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Key Marxan References



Ball, I.R., H.P. Possingham, and M. Watts. 2009. Marxan and relatives: Software for spatial conservation prioritisation. Chapter 14: Pages 185-195 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen, A., K.A. Wilson, and H.P. Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.



Watts, M.E, I.R. Ball, R.R. Stewart, C.J. Klein, K. Wilson, C. Steinback, R. Lourival, L. Kircher, H.P. Possingham. 2009. Marxan with Zones: software for optimal conservation based land- and sea-use zoning, Environmental Modelling & Software (2009), doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2009.06.005     Electronic Preprint pdf (367KB)    Final Published Version    Request Reprint




Segan, D.B., E.T. Game, M.E. Watts, R.R. Stewart, H.P. Possingham. 2011. An interoperable decision support tool for conservation planning. Environmental Modelling & Software, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.08.002



Agostini, V. N., S. W. Margles, S. R. Schill, J. e. Knowles and R. J. Blyther (2010). Marine Zoning in Saint Kitts and Nevis: A Path Towards Sustainable Management of Marine Resources, The Nature Conservancy. pdf (7,168KB) Thanks to Conservation Online.

Klein, C., C. Steinback, M. Watts, A. Scholz, and H. Possingham. 2009. Spatial marine zoning for fisheries and conservation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment doi:10.1890/090047. pdf (300KB)

K. A. Wilson, E. Meijaard, S. Drummond, H. S. Grantham, L. Boitani, G. Catullo, L. Christie, R. Dennis, I. Dutton, A. Falcucci, L. Maiorano, H. P. Possingham, C. Rondinini, W. R. Turner, O. Venter, and M. Watts. 2009. Conserving biodiversity in production landscapes, Ecological Applications. pdf (1,056KB)

Watts, M.E., C. Steinback, C. Klein. 2008. Applying Marxan with Zones to North central coast of California. User Guide. pdf (1,510KB)

Watts, M.E, C.K. Klein, R. R. Stewart, I. R. Ball, and H. P. Possingham. 2008. Marxan with Zones (V1.0.1): Conservation Zoning using Spatially Explicit Annealing, a Manual. pdf (676KB)





Airamé, S., J. E. Dugan, K. D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, D. A. McArdle, and R. R. Warner. 2003. Applying Ecological Criteria to Marine Reserve Design: A Case Study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications 13:170-184. link

Alonso D., Segura-Quintero, C.,  Castillo-Torres, P.y J. Gerhantz-Muro. 2008. Avances en el diseño de una red de áreas marinas protegidas: Estrategia de conservación para el norte del Caribe continental colombiano. Santa Marta, Colombia. Boletín de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras. Volumen 37(1) 129-156p. pdf (2013 KB)

Ball, I. R. 2000. Mathematical applications for conservation ecology: the dynamics of tree hollows and the design of nature reserves. PhD Thesis, The University of Adelaide. pdf (536KB)

Ball, I. R. and H. P. Possingham, 2000. MARXAN (V1.8.2): Marine Reserve Design Using Spatially Explicit Annealing, a Manual pdf (267KB)

Ban, N. 2009. Minimum data requirements for designing a set of marine protected areas, using commonly available abiotic and biotic datasets. Biodiversity & Conservation: 18, 1829-1845. link       email author

Ban, N.C., G.J.A. Hanson, M. Jones, and A.C.J. Vincent. 2009. Systematic marine conservation planning in data-poor regions: Socioeconomic data is essential. Marine Policy: 33, 794-800. link      email author

Ban, N.C., C.R. Picard, and A.C.J. Vincent. 2009. Comparing and integrating community-based and science-based approaches in prioritizing marine areas for protection. Conservation Biology: 23, 899-910. link       email author

Ban, N.C. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2009. Beyond Marine Reserves: Exploring the Approach of Selecting Areas where Fishing is Permitted, Rather than Prohibited. PLos One: 4, e6258. link      email author

Ban, N.C, and C.J. Klein. 2009. Spatial socioeconomic data as a cost in systematic marine conservation planning. Conservation Letters Volume 2, Issue 5: 206-215. link

Beck, M. W. and M. Odaya. 2001. Ecoregional planning in marine environments: Identifying priority sites for conservation in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic Conservation 11: 235-242. email author

Becker, C. G., R. D. Loyola, C. F. B. Haddad and K. R. Zamudio. 2009. Integrating species life-history traits and patterns of deforestation in amphibian conservation planning, Diversity and Distributions 1–10 (2009), doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00625.x pdf (4,090KB)

