New Zealand’s ‘wait and see’ approach to mobile broadband regulation

Michael S. Daubs

New Zealand’s Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment’s Review of the Telecommunications Act 2001, released in 2013, highlighted an increased demand for mobile broadband service, particularly in relation to the 700 MHz spectrum auction of 14 January 2014 – space ideal for next-generation 4G or Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile services. The government seemingly adopted a ‘wait and see’ approach to mobile broadband regulation, however, delaying its development until 2020 when there will be ‘a clearer sense of the impact of new networks and technology’. One can look to Canada to see the need for robust mobile broadband policies. Like New Zealand, Canada has relied primarily upon spectrum auctions to stimulate market competition. The spectrum auction frameworks used there, however, have done little to promote market competition. Applying the lessons learned from Canada to a New Zealand context, this article argues for a more assertive regulatory framework sooner rather than later.

 

The race between the dragon and the elephant: Comparing China and India’s national broadband plans

Krishna Jayakar and Chun Liu

Faith-based broadcasters comprise half of all community radio stations in the South Pacific islands. As such, they reflect the deep indigenisation of Christianity and its central role in Pacific cultural identity. But their position within the media environment is surprisingly contentious. For secular community media practitioners, Pacific faith-based media are seen to interject foreign voices and capital into island communities. For the international development sector, partnership with faith-based organisations around development agendas brings fears that aid funds will be used for evangelism. This article explores the role of faith-based community radio in the South Pacific, and argues that they have achieved levels of sustainability that have thus far eluded secular community media through application of culturally appropriate and self-defined development pathways.

  

Reviews in This Issue

Amaya, Hector, Citizenship Excess: Latino/as, Media and the Nation

Aveyard, Karina and Moran, Albert (eds), Watching Films: New Perspectives on Movie-Going, Exhibition and Reception

Banet-Weiser, Sarah, AuthenticTM: The Politics of Ambivalence in a Brand Culture

Barnet, Belinda, Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext

Elberse, Anita, Blockbusters: Hitmaking, Risk-taking and the Big Business of Entertainment

Fuller, Jack, What is Happening to News? The Information Explosion and the Crisis of Journalism

Goodlad, Lauren M.E., Kaganovsky, Lilya and Rushing, Robert A. (eds), Mad Men, Mad World: Sex, Politics, Style and the 1960s

Gustafsson, Tommy and Kääpä, Pietari (eds), Transnational Ecocinema: Film Culture in an Era of Ecological Transformation

Just, Natascha and Puppis, Manuel (eds), Trends in Communication Policy Research: New Theories, Methods and Subjects

Keane, Michael, Creative Industries in China

Kirkpatrick, Graeme, Computer Games and the Social Imaginary

Loviglio, Jason and Hilmes, Michele (eds), Radio’s New Wave: Global Sound in the Digital Era

Maras, Steven, Objectivity in Journalism

Margolis, Harriet, Cubitt, Sean, King, Barry and Jutel, Thierry (eds), Studying the Event Film: The Lord of the Rings

Miyao, Daisuke, The Aesthetics of Shadow: Lighting and Japanese Cinema

Moores, Shaun, Media, Place and Mobility

Olsson, Tobias (ed.), Producing the Internet: Critical Perspectives of Social Media

Orthia, Lindy (ed.), Doctor Who and Race

Papoutsaki, Evangelia, McManus, Michael and Matbob, Patrick (eds), Communication, Culture and Society in Papua New Guinea: Yu Tok Wanem?

Pomerance, Murray, Alfred Hitchcock’s America

Robertson, Frances, Print Culture: From Steam Press to eBook 

Rojek, Chris, Event Power: How Global Events Manage and Manipulate

Serazio, Michael, Your Ad Here: The Cool Sell of Guerrilla Marketing

Staksrud, Elisabeth, Children in the Online World: Risk, Regulation, Rights

Welch, David, Propaganda: Power and Persuasion

Wikström, Patrik, The Music Industry: Music in the Cloud, 2nd edn

 

 

 

 

Public Spheres and the Media in India

No 152, August 2014

Theme Editors: Sukhmani Khorana, Vibodh
Parthasarathi and Pradip Ninan Thomas

Buy this issue

Subscription and order form

Abstracts

 

                          Contents

Editorial

Sue Turnbull

ANZCA News

Terence Lee

General Articles

Tweeting the TV event, creating ‘public sphericules’: Ad hoc engagement with SBS’s Go Back to Where You Came From – Season 2

Theresa Sauter and Axel Bruns

Young New Zealanders’ consumption of television fiction programs: An exploratory study of young people’s reception habits

Maddalena Fedele

‘Let’s get a bit of context’: Fifty Shades and the phenomenon of ‘pulling to publish’
in Twilight fan fiction

Joseph Brennan and David Large

New views on a ‘stuck’ issue: Communicating about childhood immunisation in
Aotearoa New Zealand

