Computer Games: Co-Creation and Regulation

No 130, February 2009
Theme Editor: Sal Humphreys

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Abstracts

Contents

Editorial

Gerard Goggin

ANZCA News

Jocelyn Williams

General Articles

Future audiences for Australian stories: Industry responses in a post-Web 2.0 world

Julia de Roeper and Susan Luckman

Balancing the digital democratic deficit? e-Government

Julie Freeman and Brett Hutchins

‘The Australian we all aspire to be’: Commemorative journalism and the death of the Crocodile Hunter

Folker Hanusch

A support withdrawn: ‘ Spain’s 9/11’ and Australian newspaper framing

Glen Donnar

Computer Games: Co-Creation and Regulation

Computer games: Co-creation and regulation

Sal Humphreys

Discursive constructions of MMOGs and some implications for policy and regulation

Sal Humphreys

Productive play 2.0: The logic of in-game advertising

Mark Andrejevic

Co-creative expertise: Auran Games and Fury — a case study

John Banks

On the (partially) inalienable rights of participants in virtual communities

Nicolas Suzor

Electronic contracts: A law unto themselves?

Dale Clapperton

Informing our own choices: A proposal for user-generated classification

Jeffrey Brand and Mark Finn

Reviews

Edited by Susan Bye

Abstracts

 

Julia de Roeper and Susan Luckman
Future audiences for Australian stories: Industry responses in a post-Web 2.0 world

The development of global social networking sites using Web 2.0 technologies (MySpace, Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, Flickr, etc.) is signalling a shift in media usage towards an environment in which the distinction between producer and consumer is less clearly defined. While audiences still demand and enjoy a quality professional product, their active personal experience of media production means that they are no longer content to remain outside the production process. This paper outlines the first part of a multi-stage research project that is monitoring responses on both sides of the divide. Through analysis of media coverage, policy reports, submissions to government and interviews with a number of senior executives in leading Australian screen agencies and industry organisations, we have identified four distinct categories of Australian film industry response to technological change and shifts in media consumption, provisionally referred to as ‘Denial’, ‘Panic’, ‘Embrace’ and ‘Co-create’. In this paper, we offer a critical examination of these responses.

 

Julie Freeman and Brett Hutchins
Balancing the digital democratic deficit? e-Government
This article responds to Thomas’s (2004) call for investigation into how the internet and World Wide Web are changing government in Australia. It first discusses e-government principles and policies at the federal level, and then investigates initiatives and events in one of Australia’s most populous municipalities, the City of Casey in Melbourne’s southeast. The objective of this approach is to understand the broader context of e-government policy formulation in Australia, and connect
this to the level of local government in order to understand the features and dynamics of existing e-government mechanisms. The evidence generated from this approach reveals an imbalance between service delivery and civic engagement in e-government strategies, with the emphasis on consumer-oriented service delivery far outweighing civic participation and political dialogue. The analysis that follows outlines actual and potential political problems flowing from this imbalance — or ‘digital democratic deficit’ — and offers suggestions on how equilibrium might be restored.

 

Folker Hanusch
The Australian we all aspire to be’: Commemorative journalism and the death of the Crocodile Hunter
This article examines the news coverage generated in Australia by the death of Steve Irwin, widely known as the Crocodile Hunter. In line with past research on commemorative journalism, the study demonstrates the dominant discourses employed in the reporting of Irwin’s death. It is argued that Australia’s newspapers invoked a number of national myths, such as mateship, larrikinism and anti-elitism, in order to reassert notions of Australian identity and social values and to deal with the widespread grief over his loss. Most importantly, the study sheds new light on how news media deal with challenges to the dominant memorialising discourse. Past studies had not been able to investigate alternative discourses in much detail, but in examining Irwin’s death we are able to see how the media deal with such an unwanted interruption. It is argued that newspapers appropriated the alternative perspective within the mythical terms of their memorialising discourse, thereby not allowing it to disrupt the memorialisation itself and in fact further strengthening the process of mythologising the Crocodile Hunter.

 

Glen Donnar
A support withdrawn: ‘Spain’s 9/11’ and Australian newspaper framing
This study represents an attempt to redress the neglect of academic research into coverage of the Madrid train bombings through a content analysis of major Australian newspapers in the immediate aftermath (12–21 March 2004). It quantifies a sudden and significant shift in representation from a ‘support for Spain’ news frame following the bombings to a ‘criticism of Spain’ frame following the Spanish national election result only three days later. Australian newspapers made support for a terrorised Spain conditional on a politics of representation marked by the ‘war on terror’ as a master frame, and served to reflect the political interests and sponsored interpretation of government sources. The moral implications of this withdrawal of support for the Spanish cannot be under-estimated, for it suggests that Australian newspapers were prepared to contribute to an ‘erosion’ of compassion for recent victims of terrorism.

 

Sal Humphreys
Computer games: Co-creation and regulation
This introduction to the special issue on games, co-creation and regulation introduces some key concepts arising from the phenomenon of user-generated content in interactive media environments such as online computer games. It canvasses the work of the seven authors who have contributed to the special issue, covering a range of areas such as advertising and surveillance, participatory design, end user licence agreements, user-generated classification and participant rights.

 

Sal Humphreys
Discursive constructions of MMOGs and some implications for policy and regulation
This paper examines how the production of interactive, co-creative software such as multiplayer online games differs from conventional media production, and how stakeholders employ different discursive constructions to understand those environments. The convergence of forms and functions, and the emergence of new structures that cross pre-existent regulatory and policy boundaries, mean that the discourses adopted to describe these environments and enact regulation and control need to be examined for the particular interests they represent. The paper canvasses six different discourses about online social software such as games, and briefly discusses the implications of each for areas such as intellectual property, classification, governance, data privacy, creative industries and global crossjurisdictional infrastructures.

Mark Andrejevic
Productive play 2.0: The logic of in-game advertising
Online video games are helping to pioneer the use of interactive advertising that targets consumers based on information about their behaviour, consumption patterns, and other demographic and psychographic information. This article draws on the example of in-game ads to explore some of the ways in which advertisers harness virtual worlds to marketing imperatives, and equate realism and authenticity with the proliferation of commercial messages. Since video games have the potential to serve as a model for other forms of marketing both online and off, the way in which they are being used to exploit interactivity as a form of commercial monitoring has broader implications for the digital economy.

