Software > Frontier (Ver 4.1)

This page describes the computer program FRONTIER Version 4.1 which was written by Tim Coelli. This program is used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of a variety of stochastic production and cost frontiers; and estimates of mean and individual technical or cost efficiencies.

The program can accommodate:

  • • cross-sectional or panel data;
  • • half-normal or truncated normal distributions;
  • • any functional form which is linear in parameters;
  • • time-invariant or time-varying efficiencies; and
  • • inefficiency effects can be explicitly influenced by a number of firm-specific factors.

The program is compiled using a Lahey F77LEM/32 compiler for an IBM compatible PC. Persons who request a copy of the program receive the executable program file; the Fortran source code; some examples to practice with; and a 32 page user’s guide (in pdf format).

If you wish to obtain a copy of the program you can download the zip file which contains all the necessary files.

If you obtain a copy of the program you are advised to send some brief email to me at so that I am able to advise you of any bugs or new versions.

For a description of stochastic frontier methods and the presentation of some worked examples using this software please refer to our recently released second edition of the book: An Introduction to Efficiency and Productivity Analysis.

If you have any technical questions regarding the use of this computer program you can contact me by email at Brief questions (involving less than 10 minutes of time) will be answered as quickly as is possible. A consultancy service is available for those who have more lengthy enquiries. Consultancy fees will be provided on request.



Prof. Tim Coelli