Elspeth Tilley, Niki Murray, Bronwyn Watson and Margie Comrie

E-electioneering 2007–13: Trends in online political campaigns over three elections Jim Macnamara and Gail Kenning

 

Public Spheres and the Media in India

Public spheres and the media in India

Sukhmani Khorana, Vibodh Parthasarathi and Pradip Ninan Thomas

On the constituted contexts of public communication: Early policy debates
on the press in India

Vibodh Parthasarathi

Piracy at the frontier: Uneven development and the public sphere

Adrian Athique

The political is populist: Talk shows, political debates, and the middle-class
public sphere in India

Sukhmani Khorana

Cyber buccaneers, public and pirate spheres: The phenomenon of BitTorrent
downloads in the transforming terrain of Indian cinema

Ashvin Devasundaram

Contesting interpretational authority: Democracy and fascism in the Indian
‘empowered public’

Britta Ohm

Public hearings and public spheres in India: The case of the Right to Information (RTI) movement

Pradip Ninan Thomas

The public sphere and the Telangana movement

Padmaja Shaw

Population and publics in the Indian communication society Per Ståhlberg
The Indian public sphere: Histories, contradictions and challenges Ramaswami Harindranath
Media, mediation and the vernacular public arena in India Taberez Ahmed Neyazi

Book Reviews

Edited by Sheree Gregory

 

 

                                                  Abstracts

 

Tweeting the TV event, creating ‘public sphericules’: Ad hoc engagement with SBS’s Go Back to Where You Came From – Season 2

Theresa Sauter and Axel Bruns

 This article uses the example of the mediatisation of Season 2 of the Australian documentary-cum-reality TV series Go Back to Where You Came From, and the associated #GoBackSBS Twitter feed, to investigate how public opinions are shaped, reshaped and expressed in new hybrid media ecologies. We explore how social media tools like Twitter can support the efforts of a TV production; provide spaces through which the public can engage ad hoc with a public event, be informed, shape their opinions and share them with others; and thus open up new possibilities for public discourse to occur. We suggest that new online public sphericules are emerging that provide spaces within which publics can engage with the cultural social and political realities with which they are confronted. In this way, we highlight the importance of mundane communication to the shaping and constant reshaping of public opinion.

Young New Zealanders’ consumption of television fiction programs: An exploratory study of young people’s reception habits

Maddalena Fedele

This article presents part of the findings of an exploratory study of young people’s consumption of television fiction programs, carried out in Aotearoa New Zealand. The article focuses on young people’s reception habits, describing those practices within the rest of their leisure activities. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 225 first-year Victoria University of Wellington students
aged 17–30. Among the main results, young people’s predilection for television fiction must be emphasised. Even if watching television is not one of the more frequent leisure activities for those surveyed, most of them report watching at least one or two different fiction programs every day, especially by themselves or with friends, and in domestic common spaces. They also show some multimedia and multi-tasking consumption strategies – such as watching fiction programs through different media, such as the TV set, DVDs and the internet – and carrying out simultaneous activities while watching.

‘Let’s get a bit of context’: Fifty Shades and the phenomenon of ‘pulling to publish’ in Twilight fan fiction

Joseph Brennan and David Large

The publishing success of E.L. James’ Fifty Shades of Grey, a series with origins as Twilight fan fiction, has energised popular interest in the practice of writing fan fiction (or ‘fanfics’). Equally, however, the series’ popularity has fuelled debate on the ethics of its commercial publication. This article highlights the divisive and polarising phenomenon of ‘pulling to publish’ in the Twilight fandom. ‘Pulling to publish’ refers to the process of rewriting and republishing for profit a work that was inspired by another’s intellectual property, and collaboratively edited by unpaid volunteers – the majority of whom would have expected the edited work to be freely available in perpetuity. Among other relevant case studies, this article examines a critical instance of pseudonymous online protest, challenge and defence between James and another well-known fanfic writer, coinciding with the March 2011 announcement that Fifty Shades would be commercially published. Several critiques of fanfic commercialisation are contextualised by a critical reading of the ‘official’ publication history of Fifty Shades, revealing the incompatibility of two self-constructed fan identities: the faithful and the opportunistic.

New views on a ‘stuck’ issue: Communicating about childhood immunisation in Aotearoa New Zealand

Elspeth Tilley, Niki Murray, Bronwyn Watson and Margie Comrie

This article explores attitudes towards immunisation and immunisation communication materials among parents and caregivers currently facing immunisation decisions in Aotearoa New Zealand. The research aimed to discover, from an open-ended qualitative investigation, new ways to conceptualise and explain immunisation decision-making, and identify participants’ own views on approaches worth trialling as ways to increase immunisation rates. The research used communication artefacts as talking points, and an action research process to modify these to reflect participants’ design suggestions, but was primarily exploratory. It started a broad conversation with participants about their decisionmaking influences rather than being designed to test any particular attributes of the immunisation communication process. From a qualitative analysis of transcripts of focus-group and in-depth interviews with 107 immunisation decisionmakers, themes were drawn. Applying an emic process enabled identification of participants’ own ideas that have now broadened the range of possible approaches currently being considered for immunisation communication in Aotearoa New Zealand. Given that immunisation decline is a problem internationally, these participant-driven ideas may also be worth testing in other contexts.

