|1-5||si quis .... adsit .... miretur .... nec dubitet: ideal condition. (MBA 455-456)|
|2-5||quod .... exerceatur: Further to Austin's note, the verb is subjunctive as the clause is sub-oblique, i.e. it forms part of the stranger's wondering. (MBA 446-448)|
|3-4||On the ludi Megalenses see OCCL 333.|
|6-7||cum audiat: subjunctive because the clause is causal as well as temporal.|
|7||legem quae .... iubeat: It is not fully clear which law Cicero means. Read Austin's note for interest only.|
|8-9||obsederint .... attulerint .... oppugnarint .... iubeat: The clauses in which these subjunctives occur are sub-oblique after audiat (10)|
|10||improbet .... requirat: ideal condition.|
|11||nullum .... nullam .... nullam: The rhetorical device involving the constant repetition of a word or group of words is known as epanaphora. The repetition provides emphasis and cohesion. For an amazing example in the Bible, read Psalm 136.
Indeed, repetition is a basic principle in all forms of artistic endeavour. It arouses an expectancy that one looks to have satisfied. It is usually combined with variation, so that the end product is a pleasing combination of unity and variety. Hence popular songs and hymns have verses and repeated choruses. This is why many people find it hard to enjoy contemporary serious music: there is too little repetition and predictability. In verse, metre, rhyme, alliteration, assonance, stanza patterns and refrains are all based on repetition.
|13-17||uocet .... uocarit .... liceat: sub-oblique.|
|14||"A meretrix leading an army is flamboyantly ridiculous." (Geffcken 38) Make it your business to count the number of times Cicero uses meretrix and meretricius in this speech. He intends to have a lot of fun at Clodia's expense. This will titillate his hearers, get them onside and distract attention from the weaker aspects of the defence case.|
|15||pietatem: Cicero, the pre-eminent barrister of his day, cannot afford to "do a hatchet job" on his young and inexperienced opponent Atratinus for fear of losing the jurors' sympathy.
"You are pius to the gods if you admit their claims: you are pius to your parents and elders, and children and friends, and country and benefactors, and all that excites, or should excite, your regard and perhaps affection, if you admit their claims on you, and discharge your duty accordingly; the claims exist because the relationships are sacred. The demands of pietas and of officium (duty and services, as in 'tender offices') constituted in themselves a massive and unwritten code of feeling and behaviour which was outside the law, and was so powerful as to modify in practice the harsh rules of private law, which were only a last resort."
libidinem muliebrem: rather vague but ever so intriguing. Cicero is a master of innuendo.
|15-16||reprehendat .... putet .... existimet: ideal condition.|
|19-20||nec descensurum .... uellet liceret: lit. "nor anyone to-have-been about-to-stoop to this prosecution to-whom which-of-two [i.e. choices] he-would-wish would-be-permitted". uellet and liceret are subjunctives in clauses which are sub-oblique after constituetis.|
|21-22||niteretur: Why subjunctive? The nisi clause is sub-oblique after constituetis, as well as containing an unreal condition. (MBA 457-458)|
|22||alicuius: Cicero's hearers know whom he means. He has already established "a conspiracy of understanding". (Geffcken 12)|
|1||humanissimo: "humanitas was a favourite word with Cicero, and the conception behind it was peculiarly Roman and was born of Roman experience. It means, on the one side, the sense of the dignity of one's own human personality, which is a thing unique and which must be cared for and developed to the full; on the other side it means a recognition of the personalities of others and the right to care for their own personalities; and this recognition implies compromise and self-restraint and sympathy and consideration." (Barrow 13)|
|1-3||Christopher P. Craig observes:
Ciceronian oratory employs argumentative themes and tactics which are not found in the Greek theory to which students of his day were regularly exposed, and which have no recognizable antecedent in the theory or practice of the Republic. One such tactic, the use of the friendship of accusator and patronus, has not been properly recognized .... Cicero makes a transparent show of solicitude for the prosecutor, the youthful Atratinus. Here, however, the orator's tone is one of insufferable condescension. Atratinus is identified as a friend and, in the same breath, virtually forgiven for his role on account of his age.