John Banks
Co-creative expertise: Auran Games and Fury — a case study
This article discusses the ways in which the relations among professional and nonprofessional participants in co-creative relations are being reconfigured as part of the shift from a closed industrial paradigm of expertise towards open and distributed expertise networks. This article draws on ethnographic consultancy research undertaken throughout 2007 with Auran Games, a Brisbane, Australia-based games developer, to explore the co-creative relationships between professional developers and gamers. This research followed and informed Auran’s online community management and social networking strategies for Fury (http://unleashthefury.com), a massively multiplayer online game released in October 2007. This paper argues that these co-creative forms of expertise involve coordinating expertise through social-network markets.

Nicolas Suzor
On the (partially) inalienable rights of participants in virtual communities
As virtual communities become more central to the everyday activities of connected individuals, we face increasingly pressing questions about the proper allocation of power, rights and responsibilities. This paper argues that our current legal discourse is ill-equipped to provide answers that will safeguard the legitimate interests of participants and simultaneously refrain from limiting the future innovative development of these spaces. From social networking sites like Facebook to virtual worlds like World of Warcraft and Second Life, participants who are banned from these communities stand to lose their virtual property, their connections to their friends and family, and their personal expression. Because our legal system views the proprietor’s interests as absolute private property rights, however, participants who are arbitrarily, capriciously or maliciously ejected have little recourse under law. This paper argues that, rather than assuming that a private property and freedom of contract model will provide the most desirable outcomes, a more critical approach is warranted. By rejecting the false dichotomy between ‘public’ and ‘private’ spaces, and recognising some of the absolutist and necessitarian trends in the current property debate, we may be able to craft legal rules that respect the social bonds between participants while simultaneously protecting the interests of developers.

Dale Clapperton
Electronic contracts: A law unto themselves?
Electronic contracts, however described, are everywhere in the digital environment. In computer games, they govern the relationship not only between the gamer and the game publisher, but the gamer and the game. Yet, despite their ubiquity, their substantive content receives relatively little attention. Consumers assent without reading them, and publishers and their lawyers adopt oppressive contracts, seemingly without thought for the rights of their customers. Whether a market failure or a rational response, electronic contracting seems to be stuck in a vicious cycle of apathy and indifference. This paper explores these issues, as well as examples of games-related electronic contracts, common terms in such contracts, and how those contracts might be affected areas of law including contract, copyright, competition and consumer protection. Might these areas of law provide a stimulus for ‘clickwrap reform’?

Jeffrey Brand and Mark Finn
Informing our own choices: A proposal for user-generated classification
New media are distrusted media, and computer games are the contemporary currency in new media. Computer game content, like other popular media content, is regulated in different jurisdictions by one of three general models: the open market in which consumption decides the availability of product, industry self-regulation in which industry bodies decide, and government regulation in which government or quasi-governmental bodies decide. Arguably, these models represent the twentieth century state of the art and fail to keep pace with changes in the aesthetics and technologies associated with interactive entertainment. In a networked economy, alternative models exist to serve content gatekeeping functions, and they serve to close the lags and limitations that plague existing models. These alternatives include innovations such as user-generated classification and dynamic meta-tagging. This paper examines current classification approaches and their limitations, and presents alternative approaches with a hypothetical game title.

Reviews
Edited by Susan Bye
In this issue
Barfield, Ray, A Word from Our Viewers: Reflections from Early Television Audiences
Baron, Naomi S., Always On: Language in an Online and Mobile World
Breit, Rhonda, Law and Ethics for Professional Communicators
Bruns, Axel, Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage
Caldwell, John Thornton, Production Culture: Industrial Reflexivity and Critical Practice in Film and Television
Chu, Yingchi, Chinese Documentaries: From Dogma to Polyphony
Cooper, Sally, A Burqa and a Hard Place: Three Years in the New Afghanistan
Ekström, K. M. and Tufte, B. (eds), Children, Media and Consumption: On the Front Edge
Giblett, Rod, Sublime Communication Technologies
Hilmes, Michele (ed.), NBC: America’s Network
Lam, Adam and Oryshchuk, Nataliya (eds), How We Became Middle Earth: A Collection of Essays on The Lord of The Rings
Marolf, Gerald, Advergaming and In-Game Advertising: An Approach to the Next Generation of Advertising
Ott, Brian L., The Small Screen: How Television Equips Us to Live in the Information Age
Sconce, Jeffrey (ed.), Sleaze Artists: Cinema at the Margins of Taste, Style and Politics
Sparks, Colin, Globalization, Development and the Mass Media
Tremayne, Mark (ed.), Blogging, Citizenship and the Future of Media
Winseck, Dwayne R. and Pike, Robert M., Communication and Empire: Media, Markets and Globalization

 


 

 

 

 

Australian Media Reception Histories

No 131, May 2009
Theme Editors: Michelle Arrow, Bridget Griffen-Foley and Marnie Hughes-Warrington

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Abstracts

 

Contents

Editorial

Gerard Goggin

ANZCA News

Jocelyn Williams

General Articles

Henry Mayer Lecture 2009: From Dallas to SBS: The popular, the global and the diverse on television

Ien Ang

When TV formats migrate: The languages of business and culture

Albert Moran

Diversity reportage in metropolitan Oceania: The mantra and the reality

David Robie

Representing Australianness: Our national identity brought to you by Today Tonight

Damian McIver

Nerds in the city: Flight of the Conchords makes good television humour

Mike Lloyd

Australian Media Reception Histories

Australian media reception histories

Michelle Arrow, Bridget Griffen-Foley and Marnie Hughes-Warrington

'Reading in brown paper': Beckett’s Budget and the sensationalist press in interwar Sydney

Sophie Loy-Wilson

Limit of maps? Locality and cinema-going in Australia

Kate Bowles

Beyond media ‘platforms’? Talkback, radio, technology and audience

Liz Gould

Desiring the (popular feminist) reader: Letters to Cleo during the second wave

Megan Le Masurier

Debating the barrel girl: The rise and fall of Panda Lisner

Susan Bye

How to be a man: Masculinity in Australian teen culture and American teen movies

Scott McKinnon

Remembering Changi: Public memory and the popular media

Paula Hamilton

The decline of traditional news and current affairs audiences in Australia

Sally Young

Reviews

Edited by Susan Bye

Abstracts

 

Ien Ang
Henry Mayer Lecture 2009: From Dallas to SBS: The popular, the global and the diverse on television
In her 2009 Henry Mayer Lecture, presented in Brisbane in March, Ien Ang reflects on her own work on global and popular television cultures, spanning almost 25 years. In particular, she traces the intellectual continuity from her first, classic book, Watching Dallas, published in 1985, to her last book, The SBS Story, published in 2008, from the point of view of her own experience as a migrant.

