AAPAE Conference 2000

The "AAPAE Conference 2000" was held between Friday 7th and Sunday 9th July 2000.

The Friday afternoon sessions were held jointly with the Australasian Association of Philosophy Conference.

Selected papers from "AAPAE Conference 2000" were published in:

Business and Professional Ethics Journal (Spring 2001) Vol.20 No.1 and

Professional Ethics (Summer 2000) Vol.8 No.2

 Below are archived (1) a summary of abstracts of papers presented at the conference and (2) a timetable of the conference.

(1) Abstracts of papers

(2) Timetable for the Conference

(1) Abstracts of papers

Brenda Almond(Professor of Moral and Social Philosophy, University of Hull): 'Biomedical Technology in a Humanistic Culture' Saturday 10.30-1130am (Mellick Room)

The argument of this paper is that in some developments today we risk forgetting our cultural needs, and also fail to recognise the way these centre on culture's link with the 'animal' facts of life. Biomedical technology notoriously tinkers with nature in the case of non-human animals and plants. Often these developments are to our advantage, but to the extent that this is so, we should recognise that nature is well able to withstand our efforts to contain her. Plants and grasses push up through the concrete of our cities, resisting all our efforts of control. Small mammals, birds and bacteria escape our containment strategies. But however our approach to the non-human aspects of nature is to be judged, we should in any case resist the tendency to seek to extend this kind of control to our own species. Of course, in pushing forward the frontiers of biotechnology, there have been many achievements of benefit to mankind, but in welcoming this, we should not overlook an older conception of medicine as harmonising with human nature rather than frustrating it. Medicine is ultimately, as well as historically, based in the relation of persons; the technologist can help promote the efficacy of those interactions, as well as achieving some of medicine's notable triumphs, but in certain situations may introduce conflicting values fundamentally at odds with the traditional values of the doctor-patient relationship. So biomedicine serves us best when it goes with rather than against the grain of nature, and medicine and medical research is most valuable when it remains an essentially humanistic pursuit, sensitive to social and cultural norms and values. To illustrate these claims, three examples of areas of medicine in which cultural values have been lost, or are at risk of being so, are offered in the paper. These are: attitudes to and treatment of the bodies of the dead; developments in reproductive medicine, in particular the breaking of the genetic connection involved in parenthood through transfer of gametes; and 'magic pill' solutions to serious life-threatening diseases such as AIDS.

David Ardagh (Charles Sturt University): 'Ethics, Empowerment and Education: A Neo- Aristotelian Case for Public Education and Training' Sunday 10.05-10.35am (Mellick Room)

The thesis of the paper is that economic rationalist arguments for educational cut-backs and for state educational institutions to self-generate increasing fractions of their funds are morally misguided. State provision of primary through to tertiary/vocational education and training opportunity is a matter of state obligation,a matter of strong ethico-political presumption defeasible only by severe economic or political calamity; or the press of some stricter state obligation like law and order. Casinos do not trump schools. The paper: reviews current notions deployed in the argument for economic rationalisation of public education functions;introduces the alternate normative foundation for the suggested expansive educational politics: a neo-Aristotelian "Virtue Ethics";sets out the notion of justice in such a conception; and sketches a state politics requiring egalitarian, empowering, and desert-based educational policy. The paper concludes with a claim that current economic rationalist driven policy settings are morally bankrupt.

Andrew Brennan (University of Western Australia): 'Better Policy Processes' Friday 2.00-3.00pm (Forgan Smith Building Room E213)

This paper suggests ways of achieving scientific, economic, political and ethical credibility in corporate and government policy processes. The focus is on issues of resource management and conservation, but the general approach has a wide application to other controversial policy areas. The paper presents an alternative perspective to that adopted by those who argue that environmental policy processes should involve citizens' juries, in-depth discussion groups or independent scientific review panels. There is a place for all of these, but only when they are conducted in a way that maintains scientific, economic, political and ethical credibility.