E-electioneering 2007–13: Trends in online political campaigns over three elections

Jim Macnamara and Gail Kenning

Following the 2004 US presidential election campaign, which was described as ‘a critical turning point’ in use of social media, and particularly the 2008 Obama campaign, there has been increasing focus on use of social media for political campaigning and what is termed e-electioneering and e-democracy. However, studies of election campaigns between 2010 and 2012 in a number of countries have identified what Steve Woolgar (2002) calls cyberbole in relation to social media for political engagement. With substantive patterns of change in political communication yet to be identified, a quantitative and qualitative study of social media use in the 2013 Australian federal election campaign was conducted using the same methodology as studies of the 2007 and 2010 campaigns to gain comparative longitudinal data. This identified trends in the volume of e-electioneering and the ways in which social media are being used for political communication and democratic engagement.

Public spheres and the media in India

Sukhmani Khorana, Vibodh Parthasarathi and Pradip Ninan Thomas

This themed issue of MIA highlights the complex nature of evolving, emerging, mediated public spheres in India, a large, imperfect democracy that is home to the most diverse mediated public spheres anywhere in the world. The history of the public sphere in India has followed a trajectory that is very different from – even at odds with – the history of this sphere as described by Habermas.

On the constituted contexts of public communication: Early policy debates on the press in India

Vibodh Parthasarathi

This article provides a pathway to engage with the enabling environment of public communication in India. It scrutinises debates around press policy in the first four decades after Independence (1950–90) to reveal the trajectory of contests between dominant strands of liberal and progressive standpoints. This will help unravel the constituted contexts of the public sphere of marketed print in pre-liberalisation India. The central interest in doing so is to illustrate hown and argue why the value of media diversity, unlike those of media freedom and media autonomy, failed to become a core concern in debates on press policy. The ways in which this inheritance pre-determined the perimeters of policy options during media deregulation of the 1990s may be worth exploring further.

Piracy at the frontier: Uneven development and the public sphere

Adrian Athique

In the decades following Indian Independence, the exponential growth of urban populations, the encroachment of slums on all open lands, the expensive and exhaustive hurdles to commercial premises and the chronic shortage of leisure capacity in overcrowded Indian cities all contributed to a delivery mechanism that operated on the street. Even during the heady days of India’s ‘liberalisation’ economy at the end of the millennium, India’s media revolution – notwithstanding its global interface with content and technology – was essentially a street economy. Its commercial aesthetics were embedded within the particular spaces of video parlors, pavement stalls and the unique self-regulating confines of India’s residential colonies. As such, the public encounter with media technologies was marked by appropriation, informality and opportunistic mobility, and it was firmly embedded in local relationships of exchange. Over the past decade, however, an emerging corporate leisure economy has sought to implement a very different social architecture. Its commercial strategy is overwhelmingly determined by the notion of an ‘aspirational’ middle class, ‘unfettered’ by liberalisation. Its public domain
has been materialised in the new infrastructure of shopping malls and multiplexes designed to physically distance consumers from the ‘Third World’ media economy of the recent past. At the same time, the explicit alignment of this emerging corporate leisure economy with the ‘consuming classes’ undermines its substitution for more inclusive localised domains served by the pirate public sphere. This article argues that attempts to relocate media consumption within the formal economy and the strictures of ‘international’ architecture necessarily illustrate the ongoing tensions between two distinctive and incompatible public spheres.

The political is populist: Talk shows, political debates, and the middle-class public sphere in India

Sukhmani Khorana

Emerging literature on the rapid rise of 24-hour commercial news television in India in the last decade, as well as popular and editorial commentary on the above phenomenon, suggests that these channels are playing the role of mediators for the middle classes. While the news content is widely believed to be sensationalised for the sake of attaining higher ratings in an overcrowded and competitive market, political talk shows have turned into the analytical and narrative extension of news segments. By including the ordinary – mostly through its mediation by middle-class experts and journalists – these talk shows have turned into the popular culture equivalent of a public sphere for middle-class discussions of pertinent political issues. This article traces the genealogy of a long-standing political talk show on one of India’s longest-running commercial networks, NDTV 24x7’s We the People, to demonstrate its attempts to mirror an inclusive Indian public sphere. Further, in light of the recent middle class-led anti-corruption movement in India, and subsequent conclusions about the weakening of the state, an episode of the talk show titled ‘Anna and the Great Indian Middle Class’ is subject to a detailed textual analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the show’s construction of: (a) corruption as a pan-Indian, and not just a middle-class, issue; (b) the middle class itself as a homogeneous group; and (c) the televisual public sphere (and not a community consultation involving representatives of the state) as a place for establishingpopulist consensus. Literature on new political television and theories of the public sphere are used as theoretical springboards throughout the article.