 

Albert Moran
When TV formats migrate: The languages of business and culture
Debate concerning media globalisation is paralleled by discussion of the emergence of a world language system. Will we all watch the same television programs and discuss them in English in the future? This article examines the dual linguistic structure which underlines the international circulation of TV program formats. It suggests that there is increasing homogeneity concerning business dealings to do with TV formats, even while there is increasing linguistic diversity so far as the cultural reception and understanding of formatted programs are concerned.

 

David Robie
Diversity reportage in metropolitan Oceania: The mantra and the reality
Aotearoa/New Zealand has the largest Polynesian population in Oceania. Three Pacific microstates now have more than 70 per cent of their population living in New Zealand. Projected demographics by Statistics New Zealand indicate that the Pacific and indigenous Māori populations could grow by 59 and 29 per cent respectively by 2026. The Asian population will increase even more dramatically over that period, by almost doubling. Māori, Pasifika and ethnic media in New Zealand are also steadily expanding, with major implications for the ‘mainstream’ media industry and journalism educators. For more than two decades, diversity has been a growing mantra for the Aotearoa/New Zealand media. Initially, the concept of biculturalism — partnership with the indigenous tangata whenua —was pre-eminent in the debate but, as the nation’s Māori, Pasifika and ethnic media have flourished and matured, and demographics have rapidly changed, multiculturalism and multicultural media strategies have become increasingly important. This paper examines the regional trends in Oceania, the growth of the indigenous and ethnic media, and their impact on the mainstream in New Zealand as an outpost of globalised media. It also looks at the evolving initiatives to address the challenges.

 

Damian McIver
Representing Australianness: Our national identity brought to you by Today Tonight
Since first being broadcast in 1995, Today Tonight has become one of Australia’s most watched current affairs programs. It has also arguably become one of the most talked about and controversial programs on Australian television. This article explores the links between Today Tonight and discourses of Australian identity. By placing this program within a theoretical tradition that views television as a cultural storyteller, this article explores the complex and somewhat contradictory representations of the Australian identity made by the Today Tonight text. It will argue that, throughout a range of representations — from the discourse of the ‘Aussie battler’ to contrasting depictions of Australian society under threat and in decay, or as a place of opportunity — Today Tonight maintains a steady focus on ‘ordinary Australians’ as its main target audience and the bearers of our true national identity.

 

Mike Lloyd
Nerds in the city: Flight of the Conchords makes good television humour
First screened in 2007 on HBO television, Flight of the Conchords has received the best international reception of any New Zealand-based television comedy. The series shows the two Kiwis, Bret and Jemaine — a musical duo — bumbling their way through trying to make it in New York. The failure scenario could have led to the typical sitcom fare of conflicting personalities with specific character types as the butt of humour; however, Flight of the Conchords avoids this standard route, and this may partly explain its popularity. Details are provided of exactly how the series makes ‘good’ humour, with a beginning contrast made to the Australian television series Kath and Kim, which has ridicule at its heart. Turnbull (2004) has pinpointed some unease about comedy based on ridicule, and specifically identifies genre mixing as a source of concern in Kath and Kim. In contrast, Flight of the Conchords, while getting close to ridicule, successfully avoids condescension by a different mix of genres and material.

 

Michelle Arrow, Bridget Griffen-Foley, and Marnie Hughes-Warrington
Australian media reception histories
As the field of Australian media history expands, so too does the need for a broader and more innovative range of questions, issues and debates. This special issue of MIA responds to that need by considering the sources and research questions raised by media reception historians working on film, radio, television and the press. From print to new media, the papers assembled highlight the ingenuity of Australian historians working to recover the experiences of audiences in urban and regional settings.

 

Sophie Loy-Wilson
‘Reading in brown paper’: Beckett’s Budget and the sensationalist press in interwar Sydney
This article addresses the audience reception of sensationalist newspapers in interwar Australia through a case study of Sydney weekly Beckett’s Budget. During a libel trial brought against Beckett’s in 1928, readers came to its defence and their testimony reveals overlaps between reading and political allegiances: reading Beckett’s equated with voting Labor. While histories of sensationalist media in Australia have rightly emphasised illicit sexuality and public outcry, connections between sensationalism and working-class political movements remain on the margins of academic interest. Responding to the question ‘Do you read Beckett’s?’ readers’ evidence at the trial constitutes an audience response and invites debate over the ways gender and class could inform political engagement in the 1920s. Viewing Beckett’s Budget outside of ‘brown paper’ and beyond the sensationalist genre reveals a shift in Australian political culture as party strategists embraced a broader electorate, using Beckett’s Budget to tap into the culture and concerns of interwar society.

 

Kate Bowles
Limit of maps? Locality and cinema-going in Australia
Cinema-going is a cultural experience shaped by logistics and mobility, as film distributors and exhibitors operate to enable films to be screened in places and at times when audiences can physically assemble to view them together. A historical understanding of the geography of cinema distribution, exhibition and attendance can therefore help us to understand what factors other than the choice of film title may have shaped the experience of the cinema audience. This article uses samples of trade commentary on small country cinemas in the late 1920s from the Australian trade journal Everyones, and suggests that historical GIS maps could help us to understand regional differences in the cinema-going experience, or track phenomena such as the diffusion of racial and social segregation in cinemas. Nevertheless, we need to remain mindful of the limits of maps to adequately explain the cultural experience of encountering these phenomena.

 

Liz Gould
Beyond media ‘platforms’? Talkback, radio, technology and audience
Technology has had an important influence on the constitution and participation of the commercial metropolitan radio audience. The introduction of ‘open-line’ radio from the 1960s was heralded as a novelty for audience participation in radio programming, but was hindered by technical impediments to the quality of telephone and radio recording technologies. In the 1990s, the advent of mobile telephony liberated talkback listeners from their anchoring in the domestic sphere. This article examines how successive media technologies have influenced the experience of commercial radio audiences from the 1960s through to the present. Acknowledging the increasing convergence between traditional media platforms and content, it considers whether newer technologies such as the internet are fundamentally altering the shape and function of listener participation in commercial metropolitan radio programs.