Andrew Brennan (University of Western Australia): 'Corporations and Care for the Environment' Saturday 3.30-4.45pm (Mellick Room)

J K Galbraith once described corporations as human-created monsters over which we have, individually and collectively, little or no control. More recently conspiracy theorists such as David Korten have depicted corporations as devices for manipulating, controlling and exploiting people, institutions and governments so as to further the interests of a relatively small number of powerful people. Discussions of corporate responsibilities and duties to the environment and to human communities are likely to be somewhat fuzzy until basic matters of corporate metaphysics are cleared up. This paper attempts to specify the nature and identity of corporations and to clarify what duties and responsibilities corporate entities can properly have.

Charles Barton (Charles Sturt University and Griffith University) 'A New Paradigm of Justice for the New Millenium'

In spite of all the attention and effort directed at improving them, criminal justice institutions persistently fail meeting the legitimate expectations of victims, offenders, and the wider community. The paper considers the reasons for these failures and proposes a paradigm shift in conceptualising criminal justice.

Shimon Cowen (Australian Centre for Jewish Civilization, Monash University): 'The Noahide Laws: foundations for a universal ethics' Sunday 9.30-10.00am (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

The Noahide laws represent a system of basic moral laws, biblically mandated and constituting the fount of the major world religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and arguably also the Eastern Religions. So called because their number was completed when the seventh law was given to Noah, these laws comprise prohibitions on idolatry, blasphemy, murder, forbidden sexual relations, theft, forms of cruelty to animals and lawlessness (that is upon the failure to set up courts and processes of justice). While these laws are understood to be binding on general humanity (as distinct from the individual practices of the Jewish people) their elucidation has been preserved within Jewish tradition. The seven laws in fact have an extraordinary amount of detail, and are applicable, via the principles generated within them, to every kind of contemporary ethical issue. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basic philosophical and theological foundations of the authority and interpretation of the Noahide laws; to explore their social function and significance (a US joint congressional resolution in 1991 called them the "bedrock of civilization"); as well as their historical and cultural significance as a layer of human historical consciousness.

Damian Cox (Edith Cowan University): 'Integrity and Politics' Saturday 9.00-9.30am (Mellick Room)

Politicians are often accused of a lack of integrity, and this accusation involves more than dismay at overt corruption. What are the unobvious cases of integrity and its lack? Did John Howard display a lack of integrity by once declaring that he would never introduce a goods and services tax? Does he display a lack of integrity by refusing federal intervention for state's mandatory sentences laws and then intervening in state licensing of internet gambling? Does a political party in opposition display a lack of integrity by refusing to detail policy intentions? The important questions here do not simply turn on how to get politicians to act with integrity. The more fundamental question is about the nature of political integrity as such. What is political integrity? How is it manifest in day to day political activity? This paper develops an account of political integrity. It also discusses Ruth Grant's recent work on integrity, hypocrisy and politics.

Steven Curry (Associate Lecturer, Philosophy, Charles Sturt University and Research Fellow, ARC Commonwealth Special Research Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics) Sunday 2.20-2.50pm (Junior Common Room)

"It is widely accepted that role morality plays a central role in explaining the moral imperatives facing professionals and others working within institutional frameworks. This morality is defined by reference to the goals or ends of the institutions, and the special justifications that might attach to these goals. The agent of an institution, to the extent that the institution has a special justification, is presumed to derive from that justification special reasons for acting not available or applicable to other actors. However, while this simple schema helps often, it should not be presumed to hold absolutely. There are two ways in which the goals of the institution and the special reasons for action of individuals can come apart. Where this happens we don't have to presume that the agent lacks role-defined reasons for action."

Stuart Dawson (Victoria University, Footscray Park Campus): 'Ethics in Australian Small Business' Saturday 2.20-2.50pm (Junior Common Room)

Small business has been little noticed in the business ethics literature. This paper will outline the directions that have been taken in two current research projects into ethics in small, micro and home-based business, and will present some preliminary findings from both projects. The foci of the research are the ethical perspectives held by micro and home-based business operators and the impact of publicly promoted ethical stances on small business performance.