Cyber buccaneers, public and pirate spheres: The phenomenon of BitTorrent downloads in the transforming terrain of Indian cinema

Ashvin Devasundaram

The polemic circumscribing the rise and regulation of new independent Indian cinema is a compelling example of vicissitudes in India’s public sphere. This article locates a growing access to new independent Indian films through pirate spheres, reflected in the burgeoning popularity of BitTorrent websites, particularly among young, urban Indians, disenchanted by inaccessibility due to regulations and multiplex cinemas’ expensive ticket-pricing system. It precipitates deeper discourses of ‘migrating’ cinema audiences, an ambivalent state of film and internet regulation, and civil resistance, exemplified in the recent Madras High Court volte face, unblocking banned BitTorrent websites. This article invokes interviews with independent filmmakers also utilising the paradigm of independent Bengali film Gandu (2010) – purportedly denied a release for its graphic sexual content, and yet widely accessed via BitTorrent and YouTube. Ultimately, this study examines the discursive ramifications of new independent Indian cinema in a metamorphosing Indian cinema sphere.

Contesting interpretational authority: Democracy and fascism in the Indian ‘empowered public’

Britta Ohm

Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork in India’s television landscape, this article works with two terms – ‘interpretational authority’ and ‘star-anchor’ – so as to elucidate the ambivalence of empowerment in what Arvind Rajagopal has called her postcolonial ‘split public’. I understand interpretational authority, in the ambiguous context of the ‘democratic nation-state’, as professional journalism’s filtering function of both direct democracy and popular majoritarianism. Along four genealogical variants of empowerment, I relate democratisation and antielitism in and through evolving Indian news television to Walter Benjamin’s deliberations on the aesthetics of fascist communication, and argue that, in a swiftly ‘entertainmentised’ TV journalism, interpretational authority was rendered
somewhat dysfunctional before it could actually establish itself both in vernacular and English-language channels. The ‘star-anchor’, in order to still reach a public, becomes the embodiment of ultimately compromised interpretational authority and a reified, socio-economic hierarchisation in a TV journalism that competes with the immediacy of popular power. 

Public hearings and public spheres in India: The case of the Right to Information (RTI) movement

Pradip Ninan Thomas

This article explores issues related to the Right to Information movement in India specifically in relation to the public sphere, a concept that is habitually invoked to describe spaces for deliberation and communication. It explores the role played by the jan sunwai (public hearings) in the creation of a counter public sphere based on the local idiom, local means of communication and performative traditions that enabled a balance between speaking, listening and actioning. The article focuses on the Right to Information movement and the jan sunwai as an important indigenous means and pedagogical device used by this movement to mobilise, radicalise and give voice to marginalised people who have traditionally been expected to remain silent, even in the face of the most atrocious atrocities committed by the forward castes and wealthy.

The public sphere and the Telangana movement

Padmaja Shaw

The 60-year-old demand for a separate state for the Telangana region was an instance in India’s recent history when political turmoil resolved itself primarily through the force of argumentation and public discourse. News media and other information forums played a complex role in this process. The multi-pronged debate on Telangana helped revitalise the public sphere, setting in motion what Habermas calls ‘a critical process of public communication through the very organisations that mediatize it’. Live coverage of events on television news channels triggered intense debates on other forums, where inclusive, independent argumentation could take place. The intense television coverage was part of a continuum of political discourse on various platforms, transforming and being transformed in the context of a history of oppositional politics. This article argues that it is the availability of spaces for critical rational debate that is crucial for democratic practice.

Population and publics in the Indian communication society

Per Ståhlberg

In post-liberalised India, the vast population is regarded as an enormous resource to be exploited as labourers, consumers or for their knowledge. A feature of the new media economy is that newspapers, mobile phones and TV shows are not exclusively produced for the better-off among an urban middle class and, furthermore, that the mass media are increasingly making use of ‘common people’ and their lives in a multitude of places as media content. The subject of this article is whether or not this obsession with the population should be urging us to rethink the Indian media landscape in analytical terms. ‘A public’, Michael Warner argues, is a reflexive relation among strangers, constituted by attention. If the Indian population is now addressed in various new ways, is it time to reconsider the old ‘truth’ that India is an unfit case for discussions about publics?

The Indian public sphere: Histories, contradictions and challenges

Ramaswami Harindranath

This article traces the complexities inherent in the formation of the public sphere in India and how this can be seen as impinging on specific kinds of media discourses. After highlighting a few of the apparent contradictions in the Indian public sphere, the article builds on the insights offered by Partha Chatterjee, Kuan-Hsing Chen and Walter Mignolo to argue the case for the need to reconceptualise the concept of the public sphere in order to make it more suitable for the Indian context. Using media reports on terrorism and terrorist activities in India and the diverse conceptualisations of terrorism that underpin them as examples, this article demonstrates the exercise of symbolic power by the state and the media, and how this is indicative of the contradictions intrinsic to the public sphere in India.