 

Megan Le Masurier
Desiring the (popular feminist) reader: Letters to Cleo during the second wave
The second wave of feminism in Australia became a popular reality for ordinary women through many forms of media, and especially through the new women’s magazine Cleo. The reader letters published in Cleo throughout the 1970s provide rich, if productively problematic, evidence for the media historian’s desire to interpret the meanings readers can make from magazines. In this case, the desire is to understand how younger, ordinary (non-activist) Australian women made sense of the immense challenge of feminism. Through letters written in response to Cleo’s feminist journalism (and journalism about feminism), it is clear that a popular feminism was being experienced in the period of the second wave.

 

Susan Bye
Debating the barrel girl: The rise and fall of Panda Lisner
The letters published in Melbourne’s three TV magazines (Listener In-TV, TV Week and TV Times) during the establishment period of the city’s television service offer an insight into a number of the issues, concerns and interests that were a feature of the public negotiation of television during this period, as well as attesting to an understanding that the local production landscape was a shared enterprise answerable to the viewers who supported it. The vociferous discussions that took place in the public arena of the letters pages were not necessarily representative of any general response to the city’s TV service, but they unsettle the idea that TV was something that ‘happened to’ viewers who would soak up whatever entertainment was on offer. In this discussion, I explore the role and function of these print-based TV forums by focusing on the correspondence generated by In Melbourne Tonight’s most famous barrel girl, Panda Lisner, whose changing fortunes demonstrated the determination of a number of viewers to play a participatory, even regulatory, role in the Melbourne production landscape.

 

Scott McKinnon
How to be a man: Masculinity in Australian teen culture and American teen movies
This paper examines the reception of American teen films by Australian audiences in the 1950s, focusing specifically on issues of masculinity and sexuality. Using material gathered from sources such as oral history interviews, autobiographical writing and Australian media reports, an attempt is made to locate the films as one element in a developing local culture based more on age than nationality. The paper argues that, screened within the context of a society which defined masculine behaviour in the light of the ideals of war, a range of popular American films and their stars acted to complicate the idea of what it meant to be male. Audiences were offered new, or at least more ambiguous, notions of gender and sexuality. These changes caused concern among some Australian adults, as they watched the teenage boys of the nation learn how to be men.

 

Paula Hamilton
Remembering Changi: Public memory and the popular media
Media arenas are increasingly the place where most of our negotiation over the meaning of the past is carried out. Indeed, many commentators argue that television plays a particularly central role in the shaping of social memory. This paper seeks to examine how the various forms of media are changing the relationship between personal (and often silent) memories and public ones by asking what happens when personal memories of experience, which are not passed on within families — or only in a limited way — finally become public. I argue here that television and the internet, as increasingly interdependent cultural forms, have an important role in mediating between the personal experience and the public memory of events, as well as between genders and generations. As a case study, I examine the audience response to the television series Changi, aired on the ABC in 2001, using comments posted on the Changi guestbook internet forum. From this example, I examine how technologies of popular culture — especially new digital media — interact to create new ‘publics’, thus both increasing democratisation and access for individuals and also encompassing much larger collectives than in former times.

 

Sally Young
The decline of traditional news and current affairs audiences in Australia
With attention focused on the battle for news ratings between Channels Seven and Nine, an underlying trend has tended to go unnoticed: audiences have been switching off televised news and current affairs programs since the 1990s. Drawing on detailed OzTAM ratings, this article shows how this is particularly true for specific audience segments. Allied with this is the longer-term decline in newspaper circulation. These data raise a central question: are Australians merely switching off ‘outdated’ media such as TV and newspapers (and getting their news from somewhere else such as the internet), or are they switching off the genre of news/current affairs altogether? This article weighs the evidence and concludes that the news audience is fragmenting in particular ways, especially by age, and that some (but certainly not all) groups are going online for news.

 

Reviews edited by Susan Bye

In this issue:

Burchett, George and Shimmin, Nick (eds), Rebel Journalism: The Writings of Wilfred Burchett
Cunningham, Stuart, In the Vernacular: A Generation of Australian Culture and Controversy
Elder, Catriona, Being Australian: Narratives of National Identity
Gibson, Mark, Culture and Power: A History of Cultural Studies
Goggin, Gerard (ed.), Mobile Phone Cultures
Hartley, John, Television Truths
Hjorth, Larissa, Mobile Media in the Asia-Pacific: Gender and the Art of Being Mobile
Homan, Shane and Mitchell, Tony (eds), Sounds of Then, Sounds of Now: Popular Music in Australia
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn (ed.), Interface://Culture: The World Wide Web as Political Resource and Aesthetic Form
Landry, Charles, The Creative City: A Toolkit for Urban Innovators
Larkin, Brian, Signal and Noise: Media, Infrastructure and Urban Culture in Nigeria
Lehman, Niels, Qvortrup, Lars and Walther, Bo Kampmann (eds), The Concept of the Network Society: Post-Ontological Reflections
Lewis, Tania, Smart Living: Lifestyle Media and Popular Expertise
Marx, Karl, Dispatches for the New York Tribune: Selected Journalism of Karl Marx
McChesney, Robert W., The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues, Emerging Dilemmas
McQuire, Scott, The Media City: Media, Architecture and Urban Space
Poletti, Anna, Intimate Ephemera: Reading Young Lives in Australian Zine Culture
Siegel, Lee, Against the Machine: Being Human in the Age of the Electronic Mob
Spurgeon, Christina, Advertising and New Media
Storsul, Tanja and Stuedahl, Dagny (eds), Ambivalence Towards Convergence: Digitalization and Media Change
Van Vuuren, Kitty, Participation in Community Broadcasting: A Comparison of Rural, Regional and Remote Radio
Williams, Linda, Screening Sex

 

General Issue

No 132, August 2009
Editor: Sue Turnbull

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Abstracts

Contents

Editorial

Sue Turnbull

ANZCA News

Jocelyn Williams

General Articles

‘Blokey’ newsroom culture

Louise North

Australian journalists and commitment to organisational change: A longitudinal study

Brian L. Massey and Jacqui Ewart

Farewell old friend or bye-bye bully boy? The closure of a ‘media icon’ and challenging the ‘free press’ paradigm

Michael Bromley and Regan Neal

How the camel got in the tent: The Canadian assault on Australia’s foreign media ownership limits

Marc Edge

Is Doctor Who Australian?