Padmasiri de Silva (Honorary Research Fellow, Philosophy Department, Monash University): 'Reinventing A Corporate Ethic: Exploring Alternative Paradigms For Ethics In The Workplace' Saturday 3.30-4.45pm (Mellick Room)

During the early years of the last decade, there was widespread concern about growing environmental issues, industrial competitiveness, decay of inner cities, changes in workplace and family, employer mistrust, adjustment to new technology- and such an array of factors pointing towards a society undergoing great changes.Experts at the Harvard Business School responded to these emerging tides by calling for a "Rediscovery of Purpose" as the failing faith in business was diagnosed as the symptoms of an absence of vision and insufficiency of values. There was a tremendous response to this call, as was seen in the introduction of courses and publication of books on ethics related to management and business. Very soon, there emerged in fact, a large proliferation of books and courses on the subject. As we move in to the new century there is a second wave of complexity--at work, people are frustrated by organisational politics, daunted by increasing workloads and a fear of redundancy, and losing a sense of meaning in work and life. As recent commentators have have emphasised, if our economic lives are out of control, dominated by soulless financial markets and clouded by corporate down sizing, how do we discover an ethic which would bring joy to the workplace and bring back a connectedness through work, life, home and society. This paper will explore resources to find possible answers to this question- not in inventing a new ethical theory, but relocating the ethics we already have, not merely in terms of ethical principles, theories and protocols, but in terms of social and emotional intelligence, which may give our ethics a fresh focus and authenticity.

Maarten de Vries (MBBS, MHP, FRACMA, FAFPHM, FAIM, Principal, MDV Leadership and Management): 'Betrayal by Language, Vile & Evil' Saturday 9.00-9.30am (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

The misuse of language, whether deliberate or slovenly, is unethical. Without a reliable framework of language that can be trusted and understood, ethical discussion (and especially rhetoric) is fruitless at best, and at worst, potentially pernicious. This is illustrated with examples from history, literature, and the Australian and local scene. The greatest danger, highlighted by philosophers and commentators around the world, is that "ethical" language is used to maintain or enhance the concentration of power in vested interests' hands. Its abuse, which led to the excesses of the Roman Empire, the Inquisition, the Nazi regime, Stalinist Russia, and some recent military "adventure" etc, may lead to similar excesses in the future. I contend that ethical behaviour is (fortunately) potentially more powerful than ethical rhetoric, otherwise humanity would be doomed. I call on truly ethical beings to oppose vigorously the wilful or lazy misuse of language, especially in public debate.

Peter Dolnik (Philosophy, University of NSW) 'Ethics and Social Work: Searching for the Reflective Equilibrium' Sunday 1.45-2.15pm (Junior Common Room)

A standard approach to teaching applied ethics is this: first moral theories are outlined (relativism, utilitarianism, deontology, etc.) and then it is illustrated how the theories apply to moral cases. Of course, different theories might come up with different outcomes when applied to the same case. Here is a standard question posed by a student of applied ethics: Which of these theories should I accept as a member of my profession? In the paper I argue for an answer in relation to the Social Work profession in Australia. In particular, I will argue for these two points: (1) the moral theory that should be accepted by Australian Social Workers depends on the definition (nature) of their profession and (2) when it comes to applied ethics for Social workers, it is reasonable to accept ethical pluralism, i.e. a moral theory that was appropriate for the profession, say, two decades ago might not be necessarily appropriate today.

Virginia Falk (Charles Sturt University): 'Corporate Responsibliity and Environment' Saturday 3.30-4.45pm (Mellick Room)

Corporate responsibility and environment to Indigenous Peoples There is an ethical dilema faced by Indigenous Peoples eho are confronted with engaging with multinationals on a daily level through the collision with company and citizen. Ehical considerations of the corporation are a truism based on the capitalist nature of economic forces that have harnessed Indigenous Australians in an unenviable position of powerlessness. The corporation discourages the individualism of human agency and absorbs nations og Indigenous Australians into a globally palatable capitalist machine. Indigenous Australians have taken their voice to the international arena where instruments of the United Nation are preferred to government legislation, in order to address the general void of ethics in protecting Indigenous Australians and their 'country'. (an Indigenous term for homeland) Demands on the economic 'progress' of Australian Nationhood has created an ad hoc incorporation of the ethical foundations necessary to thwart corporate narcissm. The overall government pandering to corporation has ensured that ethical considerations are simply prioritised as a component to a business checklist and offer only a discourse of colonial power.