|2||pietatis: See 1.15, note.|
|3-4||si uoluit .... aliquid, pueritiae: The sentence is an elegant example of antithesis, by which contrasting ideas are sharpened by the use of opposite or markedly different meanings. Compare in English Samuel Johnson's estimate of the character of the Reverend Zachariah Mudge: "Though studious, he was popular; though argumentative, he was modest; though inflexible, he was candid; and though metaphysical, yet orthodox." (London Chronicle, 2 May, 1769) In Cicero's sentence, of course, pietati, necessitati and pueritiae echo pietatis, necessitatis and aetatis in the preceding sentence. This is careful craftsmanship at its best. For his treatment of Atratinus, see 1.15, note.|
|5-6||ceteris .... ignoscendum .... resistendum: For this impersonal use of the gerundive, see MBA 389.|
|8-10||ut .... respondeam: a noun clause expanding hic introitus.|
|10||gratia: The fact that, as Austin notes, gratia differs little from causa (l. 9) means we have here an example of "elegant variation", the too obvious avoidance of repetition, something we usually try to avoid in English. One winces, for example, to read, "Mr John Redmond has just now a path to tread even more thorny than that which Mr Asquith has to walk," one of many examples cited in a scathing discussion of the subject in MEU 130-133. On the other hand, elegant variation in poetry or other imaginative writing can produce a cumulative effect that is highly pleasing. In Beowulf 28.17-30, for example, a boat is called "sea-boat", "wave-floater", "sea-goer", "foamy-necked vessel", "well-fashioned vessel", "wave-goer", "broad-bosomed vessel", and "ocean-wood winsome" within the space of fourteen lines.|
|11-12||quod .... diceretur: a clause of alleged reason (MBA 484) but, as Austin observes in an important comment, a somewhat illogical conflation as well. Read Austin carefully.|
|13||maioribus natu: MBA 274, Note.|
|14||quibus: The antecedent, believe it or not, is hi, two lines below.|
|17||possit: subjunctive in a sub-oblique clause after habeant (16). So too potuerit (20).
On the equites, see OCD 550-552, but especially 550-551, "Origins and republic".
|21||loco: dative of purpose.|
|22||nobis: the so-called "royal" plural of (mock) modesty. We find it in formal papal documents, such as encyclicals. Compare "We are not amused", attributed to Queen Victoria by Caroline Holland, Notebooks of a Spinster Lady (1919): "There is a tale of the unfortunate equerry who ventured during dinner at Windsor to tell a story with a spice of scandal or impropriety in it. 'We are not amused,' said the Queen when he had finished."
On the other hand, Princess Alice, during an interview in 1978, said she had asked her grandmother about the expression, "but she never said it," and declared that Queen Victoria was "a very cheerful person". Now back to business. his indicantibus .... defendentibus nobis: This ABBA word pattern is known as "chiasmus", from the Greek letter c (chi). Cicero is fond of it, as we are in English. Chiasmus usually has considerable piquancy, and frequently occurs in epigrams, e.g. "It's not the size of the dog in the fight but the size of the fight in the dog." Then there's the thought-provoking, double-barrelled "I'd rather have a free bottle in front of me than a pre-frontal lobotomy."
|23||quod .... dixistis: an introductory quod-clause of reference, "As for what you said about filial respect ....".
ista: Austin's note is important.
|24||quid nos opinemur: a clause of indirect question, object of audietis.|
|25||iuratis: This perfect participle has an active meaning. (KMP 129)
quid parentes sentiant: a clause of indirect question, object of declarat (27).
|27||declarat: Logically we should have expected a plural, but the verb is singular, agreeing with the nearest subject luctus.|
|27-28||quod est obiectum: See my note on 4.23.|
|1||suis: dative of person interested.|
|3||amplissimum ordinem: OCD 437-438, s.v. "decuriones".|
|4||petenti detulerunt .... petentibus denegauerunt: antithesis.|
|9||indicio: For the case-usage, see MBA 282, Note.|
|10||The abstract noun aetas, which, as Austin says, is equivalent to adulescentia, pinpoints the essential quality of Caelius under consideration here, namely his youthfulness. Translate "this young man". Compare in English such expressions as "his Holiness", "your Majesty".|
|10-11||posset .... displiceret: unreal condition. (MBA 457-458)|
|11||municipium: OCD 1001.|
|12||ut .... reuertar: a parenthetical final clause.|
|16||quod obiectum est .... quodque .... celebratum est: See once more my note on 4.23.|
|19||eum paeniteat .... esse natum: MBA 309.
non deformem: litotes, i.e. the use of understatement for emphasis and hence the opposite of hyperbole. It is often used ironically, as here. Cf. our "not bad" when we mean "very good".