Media, mediation and the vernacular public arena in India

Taberez Ahmed Neyazi

This article analyses the rise of the vernacular public arena in India and the ways in which various media have contributed to the mediation of the multiplicity of the vernacular and the universality of the public. With increasing access by different social groups to various media, space opens up for the participation of the wider public in the activities of the mediated public arena. The participation of a multitude of publics in market-driven media networks has led to a change in the nature and function of the media, which not only have ensure that they survive in a capitalist marketplace, but need to cater to a requirement to serve wider audiences. There is thus a simultaneous presence in the public arena of viewpoints and interests of the urban middle classes, along with the poor and
the marginalised. This hybrid character of the public arena is often overlooked in the discussion on democratic transformation in India. The vernacular public arena is thus the expanding space of socio-political negotiation, interaction and contestation, in which a diversity of voices get mediated and remediated to reassemble and redefine the publics. The mediation has led to the subjectification
of the diversity of people, but is far from consensual politics, as it often involves severe debate, criticism, oppression and resistance. This article focuses particularly on the role of the media in the rise of the vernacular public arena, and how it has helped to connect diverse social groups in a network of dialogues and
negotiations, which has contributed to the democratisation of the public arena.

Reviews in This Issue

Behrendt, Larissa, Rabbit-Proof Fence (Australian Screen Classics)
Bilandzic, Helena, Patriarche, Geoffrey and Traudt, Paul J. (eds), The Social Use of Media: Cultural and Social Scientific Perspectives on Audience Research
Brink, Joram Ten and Oppenheimer, Joshua (eds), Killer Images: Documentary Film, Memory, and the Performance of Violence
Condry, Ian, The Soul of Anime: Collaborative Creativity and Japan’s Media Success Story
Doherty, Thomas, Hollywood and Hitler, 1933–1939
Foster, Kevin, Don’t Mention the War: The Australian Defence Force, the Media and the Afghan Conflict
Franks, Suzanne, Reporting Disasters: Famine, Aid, Politics and the Media
Gaunson, Stephen, The Ned Kelly Films: A Cultural History of Kelly History
Harcup, Tony, Alternative Journalism, Alternative Voices
Hartnett, Sonya, Wolf Creek (Australian Screen Classics)
Hendy, David, Key Concerns in Media Studies: Public Service Broadcasting Hinton, Sam and Hjorth, Larissa, Understanding Social Media
Hutchins, Brett and Rowe, David (eds), Digital Media Sport: Technology, Power and Culture in the Network Society
Johnston, Jane and Sheehan, Mark (eds), Public Relations: Theory and Practice (4th ed.)
Lang, Anouk (ed.), From Codex to Hypertext: Reading at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century
McQuail, Denis, Journalism and Society
Naficy, Hamid, A Social History of Iranian Cinema, Volume 4: The Globalizing Era, 1984–2010
Obst, Lynda, Sleepless in Hollywood: Tales from the New Abnormal in the Movie Business
Seethaler, Josef, Karmasin, Matthias, Melischek, Gabriele and Wöhlert, Romy (eds), Selling War: The Role of the Mass Media in Hostile Conflicts from World War I to the ‘War on Terror’
Simonson, Peter, Peck, Janice, Craig, Robert T. and Jackson, John, The Handbook of Communication History
Stahl, Matt, Unfree Masters: Recording Artists and the Politics of Work
Sullivan, John L., Media Audiences: Effects, Users, Institutions, and PowerWalker Rettberg, Jill, Blogging: Digital Media and Society Series (2nd ed.)
Williams, Deane, Verevis, Constantine and King, Noel, Australian Film Theory and Criticism, Volume 1: Critical Positions
Wortham, Erica Cusi, Indigenous Media in Mexico: Culture, Community and the State

 

 

 

 

Digital Interventions in Everyday Creativity

No 153, November 2014

Theme Editors: Lelia Green and Sarah Pink

Buy this issue

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Abstracts

 

                          Contents

Editorial

Sue Turnbull

ANZCA News

Diana Bossio

General Articles

2014 Henry Mayer Lecture

The press we had to have? Henry Mayer and The Press
in Australia
: Argument, reception, impact

Murray Goot

Social winners and losers: A case study of press construction Andrea Shoebridge

Public broadcasting through the public sphere: A reimagining of public service media in New Zealand

Donald Reid

‘Transmedia television drama: Proliferation and promotion of extended stories online

Matthew Loads

Television’s transition to the internet: Disability accessibility and
broadband-based TV in Australia

Katie Ellis

Nostalgia for the new oldness: Vietnamese television dramas and national belonging Giang Nguyen-Thu

 

Digital Interventions in Everyday Creativity

Using digital interventions to engage in the everyday

Lelia Green and
Sarah Pink

The ‘Make It Possible’ multimedia campaign: Generating a new ‘everyday’ in animal welfare

Debbie Rodan and
Jane Mummery

Natural heritage conservation and eco-digital poiesis: A Western Australian example John Charles Ryan