Josie Fisher (University of New England): 'What if Kohlberg is Right? Implications for teaching applied ethics' Saturday 4.50-5.20pm (Junior Common Room)

Lawrence Kohlberg's stage theory of cognitive moral development, although controversial, remains one of the most influential cognitive-structural perspectives on moral development. According to Kohlberg and his followers there are three identifiable levels of moral reasoning each comprising two stages. Individuals pass through these stages sequentially and they do not use reasoning associated with more than two adjacent stages. Furthermore, individuals are not able to comprehend moral reasoning more than one stage above the stage at which they are currently reasoning (though they can comprehend reasoning at lower stages). While progress through these stages is age related, it is not age dependent. With each successive stage an individual's moral judgements become less susceptible to outside influences, and their conception of what is right shifts from a self-centred conception to a broader understanding of the importance of social contracts and principles of justice and rights. If Kohlberg's theory is correct, then there are implications for teaching applied ethics to internal undergraduate students. Most internal undergraduate students will be at stage 3 or in transition using reasoning that reflects both stages 3 and 4. Research by Colby et al. (1983) suggests that approximately 70% of undergraduate students who are between 18 and 22 years of age will be reasoning at these stages. The crucial implication of Kohlberg's theory is that these students are not able to comprehend moral reasoning at stages 5 or 6, however, this is exactly what most applied ethics texts and courses seem to require.

Chris Gardiner (Regional Manager for Catholic Health Care Services Ltd.): 'Getting ‘Good’ Decisions: beyond the 6,7, or 10 step approach to organizational decision making' Saturday 9.00-9.30am (Junior Common Room)

This paper explores how senior managers might best understand organisational decision making in terms of the production and management of ‘good’ decisions — decisions that are technically and ethically defensible, and of value to the organisation. In contrast to various simple decision models, a multi-level and multi-factor approach to understanding organisational decision making will be outlined across four areas: the personal character of the decision-maker; the character of the decision-process; the character of the organisation; and the characteristics of the organisation’s external environment. The work of Argyris, Bandura, Bazerman, Beach, Hickson, Janis, March, Mintzberg, Schein, Steinberger, and Werhane is drawn on in an integrative approach to decision making. As a result of this overview, the issue of manager and organisational competencies will be explored to give a guide to areas of organisational development such as leadership development, cultural development and knowledge management.

Chris Gardiner (Regional Manager for Catholic Health Care Services Ltd.): 'Quality Elder Care in Nursing Homes — who’s responsible?' Sunday 2.20-2.50pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

There has been considerable publicity concerning the standards of care and levels of expenditure by the community, consumer and government in residential aged care in Australia over the last twelve months. This paper explores the level of care provided in nursing homes for the very frail and for dementia sufferers. It provides insights into the actual cost, care and salary structure in a sample facility and into the level of care a small facility is able to provide to a an older person in its care. The paper asks the question as to what level of care is consistent with an understanding of minimal needs for dignity and well-being for a person. It will invite a discussion from the audience as to their views on this issue and ask the question as to who should be responsible for funding the level of care identified as adequate. It raises the issue of the rights of an older person to quality care and our obligations to provide that care. It further asks the question as to whether the self-provision of a person for their own care throughout life effects our understanding of their rights and our obligations The paper will raise the question as to whether the ethics of quality care for the elderly requires a system of compulsory insurance for health and aged care.

Stephen M. Gardiner (Philosohy, University of Canterbury): 'Population, the Environment and Tragedies of the Commons' Saturday 11.35am-12.05pm (Mellick Room)

In a widely anthologized article, Garrett Hardin argues that the problem of rapidly increasing world population can be characterized as "a tragedy of the commons", and that coercion of those in developing countries is the appropriate solution. In this paper, I argue that Hardin's analysis is mistaken, and that even if it were correct this would not show that coercion is the appropriate response. However, I also claim that one aspect of the problem posed by rapid population growth - the problem of global environmental degredation - does have has a structure similar to that of a tragedy of the commons. However, the character of this problem suggests very different solutions than Hardin's.