Beger M, Linke S, Watts M, Game E, Treml E, Ball I, Possingham HP. 2010. Incorporating asymmetric connectivity into spatial decision making for conservation. Conservation Letters 3,5:359-368

Cameron, S.E., K.J. Williams, and D.K. Mitchell. 2008. Efficiency and Concordance of Alternative Methods for Minimizing Opportunity Costs in Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology: 22:886-896. email author

Carwardine, J., W. A. Rochester, K. S. Richardson, K. J. Williams, R. L. Pressey, and H. P. Possingham. 2007. Conservation planning with irreplaceability: does the method matter? Biodiversity and Conservation 16:245-258.pdf (513KB)

Carwarding J, Wilson KA, Hajkowicz SA, Smith RJ, Klein CJ, Watts M, Possingham HP. 2010. Conservation Planning when Costs Are Uncertain. Conservation Biology 24,6:1529-1537 Conservation Biology 24,6:1529-1537

Carwardine J, Wilson KA, Watts M, Etter A, Klein CJ, Possingham HP et al. 2008. Avoiding Costly Conservation Mistakes: The Importance of Defining Actions and Costs in Spatial Priority Setting. PLOS One 3(7) e2586

Ceballos, G., P. R. Ehrlich, J. Soberon, I. Salazar, and J. P. Fay. 2005. Global Mammal Conservation: What Must We Manage? Science 309:603-607. email author

Chan, K. M. A., M. R. Shaw, D. R. Cameron, E. C. Underwood, and G. C. Daily. 2006. Conservation planning for ecosystem services. PLoS Biol 4:e379. link

Check, Hayden, E. 2008. Wildlife Conservation 2.0 - A new software-based approach may be the key to saving thousands of species. Discover magazine online. 12.05.2008 link

Cook, R. R. and P. J. Auster. 2005. Use of simulated annealing for identifying essential fish habitat in a multispecies context. Conservaton Biology 19:3 876-886 email author

Cook, R. and P. Auster. 2006. Developing alternatives for optimal representation of seafloor habitats and associated communities in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series ONMS-06-02. 24 pp. pdf (306KB)

Drummond SP, Wilson KA, Meijaard E, Watts M, Dennis R, Christy L, Possingham HP. 2010. Influence of a Threatened-Species Focus on Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology 24,2:441-449

Edwards, H.J., I.A Elliot, R.L. Pressey, and P.J. Mumby. 2010. Incorporating ontogenic dispersal, ecological processes and conservation zoning into reserve design. Biological Conservation 143:2, 457-470.  email author

Ferdaña, Z. 2005. Nearshore marine conservation planning in the PacificNorthwest: Exploring the use of a siting algorithm for representing marine biodiversity, in Wright, D.J. and Scholz, A.J. (eds.), "Place Matters: Geospatial Tools, for Marine Science, Conservation, and Management in the Pacific Northwest," Corvallis, OR: OSU Press link

Fischer, D. T. & Church, R. L. (2005) The SITES reserve selection system: A critical review. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 10, 215. pdf (527KB)

Fraschetti, S., D'Ambrosio, P., Micheli, F., Pizzolante, F., Bussotti, S., Terlizzi, A. 2009. Design of marine protected areas in  a human dominated seascape. Marine Ecology Progress Series: 375: 13-24. pdf (490 KB)

Game ET, Lipsett-Moore G, Hamilton R, Peterson N, Kereseka J, Atu W, Watts M, Possingham H. 2010. Informed opportunism for conservation planning in the Solomon Islands. Conservation Letters

Game E.T.,Watts M.E.,Wooldridge S.,Possingham H.P. 2008. Planning for Persistence in Marine Reserves: A Question of Catastrophic Importance. Ecological Applications: 18:3 670;680. pdf (250KB)

Gonzales, E.K., P. Arcese, R. Schulz, and F.L. Bunnell. 2003. Strategic reserve design in the central coast of British Columbia: integrating ecological and industrial goals. pdf (463KB)

Grand, J., M. P. Cummings, A. G. Rebelo, T. H. Ricketts, and M. C. Neel. 2007. Biased data reduce efficiency and effectiveness of conservation reserve networks. Ecology Letters 10:364-374.pdf (618 KB)

Green, A., S.E. Smith, G. Lipsett-Moore, C. Groves, N. Peterson, S. Sheppard, P. Lokani, R. Hamilton, J. Almany, J. Aitsi, and L. Bualia. 2009. Designing a resilient network of marine protected areas for Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. email author

Guerrero, A., Knight, A., Grantham, H., Cowling, R., & Wilson, K. (2010). Predicting willingness-to-sell and its utility for assessing conservation opportunity for expanding protected area networks Conservation Letters DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00116.x