A digital archive in the circus: Between the archive and the repertoire

David Carlin

Bodies under glass: Gay dating apps and the affect-image

Tom Penney

‘Show me your Slugline and I’ll let you have the Firstlook’: Some thoughts on today’s digital screenwriting tools and apps

Craig Batty

Using digitally distributed vulgar comedy to reach young men with information about healthy sexual development

Alan McKee, Anthony Walsh and Anne-Frances Watson

Queering sexting and sexualisation

Kath Albury and Paul Byron

‘It’s all about the apps’: Parental mediation of pre-schoolers’ digital lives Donell Holloway, Lelia Green and
Carlie Love
   
   

Book Reviews

Edited by Sheree Gregory

 

 

                                                  Abstracts

 

2014 Henry Mayer Lecture: The press we had to have? Henry Mayer and The Pressin Australia: Argument, reception, impact

Murray Goot

Published 50 years ago, Henry Mayer’s The Press in Australia – still the most comprehensive analysis of Australia’s daily papers and their critics – remains a landmark in the study of the Australian press. This article lays out the book’s main arguments, recalls the way it was received, and offers an assessment of its impact on teaching in the universities, on academic research and on the newspaper industry.

Social winners and losers: A case study of press construction

Andrea Shoebridge

The role of mass media in framing public discourse about gendered life courses is a fundamental mechanism for reinforcing patriarchal culture. Women who do not comply with the marriage and maternity mandate are subject to the type of personalised reaction experienced by Australia’s first female prime minister that triggered renewed public debate about misogyny in social organisation. Using case study methodology and framing analysis, I examined a feature published in the national broadsheet about marriage trends that made patriarchy’s preferred model explicit. The communication practices used in the feature are discussed in terms of ‘truth’, and how they might reflect and confirm the attitudes and beliefs of the newspaper’s readership.

Public broadcasting through the public sphere: A reimagining of public service media in New Zealand

Donald Reid

During 2013, the New Zealand government heralded the launch of the Ultra-Fast Broadband (UFB) and Rural Broadband Initiatives (RBI) as significant tools across a range of economic and social policy areas, including the delivery of education and health services and the promotion of development policies for Māori. Conspicuously absent in the associated political discussion was the issue of public service broadcasting and the possibility for internet-based technologies to provide an efficient and cost-effective platform for the production and delivery of non-commercial public service media. The reason for this omission may be due to the governing National Party’s historic disregard for public service broadcasting, as demonstrated by its disestablishment of a number of public broadcasting initiatives since 1999. Drawing on a Habermasian theoretical framework and Dan Hind’s concept of ‘public commissioning’, the purpose of this article is to outline an alternative system for public service broadcasting
based on a series of referenda and on open public debate. I begin by examining the present public broadcasting system and the traditional centrality of the state
in governance and gatekeeping issues. I argue that the communicative potential of social media, enabled by universally accessible ultra-fast broadband, could provide an adequate platform for public gatekeeping, with the state having a significantly reduced role. I make the argument that the technological and resourcing mechanisms for such a system already exist, and the required shift in audience culture is already present in the consumption of entertainment and reality TV texts.

Transmedia television drama: Proliferation and promotion of extended stories online

Matthew Loads

This article reports on a study of additional transmedia content that is available online in relation to all Australian television drama productions and high-rating international drama productions in a five-month period, between January and June 2012. In particular, it asks what additional material exists, and develops a typology of different types of content in order to further explain the current state of play in Australian production. The study examines extended storytelling texts developed specifically for the internet, like ‘webisodes’. It also considers other video and further content that can be based on extending the story world of a program. This article presents and examines the results of the study, arguing that this material can be seen to support the idea of an industry in transition. It finds that there are differences in approach to this type of content between public, free-to-air commercial and subscription broadcasters. Children’s television programs are seen to offer the most sophisticated approach online at this time.

Television’s transition to the internet: Disability accessibility and broadband-based TV in Australia

Katie Ellis

Whereas entertainment has featured negatively in the broader NBN debate currently occurring in Australia, within the disability sector it has been recognised as revolutionary. Government, industry and technical analysts describe digital television, particularly that delivered via broadband, as potentially enabling to people with vision and hearing impairments through the more widespread provision of accessibility features such as audio description and closed captions. This article interrogates the approach to accessibility taken by two case studies of broadband-based television: Netflix and catch-up TV. Netflix, which is not officially available in Australia, is often presented as the future of television, while catch-up services provide an example of the current broadband-based television paradigm in this country. Although accessibility features may be available on broadcast television or DVD release, each of these forms of broadband-based television has either previously (Netflix) or currently (catch-up) stripped accessible functions to stream online. The discussion reflects on both activist interventions of people with disability and the industry standards.