Peter Gorman (Barrister): 'Professional Managerial Ethical Expertise: The Public Service Ethics Act' Sunday 9.30-10.35am (Junior Common Room)

In all walks of life, in every trade and profession, we all see and experience bullying in one form or another, no one is immune. Bullying takes many forms from the trivial - the car driver who pushes in during rush hour traffic; to the extreme - who leaves us physically and mentally harmed. Many words are used to describe bullying and each in its own way is apt. In my view, bullying is an offence against the dignity and respect of another. It may also be described as an attitude problem where one person deliberately intimidates, stands over and harasses another. The background to victimisation can, for example, be shortcomings in the organisation of work, the internal information system or the direction of work, excessive or insufficient workload or levels of demand, shortcomings of the employer's personnel policy or in the employer's attitude or response to the employees. Unsolved, persistent organisational problems cause powerful and negative mental strain in working groups. The group's stress tolerance diminishes and this can cause a "scapegoat mentality" and trigger acts of rejection against individual employees. The fact that causes of the problems are to be looked for in conditions at the workplace is especially apparent when several persons have been ostracised over a longer period, one by one, through various forms of victimisation. Sometimes, of course, there may also be causes of victimisation or attempts at ostracisation that are to be found in an individual person's choice of action or behaviour. Often, one can find that, even in these cases, the root cause is unsatisfactory work situations brought about by a lack of managerial professionalism or workplace ethics.

Alan Hall (Education, University of Waikato): 'Teachers As ‘Hired Guns’: Some Ethical Questions About Inter-School Competition' Sunday 9.30-10.00am (Mellick Room)

The paper considers whether the ethical obligations of teachers in self-managing schools are only to the pupils of their own schools or whether they also have wider responsibilities towards the community and the teaching profession as a whole. The system of self-managing schools in New Zealand encourages competition for students and resources. It is possible for a school to set out to attract students from other schools in order to increase its resources and improve the educational opportunities for its students at the expense of those available to the students of the other schools. The practice poses ethical questions for teachers who work in schools that pursue such initiatives, especially if they help formulate or implement policy. A specific case is analysed and it is argued that the non-tuist attitude that some boards of trustees adopt towards other schools is inappropriate for members of a helping profession. Teachers have obligations to learners beyond those of their own schools, at least to minimize harm likely to result from their school’s competitive practices and they should speak out to inform the public debate about such matters. However, some inter-school competitive practices are considered ethically more acceptable than others.

Howard Harris (School of International Business, University of South Australia): 'An Australian view of Spirituality at Work' Sunday 12.05-12.35pm (Mellick Room)

‘The intersection of spirituality with business leadership is currently the most published new topic in business school literature’ according to Leigh-Taylor (2000). This paper begins with a discussion of a number of aspects of spirituality and then examines two strands of evidence regarding the Australian approach to spirituality at work. Six aspects of spirituality are discernible in the literature - the nature of the spiritual relationship, the sources of spirituality, the linkage between spirituality and action, the purpose to which spirituality is put, the tools used in spiritual development, and the nature of the spiritual realm. After reviewing three studies of the importance placed on spirituality by Australians, the examines the extent to which the six aspects are discernible in 100 spirituality and work stories which appeared in The Australian newspaper in 1999. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of this renewed interest in spirituality at work for the teaching of corporate ethics.

Nigel Harris (Philosophy, Dundee University): 'Should ethicists have their own code of ethics?' Saturday 1.45-2.15pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