Alan McKee

PlaySchool keeps it real

Lisa Hill

Getting creative in health care

Janet Pagan, Stuart Cunningham and Peter Higgs

Sleeping with the enemy: Disintermediation in internet advertising

John Sinclair and Rowan Wilken

Regional variations on a global theme: Formatting television for the Middle East and beyond

Amos Owen Thomas

Bothering about broadband: Review essay

Jock Given

Reviews

Edited by Susan Bye

Abstracts

 

Louise North
‘Blokey’ newsroom culture

This paper seeks to address the gap in Australian media studies and feminist media scholarship relating to the way newsroom culture is embodied. How does the numerical dominance of men in journalism, particularly in decision-making roles, affect newsroom culture? How do male and female journalists understand this inequality? The paper first briefly attends to research into occupational culture and feminist theories of the body to address the central question ‘How is newsroom culture embodied?’ It then engages with this question more thoroughly via an analysis of my own interviews with 17 Australian male and female print news media journalists. It finds that, even though women have entered the industry in unprecedented numbers, a ‘blokey’ or hegemonic masculinity continues to shape news newsroom culture.

 

Brian L. Massey and Jacqui Ewart
Australian journalists and commitment to organisational change: A longitudinal study

This paper investigates the commitment of journalists to change programs, which is a previously unexplored aspect of organisational change. Studies of organisational change in newsrooms have until now focused on journalists’ attitudes to change, rather than their commitment to change. This paper draws on the findings of a longitudinal survey of Australian journalists involved in an ongoing corporate change program in order to enrich the literature and theory-building around corporate change in media organisations. The organisational science literature is used to explore whether commitment to change operates among journalists in similar ways to other types of workers. The data are drawn from three annual surveys of journalists in 14 newsrooms operated by the Australian corporation APN News & Media. The paper explores the trajectory of the journalists’ commitment to APN’s corporate-change program across more than three years of change. Although the study is limited in that it examines only one media organisation’s change program, it has implications for those researching in the field of organisational change in newsrooms — particularly at a theoretical level. It also has practical implications for those managing, planning and implementing change at the newsroom level.

 

Michael Bromley and Regan Neal
Farewell old friend or bye-bye bully boy? The closure of a ‘media icon’ and challenging the ‘free press’ paradigm
The closure of The Bulletin magazine was widely reported and commented on by journalists and others in the media who sought to apportion blame for this rupture, to explain it as an aberration and to reassert the norm of the ‘free’ press and the Fourth Estate. In the past, such paradigm repair would have gone unchallenged as those in the media controlled what appeared there. With the advent of accessible digital information and communication technologies, however, members of the public are encouraged to have their say. This study compared the ways in which journalists and their sources and members of the public framed the closure of The Bulletin. In the era of dialogic mediated communications, journalists and others in the media can no longer assume that contrary voices will be silenced.

 

Marc Edge
How the camel got in the tent: The Canadian assault on Australia’s foreign media ownership limits
Before 1991, Australia enforced strict limits on foreign ownership of licensed broadcasters and also limited foreign ownership of newspaper publishers. In the early 1990s, however, a pair of Canadian entrepreneurs succeeded in first raising and then circumventing those limits. Conrad Black bought 15 per cent of the Fairfax newspaper chain in 1992, and shortly before the ensuing national election lobbied to increase his stake to 25 per cent. In his 1993 autobiography, Black described backroom political dealings that resulted in a Senate inquiry. The Australian Broadcasting Authority soon began an investigation into another Canadian challenging the country’s foreign media ownership limits. Israel ‘Izzy’ Asper, a former tax lawyer, found a way to legally purchase 57.5 per cent of Network Ten in 1992 by holding 42.5 per cent in the form of non-voting debentures. The ABA absolved his CanWest Global Communications of controlling Network Ten in 1995. Non-voting shares were outlawed in 1997, but CanWest was allowed to retain its debentures. The inquiries into Canadian purchases contributed to a decade-long process of re-evaluating media ownership limits that resulted in restrictions on foreign ownership being eliminated in 2006.

 

Alan McKee
Is Doctor Who Australian?
As part of an ARC Discovery project to write a history of Australian television from the point of view of audiences, I looked for Australian television fan communities. It transpired that the most productive communities exist around imported programming like the BBC’s Doctor Who. This program is an Australian television institution, and I was therefore interested in finding out whether it should be included in an audience-centred history of Australian television. Research in archives of fan materials showed that the program has been made distinctively Australian through censorship and scheduling practices. There are uniquely Australian social practices built around it. Also, its very Britishness has become part of its being — in a sense — Australian. Through all of this, there is a clear awareness that this Australian institution originates somewhere else — that for these fans Australia is always secondary, relying on other countries to produce its myths for it, no matter how much it might reshape them.

 

Lisa Hill
Play School
keeps it real
This article examines the television show Play School and the consistency with which it has engaged Australian children for over 40 years. Drawing on Susan Howard’s findings that relate the effects of television on children to their perceptions of reality, Play School is deconstructed to reveal the techniques used to appeal to the pre-school aged child’s own experience of what is ‘real’. Examining episodes produced 20 years apart, these strategies are seen as constants throughout the show’s history, and are further shown to accommodate a changing socio-cultural landscape and remain relevant to their young audience.

 

Janet Pagan, Stuart Cunningham and Peter Higgs
Getting creative in health care
Health care accounts for a substantial and growing share of national expenditures, and Australia’s health-care system faces some unprecedented pressures. This paper examines the contribution of creative expertise and services to Australian health care. They are found to be making a range of contributions to the development and delivery of health-care goods and services, the initial training and ongoing professionalism of doctors and nurses, and the effective functioning of health-care buildings. Creative activities within health-care services are also undertaken by medical professionals and patients. Key functions that creative activities address are innovation and service delivery in information management and analysis, and making complex information comprehensible or more useful, assisting communication and reducing psycho-social and distance-mediated barriers, and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of services.

 

John Sinclair and Rowan Wilken
Sleeping with the enemy: Disintermediation in internet advertising
The advent of internet advertising has changed the basis of the intermediary role which the advertising agency traditionally has occupied between advertisers and the media. This is disintermediation, or ‘cutting out the middle man’. The intrinsic and distinctive properties of the internet as a commercial medium, and its interactive character, have given rise to the phenomenon of search advertising, which diminishes the need for an advertising agency. This article outlines and analyses the challenge which Google and the other search services pose to advertising agencies, and the strategies which the global advertising industry has been taking up in response. In particular, evidence of Google’s steps towards assuming the functions of an advertising agency, and even of a traditional advertising media owner, are canvassed, and set against an account of the global agency groups’ moves into specialist digital companies, and how they are working with the search services.