Nostalgia for the new oldness: Vietnamese television dramas and national belonging

Giang Nguyen-Thu

This article uses the Foucauldian framework of governmentality and the particular concept of dispositif to analyse two Vietnamese television dramas, Hanoian (1996)
and The City Stories (2002). I argue that the first drama presents a memory dispositif of the recent wartime to express dissatisfaction about contemporary situations. Meanwhile, the second drama sought to build a ‘new yesterday’ to engage Vietnamese viewers in the ongoing economic transformations.

Using digital interventions to engage in the everyday

Lelia Green and Sarah Pink

This themed issue of MIA advances our understanding of how digital media are implicated in processes of change. It interrogates how people engage digital media in creative practices that lead to interventions in their own or others’ lives, and explores the intentionalities through which they do this, and the processes and experiences such activities involve. The intention is to bring to the fore the idea of intervening as a way of being active in the world – as a scholar, creative practitioner, activist or simply someone living their everyday life in ways that seek to generate forms of change. The articles in this issue address the use of creative interventions for affective and community-constructing ends, examining and highlighting the conscious use of the digital to disrupt and subvert existing patterns in communication and culture, heralding new possibilities while promoting inclusivity and social innovation.

The ‘Make It Possible’ multimedia campaign: Generating a new ‘everyday’ in animal welfare

Debbie Rodan and Jane Mummery

Although livestock welfare issues were once barely visible to mainstream consumers, animal welfare activists now combine traditional public media advocacy with digital media advocacy to spread their campaign message and mobilise consumers. This article examines one attempt to mainstream animal welfare issues: Animals Australia’s ‘Make It Possible’ multimedia campaign. Specifically, we contend that the campaign puts into circulation an ‘affective economy’ (Ahmed, 2004a, 2004b) aimed at proposing and entrenching new modes of everyday behaviour. Core affective positions and their circulation in this economy are considered from three interrelated articulations of this campaign: the release of and public response to the YouTube campaign video; Coles’ short-lived offering of campaign shopping bags; and public engagement in the ‘My Make It Possible Story’ website. Analysis also opens up broader questions concerning the relationship between online activism and everyday life, asking how articulations in one domain translate to everyday practices.

Natural heritage conservation and eco-digital poiesis: A Western Australian example

John Charles Ryan

A city of biodiversity, Perth in Western Australia faces significant environmental challenges. As species and habitats vanish, so too can their biocultural heritage. To address biological and cultural decline, FloraCultures is a digital conservation initiative that uses archival, ethnographic and design approaches to conserve and promote Perth’s ‘botanical heritage’. This article examines the project’s conceptual foundations in terms of nature/culture, tangible/intangible and thinking/making dualisms, as well as some of the practical strategies used to address these dualisms. To articulate biocultural heritage, I have had to rethink categorical oppositions through ecopoiesis – the making of interactive digital objects as informed by ecological discourses. The repository being developed will incorporate cultural materials (texts, visual art, interview recordings, music and video) not conventionally associated with environmental conservation. Key community-building approaches, such as focus groups and crowdsourcing, discussed later in the article, provide digitally based interventions into biocultural heritage loss that reflect the ecopoietic basis of FloraCultures.

A digital archive in the circus: Between the archive and the repertoire

David Carlin

This article discusses the phenomenon of the digital archive, in the context of performance practice and studies, as a potential liminal performance space blurring the boundaries between archive and repertoire (Taylor 2003). It takes the Circus Oz Living Archive as a case study to examine the opportunities and challenges facing cultural organisations wanting to take charge of the multimodal telling of their own histories, as digital technologies impact on practices of remembrance, archiving and performance in the cultural sector. The governing metaphor of the archive shifts from the spatial – a site of recorded memory – to the temporal – an unfolding event of memory. This presents a great challenge for a performing arts company like Circus Oz, which already faces the task of delivering its live show to audiences around the world. How does such a company think through the many issues arising in relation to adding this new digital performance to its repertoire?

Bodies under glass: Gay dating apps and the affect-image

Tom Penney

There is a rise in the popularity of gay dating apps for smartphones that depict bodies under the glass of screens. The application Grindr is one such system, as well as Hornet, Scruff, Jack’d and many others. Recent literature draws attention to how Grindr perpetuates reductive stereotypes fetishised and consumed by a narcissistic homosexual market. Through Gilles Deleuze’s concept of affectionimage, I think through how images of bodies on these apps are transmitting or receiving affect. I then discuss some of my own artwork in light of this inquiry, in which I particularly consider the role of judgemental swipe-gestures and how they parallel the treatment of individuals’ bodies as objects: disposable, manipulable and exchangeable. Through this artwork and its discussion, I aim to extend critical discourse concerning the treatment and reception of other subjects in gay online communities, as well as the examination of bodies, fetish and sexuality by artists of contemporary media more generally.