Gutierrez-Moreno, C., Alonso, D. y C. Segura-Quintero. 2008. Diseño de un área marina protegida para bahía Portete – La Guajira, Caribe colombiano. Santa Marta, Colombia. Boletín de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras. Volumen 37(2) 189-212p.pdf (2326 KB)

Jenkins, C.N & Giri, C. 2008. Protection of Mammal Diversity in Central America. Conservation Biology 22:1037-1044. email author

Jenkins, C.N., A.S. Alves, and S.L. Pimm. In press 2010. Avian conservation priorities in a top-ranked biodiversity hotspot. Biological Conservation, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.01.014

Klein, C., K. A. Wilson, M. Watts, J. Stein, S. Berry, J. Carwardine, D. M. Stafford Smith, B. Mackey, and H. Possingham. 2008a. Incorporating ecological and evolutionary processes into continental-scale conservation planning. Ecological Applications 19: 206-217. pdf (241KB)

Klein CJ, Wilson KA, Watts M, Stein J, Carwardine J, Mackey B, Possingham HP. 2009. Spatial conservation prioritization inclusive of wilderness quality: A case study of Australia's biodiversity. Biological Conservation 142(7):1282-1290

Klein, C. J., A. Chan, L. Kircher, A. J. Cundiff, N. Gardner, Y. Hrovat, A. Scholz, B. E. Kendall, and S. Airame. 2008. Striking a Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Socioeconomic Viability in the Design of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology 22:691-700. pdf (581 KB)

Klein, C., C. Steinback, A. Scholz, and H. Possingham. 2008. Effectiveness of marine reserve networks in representing biodiversity and minimizing impact to fishermen: a comparison of two approaches used in California. Conservation Letters 1:44-51. pdf (218Kb)

Knight, A.T., R.M. Cowling, K.A. Wilson, and H.P. Possingham. 2009. From theory to practice: Designing and situating spatial prioritization approaches to better implement conservation action. Chapter 18: Pages 249-259 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen, A., K.A. Wilson, and H.P. Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Leroux, S.J., Schmiegelow, F.K.A. & Nagy, J. (2007). Comparing the potential spatial overlap of heritage sites and protected areas in a boreal region of northern Canada. Conservation Biology 21:376-386. email author

Leroux, S.J., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Cumming, S.G., Lessard, R.B. & Nagy, J. (2007). Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design. Ecological Applications 17:1954-1966. email author

Leslie, H., R. Ruckelshaus, I. R. Ball, S. Andelman and H. P. Possingham. 2003. Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Ecological Applications 13: S185-S198.pdf (474KB)

Leslie, H. M. 2005. A Synthesis of Marine Conservation Planning Approaches. Conservation Biology 19:1701-1713. email author

Linke S, Watts M, Possingham HP. 2007. Muddy waters: Modifying reserve design algorithms for riverine landscapes. Proceedings of the International Congress on Modelling and Simulation Land, Water & Environmental Management, 2007 Volume 17 Pages 2216-2222

Linke S, Watts M, Stewart R and Possingham HP. 2010. Using multivariate analysis to deliver conservation planning products that align with practitioner needs. Ecography 33. Not yet published. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06351.x

Lourival R, Drechsler M, Watts ME, Game ET, Possingham HP. 2010. Planning for reserve Adequacy in dynamic landscapes; maximizing future representation of vegetation communities under flood disturbance in the Pantanal wetland. Not yet published. Diversity and Distributions DDI-2010-0150.R1.

McDonnell, M. D., H. P. Possingham, I. R. Ball and E. A. Cousins. 2002. Mathematical methods for spatially cohesive reserve design. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 7: 107-114. pdf (155KB)

Moilanen, A., H.P. Possingham, and K.A. Wilson. 2009. Spatial conservation prioritization: past, present and future. Chapter 19: Pages 260-268 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen, A., K.A. Wilson, and H.P. Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Moilanen, A., H.P. Possingham, and S. Polasky. 2009. A mathematical classification of conservation prioritization problems. Chapter 3: Pages 28-42 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen, A., K.A. Wilson, and H.P. Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Neely, A.E. and R.N. Zajac. 2008. Applying marine protected area design models in large estuarine systems. Marine Ecology Progress Series: 373: 11-23.  pdf (693 KB)

Oetting, J. B., A. L. Knight, and G. R. Knight. 2006. Systematic reserve design as a dynamic process: F-TRAC and the Florida Forever program. Biological Conservation 128:37-46. email author