 

Amos Owen Thomas
Regional variations on a global theme: Formatting television for the Middle East and beyond
The issue of cultural interchange of foreign programming is growing ever more pertinent within the deregulated television industries of emergent economies and regions. Adaptation of global program formats has become a common practice around the world, though it has proven more challenging in the Middle East, in a context of variable religious conservatism, political freedoms and economic affluence. Drawing on case histories of format adaptations that have experienced differing degrees of success within the region, this paper develops inductively a typology for contingent creative strategies, namely replica, indigene, collage and hybrid. With an eye to targeting both advertisers and audiences, television networks and program producers might thus cater to diverse cultural sensibilities across sub-regional audiences when broadcasting regionally. Finally, the paper highlights under-researched issues surrounding media reproduction for geolinguistic regions.

 

Jock Given
Bothering about broadband: Review essay

Ergas, Henry, Wrong Number: Resolving Australia’s Telecommunications Impasse

Fletcher, Paul, Wired Brown Land? Telstra’s Battle for Broadband

Fotheringham, Vern and Sharma, Chetan, Wireless Broadband: Conflict and Convergence

 

Reviews edited by Susan Bye

In this issue:

Feature review

Albert Moran (with John Davies) responds to Terry Bolas, Screen Education: From Screen Education to Media Studies
Also in this issue
Babington, Bruce, A History of the New Zealand Fiction Feature Film
Banet-Weiser, Sarah, Chris, Cynthia and Freitas, Anthony, Cable Visions: Television Beyond Broadcasting
Bang, Henrik P. and Esmark, Anders (eds), New Publics With/out Democracy
Bell , Wendy, A Remote Possibility: The Battle for Imparja Television
Bennett, W. Lance, Lawrence, Regina G. and Livingston, Steve, When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina
Bloustien, Gerry, Peters, Margaret and Luckman, Susan (eds), Sonic Synergies: Music, Identity, Technology and Community
Burkitt, Ian, Social Selves: Theories of Self and Society
Cryle, Denis (with assistance from Christina Hunt), Murdoch’s Flagship: Twenty-five years of The Australian newspaper
Grimes, Tom, Anderson, James A. and Bergen, Lori, Media Violence and Aggression: Science and Ideology
Hall, Sandra, Tabloid Man: The Life and Times of Ezra Norton
Jones, Meredith, Skintight: An Anatomy of Cosmetic Surgery
Kim, Hyowon, Adopted Colours: Identity, Race, and the Passion for Other People’s Nationalism
Ling, Rich, New Tech, New Ties: How Mobile Communication is Reshaping Social Cohesion
Maingard, Jacqueline, South African National Cinema
Marschall, Nicolas, Methodological Pitfalls in Social Network Analysis: Why Current Methods Produce Questionable Results
Mayra, Frans, An Introduction to Game Studies
Rotman, Brian, Becoming Beside Ourselves: The Alphabet, Ghosts, and Distributed Human Being
Servaes, Jan and Lui, Shuang (eds), Moving Targets: Mapping the Paths Between Communication, Technology and Social Change in Communities
Stadler, Jane with McWilliam, Kelly, Screen Media: Analysing Film and Television
Sturken, Marita, Tourists of History: Memory, Kitsch, and Consumerism from Oklahoma City to Ground Zero
Whissel, Kristen, Picturing American Modernity: Traffic, Technology, and the Silent Cinema
Wilson, Pamela and Stewart, Michelle (eds), Global Indigenous Media: Cultures, Poetics and Politics

 


 

The Globalisation of Advertising in Asia

No 133, November 2009
Theme Editor: John Sinclair

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Abstracts

Contents

Editorial

Sue Turnbull

ANZCA News

Terry Flew

The Special Broadcasting Service After 30 Years

The Special Broadcasting Service after 30 years: Public service media and new ways of thinking about media and citizenship

Terry Flew

Under great pressure, a diamond is being formed: The SBS over time

Stuart Cunningham

SBS: Is there a role for a multicultural broadcaster in 2009 and beyond?

Bruce Meagher

SBS: Engaging with news audiences in the new media age

Valerio Veo

The Special Broadcasting Service in the twenty-first century

Gay Hawkins

General Articles

H20: Just add branding: Producing high-quality children’s TV drama for multichannel environments

Susan Ward and Anna Potter

Whither culture? Australian horror films and the limitations of cultural policy

Mark David Ryan

‘Where did that Fokker come from?’ The Age’s Adventures of Naked Man cartoon caption competition

Mike Lloyd and Paul Jewell

The Globalisation of Advertising in Asia: The Impact on Media

Advertising and media in Asia: Setting some context

John Sinclair

The structure of the advertising industry in Japan: The future of the mega-agencies

Nobuko Kawashima

The emergence of pan-Asian brands: Regional strategies of Japanese cosmetics brands

Shinji Oyama

The globalisation of the Korean advertising industry: Dependency or hybridity?

Kwangmi Ko Kim and Heewon Cha

New media technology and new business models: Speculations on ‘post-advertising’ paradigms

Jing Wang

Advertising in contemporary India’s rapidly changing media environment

Lynne Ciochetto

Globalising women: How global women’s magazines in China and Singapore transmit consumer culture

Katherine Frith

Reviews

Edited by Susan Bye

Abstracts

 

Terry Flew
The Special Broadcasting Service after 30 years: Public service media and new ways of thinking about media and citizenship
This article considers the distinctive ways in which the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) has evolved over its history since 1980, and how it has managed competing claims to being a multicultural yet broad-appeal broadcaster, and a comprehensive yet low-cost media service. It draws attention to the challenges presented by a global rethinking of the nature of citizenship and its relationship to media, for which SBS is well placed as a leader, and the challenges of online media for traditional public service media models, where SBS has arguably been a laggard, particularly when compared with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). It notes recent work that has been undertaken by the author with others into user-created content strategies at SBS and how its online news and current affairs services have been evolving in recent years.

 

Stuart Cunningham
Under great pressure, a diamond is being formed: The SBS over time
This article observes a paradox in the recent history of the Special Broadcasting Service. It is argued that, in contrast to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, the role and general direction of SBS were not extensively debated as part of the ‘culture wars’ that occurred during the years of the Howard government. While that made SBS a less fraught space during that period, it may now be a factor in the comparative lack of support being given by the Rudd Labor government to SBS in comparison with the ABC, as some of the ‘special’ status of SBS has been blunted by its drift towards more mainstream programming and a mixed economy of commercial advertising, as well as government funding.