‘Show me your Slugline and I’ll let you have the Firstlook’: Some thoughts on today’s digital screenwriting tools and apps

Craig Batty

Today’s market is inundated with digital screenwriting tools and apps. From the introduction of formatting software that promised to give writers access to industry standard screenplay layout (Final Draft, Celtx) comes an era in which technologists are seeking to influence screenwriting practice itself (Scrivener, Slugline, Plotbot, StorySkeleton). Although perhaps not as explicit in their claims of success as the plethora of seminars by screenwriting ‘gurus’, digital tools and apps do in some ways promise a range of solutions to everyday screenwriting problems, at the very least by assuring users that they will help manage the logistics that often get in the way of creativity. But what do these digital interventions actually do? Do they shape creative practice, or merely provide tools to format a screenwriter’s existing ideas? Do they help the writing process, or the processing of writing? This article examines some of the digital screenwriting tools and apps on the current market, and examines what they offer script development and writing practice. By reflecting on my own involvement in an online screenplay assessment platform, the article also suggests how embracing pedagogical aspects of screenwriting might give digital tools and apps the opportunity to help shape creative practice.

Using digitally distributed vulgar comedy to reach young men with information about healthy sexual development

Alan McKee, Anthony Walsh and Anne-Frances Watson

Focus groups show that young men do not have available to them the same resources to learn about healthy sexual development as do young women. A collaborative project led by a leading provider of sexuality education aimed to reach young men with information about healthy sexual development by using a genre that focus groups showed they favoured – vulgar comedy. This project raised two important issues. First, comedy is ambivalent – it is by definition not serious or worthy. This challenges health communication, which traditionally favours the clear presentation of correct information. Second, vulgarity can be challenging to the institutions of health communication, which can be concerned that it is inappropriate or offensive. This article addresses these issues and reports on the materials that emerged from the project.

Queering sexting and sexualisation

Kath Albury and Paul Byron

Recent Australian research on ‘sexting’ (the production and exchange of naked and semi-naked digital pictures) has observed that formal legal and educational discourses have failed to fully account for young people’s understandings and experiences. While there is a proliferation of scholarly and popular texts focusing on the risks that sexting might pose to young (heterosexual) women, there is a relative absence of academic, educational or popular discourse acknowledging same sex-attracted young people’s participation in cultures of creating and sharing pictures via dating and hook-up apps. This article draws on focus-group interviews with young people in Sydney (aged 18–26) to present alternative accounts of sexting, and reflect on same sex-attracted men and women’s strategies for negotiating safety and risk within online and offline sexual cultures.

‘It’s all about the apps’: Parental mediation of pre-schoolers’ digital lives

Donell Holloway, Lelia Green and Carlie Love

A young mother with a two-year-old and a four-year-old is asked about her experience of parenting. ‘I can’t believe how much is different,’ she says, ‘between the first child and the second. It’s all about the apps.’ Elsewhere in the room, the two pre-schoolers are absorbed in collaborative play with an iPad. Across the continent, a distant relative prepares for a pre-arranged Skype session with her young niece and nephew. She wonders whether the youngest, who has never video-conferenced before, will recognise and talk to her. These children are growing up with a game changer. What had been hailed as ‘the Semantic Web’ is turning out to be something creatively different. This article uses a series of vignettes to examine the power of the app, from Playschool Playtime to Skype, to highlight, analyse and discuss young children’s (aged from birth to five) digital interventions facilitated by a download and touchscreen technologies.

Reviews in This Issue

Aitken, Ian (ed.), The Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film
Al-Suwaidi, Jamal S., From Tribe to Facebook: The Transformational Role of Social Networks
Berry, David and Kamau, Caroline, Public Policy and Media Organizations
Burdick, Anne, Drucker, Johanna, Lunenfeld, Peter, Presner, Todd and Schnapp, Jeffrey (eds), Digital_Humanities
Carlsson, Ulla (ed.), Freedom of Expression Revisited: Citizenship and Journalism in the Digital Era
Chouliaraki, Lilie, The Ironic Spectator: Solidarity in the Age of Post-Humanitarianism
Dubber, Andrew, Radio in the Digital Age
Forshaw, Barry, The Silence of the Lambs
Gregg, Melissa, Work’s Intimacy
Harrington, Stephen, Australian TV News: New Forms, Functions and Futures
Heitner, Devorah, Black Power TV
Howley, Kevin (ed.), Media Interventions
Johnson, Derek, Media Franchising: Creative License and Collaboration in the Culture Industries
Joseph, Ralina L., Transcending Blackness: From the New Millennium Mulatta to the Exceptional Multiracial
Kim, Kyung Hyung and Choe,Youngmin (eds), The Korean Popular Culture Reader
Scherer, Jay and Rowe, David (eds), Sport, Public Broadcasting, andCultural Citizenship: Signal Lost?
Scholz, Trebor (ed.), Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory
S
torsul, Tanja and Krumsvik, Arne H. (eds), Media Innovations: A Multidisciplinary Study of Change
Trappel, Josef, Nieminen, Hannu and Nord, Lars (eds), The Media for Democracy Monitor: A Cross National Study of Leading News Media
Wallis, Cara, Technomobility in China: Young Migrant Women and Mobile Phones
Yano, Christine, Globalization: Hello Kitty’s Trek Across the Pacific

 

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