Herodotus, The Histories

This subject material includes Ancient Greek in both the text and the commentary, which will not appear correctly unless your computer has the appropriate software installed.

If you have previously studied "on line" a subject with this Department which required you to download the appropriate Greek fonts, you may ignore this notice.
Otherwise, before proceeding further, Click Here.

Important Guidelines for Students using this Medium

After reading the introduction to the subject (very important), with information on the historical background, and links to subject material on the web, you should work through the textual material in accordance with your lecturer's instructions and timetable. There will be a one-hour class session with your lecturer each week for text discussion and presentation of material. If you need to contact your lecturer urgently (eg. for a point of clarification without which you cannot proceed), you may email him at

You will see that the original Greek text appears in the left frame on your screen, and commentary and explanations in the right frame. Certain words and passages in the text, and some Section numbers, are brown/underlined; these are linked to specific explanations and/or translations in the commentary. Simply click on the brown/underlined text to bring up the relevant commentary in the right frame. You may then - if necessary - scroll the commentary down to find further material. Occasionally within the commentary you may see a linked reference to another note; clicking on the link will bring up that note, after which you should return to where you were by clicking on the appropriate brown/underline text in the left frame.

Please note that, where a comment appears with a red symbol, it deals with either a) words or passages which have been translated in the notes, or b) matters of language and grammar. Where a comment appears with a blue symbol, it deals with matters of content, including historical and political allusions.

You may possibly find it useful to print out the Ancient Greek text. This would give you a hard copy to carry with you, and in some cases may clarify textual characters which your computer does not show as clearly as you would like. If so, click the mouse button inside the frame where the Greek text is displayed, and then print.

Ideally, your browser should be used 'full screen'. Your computer's screen definition MUST be set to (at least) 800x600; colours should preferably be set to greater than 256 (ie. 'hi-colour'), although this is not critical.

If you find that the size of the print on the screen is too large, ie. that only a very few lines of text appear in each of the frames on the screen, check the screen font size setting for your browser, and decrease the point size. Alternatively, you may need to adjust the font size to "small fonts" in your computer's monitor setting; however, if you have already set your screen definition to 800x600, this should not be necessary.

Should students feel that a dedicated email discussion group (mailing list) would be of use for exchanging ideas between classes, etc., please ask your lecturer; that facility will then be set up immediately.

Note regarding fonts: It has been found that, while Windows 95 recognises all characters in the Ancient Greek fonts used for this subject, Windows 98 does not recognise certain characters in one particular font (the more traditional) used for the text. It has therefore been necessary to use an alternate font for Windows 98 users. (All necessary fonts are downloaded and installed when you follow the instructions accompanying this subject ... see top of page.) However, because the original font has the more "traditional" appearance, it has been retained for Windows 95 users, who may also select the Windows 98 links if they prefer the modern style font.

You therefore have a choice, as indicated below.

Windows 95 users (traditional font):

To bring up the relevant work material, click on the appropriate link below:

[Chapters 1 - 16] [Chapters 17 - 38] [Chapters 39 - 60]
[Chapters 61 - 87] [Chapters 88 - 119]

Windows 98 or Windows 95 users (modern font):

To bring up the relevant work material, click on the appropriate link below:

[Chapters 1 - 16] [Chapters 17 - 38] [Chapters 39 - 60]
[Chapters 61 - 87] [Chapters 88 - 119]

Copyright: Department of Classics and Ancient History, University of Queensland
Subject Development: Professor T R Bryce, MA, PhD, FAHA.
Web Development: Mr Gayle Paltridge, BA

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Last revised: December 7, 2000