 

Bruce Meagher
SBS: Is there a role for a multicultural broadcaster in 2009 and beyond?
This article notes that the degree of retreat from multiculturalism in public policy in Australia since the mid-1990s has challenged the rationales for government support for the Special Broadcasting Service, and presents the case for ongoing community and government support for SBS in terms of its distinctive contribution to public debates within Australia, and Australia’s place in the world. It is noted that this is not uniquely a function of its news and current affairs programs, but is seen across a suite of programming ranging from documentaries to locally produced drama, light entertainment and comedy. It also emphasises the language support remit for SBS, and some of the new challenges faced in supporting communities for recently arrived refugees into Australia.

 

Valerio Veo
SBS: Engaging with news audiences in the new media age
This paper explores the shifts promoted by the internet from one-to-many media communication to user-created content, a multiplicity of niche online media sites, and collaborative or crowd-sourced journalism. It considers how established media organisations can respond to such disruptive innovations, referring to recent developments on the Special Broadcasting Service online site.

 

Gay Hawkins
The Special Broadcasting Service in the twenty-first century
This paper considers the recent inquiry of the Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy into the future of public service media in a digital environment in the context of both the author’s own work on the history of the Special Broadcasting Service (Ang et al., 2008) and the continuing obligations and challenges that public service media face in terms of the wider remit of helping audiences to negotiate the reality of cultural diversity and difference. It focuses on how SBS has contributed to an expanded understanding of the nature of citizenship in contemporary Australian society, challenges it faces in extending that understanding of citizenship to expanded public participation in the creation and distribution of media content, and its current and future relationship to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

 

Susan Ward and Anna Potter
H20: Just add branding: Producing high-quality children’s TV drama for multichannel environments
This is a case study of the Australian company Jonathan M. Shiff Productions and its ‘tween’ program, action series H 2 0: Just Add Water. The program has sold in 150 countries including the United States, where it was ‘the first non-American live action to be bought by Nickelodeon in America’ and screens every Sunday night as family entertainment. It is also the highest rating children’s drama series on Nickelodeon UK. While Australia’s content regulations are important to its production, of critical importance is ZDF Enterprises, the commercial arm of one of Germany’s two public service broadcasting channels, and worldwide distributor and production partner for all Jonathan M. Shiff productions. Case studies such as the following provide useful insights into the shape and operations of mediascapes elsewhere, and where our own media environment may be heading. They also offer a glimpse into the way the international market place is organising along forms of cooperation designed to facilitate global distribution of cultural content. A central proposition of this case study is that the structural conditions of multi-channel environments require certain adjustments in form, content and business modelling that have essentially coalesced around the operation of brand management.

Mark David Ryan
Whither culture? Australian horror films and the limitations of cultural policy
Cultural policy that attempts to foster the Australian film industry’s growth and development in an era of globalisation is coming under increasing pressure. Throughout the 2000s, there has been a substantial boom in Australian horror films led by ‘runaway’ horror film Saw (2004), Wolf Creek (2005) and Undead (2003), achieving varying levels of popularity and commercial success worldwide. However, emerging within a national cinema driven by public subsidy and valuing ‘quality’ and ‘cultural content’ over ‘entertainment’ and ‘commercialism’, horror films have generally been antithetical to these objectives. Consequently, the recent boom in horror films has occurred largely outside the purview and subvention of cultural policy. This paper argues that global forces and emerging production and distribution models are challenging the ‘narrowness’ of cultural policy — a narrowness that mandates a particular film culture, circumscribes certain notions of value and limits the variety of films produced domestically. Despite their lowculture status, horror films have been well suited to the Australian film industry’s financial limitations; they are a growth strategy for producers and a training ground for emerging filmmakers.

 

Mike Lloyd and Paul Jewell
‘Where did that Fokker come from?’ The Age’s Adventures of Naked Man cartoon caption competition
The Adventures of Naked Man is a cartoon series that features one naked man in a drawn setting where, because of some convenient object or body position, his penis is obscured from sight. Entrants to the competition submit a caption to complete the drawn setting and, with the obscured penis as their implicit focus, many entrants construct a penis joke. In this article, we show that the apparently simple humour of Naked Man disguises considerable complexity. As well as the traditional gender and power analysis, we note some interesting aspects of contemporary newspaper media, including the appeal of reader engagement in the construction of humorous word play and the incorporation of mildly sexual content.

 

John Sinclair
Advertising and media in Asia: Setting some context
From the point of view of the critical study of the advertising industry, Asia has never been more interesting. Until the 1980s and 1990s respectively, Western-based advertising agencies were very much excluded from the largest markets, China and India. Now these countries are both undergoing rapid economic growth, and seeing the emergence of new categories of consumers — not only the muchvaunted ‘middle class’. Yet, for all the exceptional rates of growth in advertising expenditure being recorded, and the breathless rhetoric of the trade press, the impact the global advertisers and their agencies have upon Asia needs to be put into perspective. For instance, although the use of the internet and other new media is rapidly gaining ground, television still dominates, because that is the medium favoured by the biggest-spending advertisers in these countries. Ultimately, Asia is defined more by its geographical unity than anything else, for in most relevant aspects its diversity is arguably greater than that of any other world region, and this is reflected in the collection of articles presented here.

 

Nobuko Kawashima
The structure of the advertising industry in Japan: The future of the mega-agencies
One of the major issues related to the globalisation of advertising in Asia is the degree to which it is mediated by local realities. In Japan, the presence of the socalled global agencies is very limited, and very often global advertisers based in Japan, such as Sony and Toyota, work with Japan’s mega-agencies for domestic advertising while relying on global agencies for most of the markets outside Japan. Why does such a division exist between the Japanese market and elsewhere? This article first addresses this question, and then proceeds to discuss recent changes in the behaviour of both the media and their audiences, and the challenges they pose to the advertising industry. Such changes are universal, but their threats to the advertising business are more acutely felt in Japan because of its peculiar business structure, as will be described. The article concludes with a discussion of the prospects for the Japanese advertising industry.

 

Shinji Oyama
The emergence of pan-Asian brands: Regional strategies of Japanese cosmetics brands
In this article, I analyse the regional strategy of luxury Japanese cosmetics brands to investigate the claim of the Japanisation of Asia. I begin by examining the emergence of pan-Asian advertising for Japanese cosmetic brands, then make the case for an emphasis on branding, as distinct from advertising, which changes the way in which we understand this regional phenomenon. I explore the different ways in which a brand engages consumers, and argue for a sober assessment of the relative importance of advertising (and the salience of image of country of origin) in the overall branding process. I then follow the regional circulation of Japanese brands and media contents, neither of which can any longer be understood coherently in terms of a national framework such as Japanisation. I argue that the globalisation of advertising in Asia is a complex process shaped by large multinational corporations and a disjunctive flow of media contents, and that a more pronounced focus on brands will help to make sense of this process.