|19-20||sunt .... peruolgata: gnomic perfect, from the Greek gnome, "opinion, judgment", expressing what has always been the case, with the implication that it still is now and ever shall be. English usually prefers a timeless present though compare "Faint heart ne'er won fair lady." See the translation.|
|19-26||Geffcken refers to Cicero's "pose of detached comment". (p. 14)|
|25||urbanitas: Austin's comprehensive note is important.|
|Cicero maintains his protective and somewhat patronising attitude to Atratinus in this section and the next. See again my notes on 1.15 and 2.1-3.|
|2-3||uellem aliquis .... suscepisset: Do not imagine it is necessary to supply ut after uellem. The two clauses are set down side by side in co-ordination, without any attempt to express a connection between them however closely they might be connected in thought. (MBA 121, and cf. MBA 129, note, and 149, note 1). This is known as parataxis, as opposed to hypotaxis, or subordination. Parataxis is not unusual in English. It gives an effect of terseness and compression. So a savage might say, AMe hungry, me eat@ (parataxis), whereas we might say, ASince I am hungry, I shall eat@ (hypotaxis). And give a wide berth to anyone who threatens paratactically, "You toucha my car, I breaka you face."|
|2, 4-5||uellem, refutaremus: unreal condition, the si- clause being understood.|
|4||more: ablative of accordance, found with or without e(x).|
|6||moderatur: moderari takes either the dative (as here) or the accusative.|
|7||meum .... beneficium: The separation of adjective produces an enclosing effect appropriate to the sense. Cicero's good offices "surround" Atratinus and his father as it were.|
|8-9||ut qualis .... esse existiment: lit. "so-that all may-reckon you to-be such as you-are".|
|8-11||I suggest inserting a comma after primum (8) and treating ut .... existiment (8-9) as a parenthetical final clause. See the literal translation above. Then primum ut .... seiungas (8-10) and deinde ut .... ne dicas (11) are two clauses of indirect command in apposition with and expanding illud (8). ut .... ne in Cicero seems to be no different from ne except that sometimes the ne seems to apply more to a single word in the sentence, here dicas. (GL 546, remark 3). See the translation.|
|9-10||a rerum turpitudine .... a uerborum libertate: a typically Ciceronian antithesis.|
|16-18||culpa est eorum .... laus (est) pudoris tui, quod ... uidebamus, ingeni, quod .... dixisti: antithesis again.
To quote Christopher Craig again,
In Cicero's comments on Atratinus's speech, there is not only a hearty show of avuncular condescension, but the charitable judgment of the master orator upon a well-intentioned novice. Within the common arena of public speaking, the distinction between the two men is immediately salient. Cicero is, obviously and thus implicitly, the greatest orator of his day. Atratinus is a blushing, and rather ineffective, neophyte.
|21||diligentia disciplinaque: The alliteration is reproduced in the translation.|
|22||togam uirilem: When a youth's education was completed, around age sixteen or seventeen, and he was regarded as fit to enter adult life, his purple-bordered toga praetexta was replaced by the totally plain toga uirilis. The event was solemnised in holy rites. This usually took place during the Liberalia, the festival of Liber, an Italian deity of agriculture. The Liberalia was celebrated on 17 March.|
|22-23||tantum .... existimatis: lit. "let-it-be so-much as you-reckon."|
|22-24||The Greek term Aanacoluthon@ (see Austin's note) means Alacking sequence@, i.e. beginning a sentence one way and continuing or ending it in another. It is, of course, common in ordinary conversation. Fowler cites "Can I not make you understand that if you don't get reconciled to your father what is to happen to you?". (MEU 598).|
|23||sit: jussive subjunctive.|
|26||Plutarch describes Crassus as a generous host, a fine public speaker, courteous, unaffected, helpful and interested in the philosophy of Aristotle (Life of Crassus 3).|
|1||nam quod .... est: another introductory quod-clause of reference. I shall not make special mention of this construction hereafter.|
|2||hoc: Throughout this section Cicero refers consistently to Caelius with some form of hic and to Catiline with some form of ille.|
|5||boni adulescentes: Further to Austin, see the note on 12.1 below.
nequam: an indeclinable adjective.
|6||existimetur: jussive subjunctive.
Caelius Catilinae: The collocation is striking and appropriate.
|7||at introduces an anticipated objection by Cicero's opponents.|
|13||illi: dative of advantage. The collocation of hic and illi heightens the contrast between them.|
|16||Cicero points up the contrast between accessit and recessit by placing each at the end of its clause, apart from which they rhyme.|