Pearce, J.L, D.A. Kirk, C.P. Lane, M. H. Mahr, J. Walmsley, D. Casey, J. E. Muir, S. Hannon, A. Hansen, and K. Jones, 2007. Prioritizing avian conservation areas for the Yellowstone to Yukon Region of North America. Biological Conservation 141:908-924. email author

Possingham, H.P., A. Moilanen, and K.A. Wilson, 2009. Accounting for habitat dynamics in conservation planning. Chapter 10: Pages 135-144 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen, A., K.A. Wilson, and H.P. Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Possingham, H. P., I. R. Ball and S. Andelman 2000. Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. In: S. Ferson and M. Burgman (eds) Quantitative methods for conservation biology. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 291-305. pdf (223KB)

Possingham, H. P., J. R. Day, M. Goldfinch and F. Salzborn. 1993. The mathematics of designing a network of protected areas for conservation. In: D. J. Sutton, C. E. M. Pearce and E. A. Cousins (eds) Decision Sciences: Tools for Today. Proceedings of 12th National ASOR Conference. ASOR, Adelaide, pp. 536-545.pdf (488KB)

Pressey, R.L., Cabeza, M., Watts, M.E., Cowling, R.M., Wilson, K.A. 2007. Conservation planning in a changing world. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22:583-592

Richardson, E. A., M. J. Kaiser, G. Edwards-Jones, and H. P. Possingham. 2006. Sensitivity of marine-reserve design to the spatial resolution of socioeconomic data. Conservation Biology 20:1191-1201 pdf (1.06MB)

Rondinini, C., and L. Boitani. 2007. Systematic Conservation Planning and the Cost of Tackling Conservation Conflicts with Large Carnivores in Italy. Conservation Biology 21:1455-1462. email author

Rondinini, C., F. Chiozza, and L. Boitani. 2006. High human density in the irreplaceable sites for African vertebrates conservation. Biological Conservation 133:358-363. email author

Shriner, S. A., K. R. Wilson, and C. H. Flather. 2006. Reserve networks based on richness hotspots and representation vary with scale. Ecol Appl 16:1660-1673. email author

Smith, R. J., P. S. Goodman, and W. S. Matthews. 2007. Systematic conservation planning: a review of perceived limitations and an illustration of the benefits, using a case study from Maputaland, South Africa. Oryx 40:400-410. pdf

Smith, R. J., J. Easton, B. A. Nhancale, A. J. Armstrong, J. Culverwell, S. D. Dlamini, P. S. Goodman, L. Loffler, W. S. Matthews, A. Monadjem, C.M. Mulqueeny, P. Ngwenya, C.P. Ntumi, B. Soto and N. Leader-Williams. 2008. Designing a transfrontier conservation landscape for the Maputaland centre of endemism using biodiversity, economic and threat data. Biological Conservation 141:2127-2138. pdf (1.21 MB)

Smith, R.J., P.D. Eastwood, Y. Ota, and S.I. Rogers, 2009. Developing best practice for using Marxan to locate Marine Protected Areas in European waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66, 188-194. pdf

Stewart, R. R., I. Ball, and H. P. Possingham. 2007. The Effect of Incremental Reserve Design and Changing Reservation Goals on the Long-Term Efficiency of Reserve Systems. Conservation Biology 21:346-354.pdf (176KB)

Stewart, R. R., T. Noyce and H. P. Possingham. 2003a. The opportunity cost of ad-hoc marine reserve design decisions - An example from South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 253: 25-38.pdf (644KB)

Stewart, R. R. and H. P. Possingham. 2005. Efficiency, costs and trade-offs in marine reserve system design. Environmental Modeling and Assessment.pdf (959KB)

Stewart, R. R. and H. P. Possingham. 2003. A framework for systematic marine reserve design in South Australia: A case study. Proceedings of the Inaugural World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas, Cairns - August 2002. pdf (1.07MB)

Tallis, H., Z. Ferdana, and E. Gray. 2008. Linking Terrestrial and Marine Conservation Planning and Threats Analysis. Conservation Biology 22:120-130. email author

Visconti, P., R.L. Pressey, D.B. Segan, and B.A. Wintle. 2010. Conservation planning with dynamic threats: The role of spatial design and priority setting for species' persistence. Biological Conservation In Press. pdf (1.86 MB)

Ward, T. J., M. A. Vanderklift, A. O. Nicholls, and R. A. Kenchington. 1999. Selecting Marine Reserves Using Habitats and Species Assemblages as Surrogates for Biological Diversity. Ecological Applications 9:691-698. pdf (1.23 MB)



Marxan at Work
Selection frequency map for inclusion in reserve systems designed to protect amphibians and mammals in Africa. Rondinini, Chiozza & Boitani (2006).

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