 

Kwangmi Ko Kim and Heewon Cha
The globalisation of the Korean advertising industry: Dependency or hybridity?
This study aims to examine how globalisation has moulded the identity and structure of the Korean advertising industry, and to analyse its transformations through the conceptual lens of hybridity: whether it is an industry dominated by global power, represented by transnational advertising agencies and transnational corporations, or one hybridised through globalisation. The Korean advertising industry was officially opened to foreign investment in 1987 as part of a trade pact with the United States. While transnational advertising agencies (TNAAs) have become well established in Korea over the past 20 years, local interests have come to coexist with the TNAAs through both competition and cooperation. Advertisers in the Korean market still maintain strong in-house agencies as a counterbalance to the growth of TNAA forces, simultaneously providing insight into the nature of globalisation and regionalisation. The analysis thus indicates that the Korean advertising industry represents a ‘hybrid’ rather than a ‘dependent’ mode of existence.

 

Jing Wang
New media technology and new business models: Speculations on ‘post-advertising’ paradigms
This article offers some speculations on the challenge that new media technology poses to the concept and practice of advertising, particularly the impact of opencontent technology. It canvasses a number of globalising trends, notably Web 2.0 technology and culture, user-generated content, and the industry buzz about emerging business models enabled by 2.0. As digital marketing has taken shape and become more technologically driven than ever, advertising is no longer the only, nor even the primary, source of revenue for new media. Apart from mapping the new terrain, the paper examines some 2.0 revenue models for the purpose of inviting researchers to think beyond the parameters set by plain old advertising. On the methodological front, the paper argues that keeping ourselves abreast of new revenue strategies brings to the fore a number of key areas of investigation hitherto understudied by academic advertising researchers, in particular media technology and digital copyright protocols

 

Lynne Ciochetto
Advertising in contemporary India’s rapidly changing media environment
The introduction of neo-liberal policies, the opening of the economy and the deregulation of the media stimulated a massive expansion in advertising in India in the early 1990s. Print advertising had been the dominant sector, but the proliferation of television channels stimulated the expansion of television advertising. By the end of the decade, the advertising industry was dominated by foreign companies, products and advertising agencies, but the strategies used had become increasingly ‘Indianised’ and customised to local audiences. The fracturing of the market through the proliferation of media choices meant advertising strategies were differentiated by product category, company ownership (foreign or local), media and target audience. Social and cultural changes have also had an impact on strategies: these include the expansion of the middle classes, challenges to the traditional extended family, changing roles of women in work and private life, and the advent of the internet and cell phones as new media with specific audiences.

 

Katherine Frith
Globalising women: How global women’s magazines in China and Singapore transmit consumer culture
This article outlines some of the moral and cultural issues involved in the commercialising of Asian women by describing how the entrance of foreign women’s magazines is changing the form and tone of women’s magazines in both Singapore and China — respectively amongst the smallest and largest countries in Asia, but sharing a similar culture and language. While the populations of these two countries differ significantly in terms of income and education, nonetheless the rising incomes of middle-class women in both countries have attracted the attention of luxury brands and led to the rise of global women’s magazines in both nations. Are women’s magazines just frivolous and fun, or do they shape women’s attitudes and values? Do the images in global media contribute to the empowerment of women or do they merely entangle them in a web of conspicuous consumption?

 

Reviews edited by Susan Bye

In this issue:

Ang, Ien, Hawkins, Gay and Dabboussy, Lamia, The SBS Story: The Challenge of Cultural Diversity
Beckman, Karen and Ma, Jean (eds), Still Moving: Between Cinema and Photography
Boler, Megan, Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in Hard Times
Burgess, Jean and Green, Joshua, YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture
Calvert, Sandra L. and Wilson, Barbara J. (eds), The Handbook of Children, Media, and Development
Eide, Elisabeth, Kunelius, Risto and Phillips, Angela, Transnational Media Events: The Mohammed Cartoons and the Imagined Clash of Civilizations
Fairchild, Charles, Pop Idols and Pirates: Mechanisms of Consumption and the Global Circulation of Popular Music
Gordon, Janey (ed.), Notions of Community: A Collection of Community Media Debates and Dilemmas
Gray, Jonathan, Jones, Jeffrey P. and Thompson, Ethan, Satire TV: Politics and Comedy in the Post-Network Era
Hall, Gary, Digitize This Book! The Politics of New Media or Why We Need Open Access Now
Hawk, Byron, Rieder, David M. and Oviedo, Ollie (eds), Small Tech: The Culture of Digital Tools
Howkins, John, Creative Ecologies: Where Thinking is a Proper Job
Kafai, Yasmin B., Heeter, Carrie, Denner, Jill and Sun, Jennifer Y. (eds), Beyond Barbie & Mortal Kombat: New Perspectives on Gender and Gaming
Kitching, Gavin, The Trouble with Theory: The Educational Costs of Postmodernism
Lister, Martin, Dovey, Jon, Giddings, Seth, Grant, Iain and Kelly, Kieran, New Media: A Critical Introduction
McKee, Alan, Albury, Katherine and Lumby, Catharine, The Porn Report
Meikle, Graham, Interpreting News
Mills, Jane, Loving & Hating Hollywood: Reframing Global and Local Cinemas
Moll, Marita and Shade, Leslie Regan, For Sale to the Highest Bidder: Telecom Policy in Canada
Mottahedeh, Negar, Displaced Allegories: Post-Revolutionary Iranian Cinema
Priest, Gail (ed.), Experimental Music: Audio Explorations in Australia
Rasmussen, Terje, Techno-politics and Some Structural Challenges Facing the Internet: A Critical Comment
Rydin, Ingegerd and Sjöberg, Ulrika (eds), Mediated Crossroads: Identity,Youth Culture and Ethnicity — Theoretical and Methodological Challenges
Salovaara-Moring, Inka (ed.), Manufacturing Europe: Spaces of Democracy, Diversity and Communication
Vickery, Graham and Hawkins, Richard, Remaking the Movies: Digital Content and the Evolution of the Film and Video Industries
Voon, Tania, Cultural Products and the World Trade Organization
Williams, Deane, Australian Postwar Documentary Film: An Arc of Mirrors
Yu Haiqing, Media and Cultural Transformation in China
Zhu, Ying, Keane, Michael and Bai, Ruoyun (eds), TV Drama in China

 

 

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