The growing use of philosophers and other academics as expert ethical advisers raises issues about the professionalism of those acting in such a role. One way in which professions attempt to demonstrate their professionalism is through the adoption of a code of conduct or code of ethics. By investigating the extent to which it would be appropriate to produce such a code for ethicists, I hope to highlight major issues about professionalism in ethical advising. Some initial questions about the appropriateness of a code, e.g. a lack of specialist training and the fact that most such work is ancillary to an adviser’s main occupation, can, I think, be answered. If such a code were appropriate then the question arises about possible clauses to be included. I list some principles that might be included, taken with minor modifications from codes of existing professional bodies, covering such matters as maintaining confidentiality and avoiding conflicts of interest. However, whilst most of these seem uncontroversial, one principle in particular which might be included is especially problematic, namely, a requirement to act objectively. Whilst most professions accept a body of relevant theory as an established foundation on which to base advice, the same cannot be true for ethical advising. Can an ethicist avoid giving biased advice through having a particular ethical standpoint? Is it possible to take a neutral standpoint? Should the ethicist be expected to declare his or her general ethical position, or where different ethical theories would produce different advice should alternative courses of action be presented? I shall devote the latter part of the paper to discussing these questions.

John Harrison (School of Communication, Queensland University of Technology): A tale of two codes: A comparative analysis of the Public Relations Institute of Australia Code of Ethics and the Media Entertainment & Arts Alliance Code of Ethics. Saturday 4.50-5.20pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

This paper offers a commentary on the codes of ethics adopted by public relations practitioners and journalists in Australia, both of which have been subject to recent revision. The paper examines each code as a deontological instrument designed to represent the duty each 'profession' owes to its stakeholders. It also examines the deficiencies of each code in light of the literature on the limitations of codes. The paper concludes that the PRIA Code has greater transparency and integrity than the MEAA Code.

Rhyl Hurley (Queensland Criminal Justice Commission): 'Loyalty and the Awesome Responsibility of Administrators Making the Most of it' Saturday 4.50-5.20pm (Mellick Room)

The virtue of loyalty ought to be an incentive for responsible administrators and administration. This paper examines the links between judgements about loyalty, improving organisational culture, and favourable outcomes. It draws on both administrative experience in building ethical culture in the independent and state education sectors and findings of surveys on police culture. Strengthening avenues of informal resolution of dilemmas of loyalty, such as the notion of 'loyal opposition', will also be briefly explored.

Robert Kelso (Lecturer in Philosophy, Central Queensland University): 'Codes of Conduct for non-metropolitan settings: Mapping the terrain' Saturday 2.20-2.50pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

Changes to legislation and regulations, together with the withdrawal of funding, services and personnel from many non-metropolitan communities in Queensland, has resulted in unintended problems for Public Sector employees and the communities they serve. Improving public sector performance is a key to developing a more efficient, ethical and socially just society. Public sector workers in non-metropolitan and isolated settings, cannot draw upon the same level of formal and informal support which is available to their metropolitan counterparts. This is especially important where the state and its agents provide a significant percentage of the community services as well as the physical and formal political infrastructure. Public sector entities in Queensland are required to have a code which reflects the aims of the Public Sector Ethics Act (1994). Those codes are expected to reflect employees' understandings and expectations of best practice in public administration. The paper reports on preliminary research which aims to address the challenges faced by non-metropolitan Public Sector workers following the introduction of the Public Sector Ethics Act Code of Conduct in their workplace. The information gained from this pilot project provides indicators for what may be happening in other non-metropolitan settings in Queensland. Public Sector employees' understandings will be identified as starting points for a wider research project which will hopefully lead to professional development programs to help individuals and work units develop more effective practices.

Bruce Langtry (Department of Philosophy, University of Melbourne): PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: 'Accountability and Business' Friday 7.30-8.30pm (Mellick Room)

Sections 1 and 2 of the paper offer a general analysis of accountability: What is it? How does it arise? How is related to responsibility? I provide a taxonomy of accountability duties. In Section 3 I distinguish between being accountable and its being the case that one should be made accountable. These initial three sections set the scene for my discussion of accountability in business in the remainder of the paper. Sections 4 and 5 address the questions: Are there are distinctively moral accountability requirements on businesses that are not derived from the demands of law or convention? If so, why do such moral requirements exist?

Keekok Lee (University of Lancaster): ‘Biotechnology: not only ethics but also ontology’ Saturday 12.10-12.40pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

In this discussion, the term ‘biotechnology’ is used, in particular, to refer to the new technology, also called ‘genetic engineering’, induced by the basic science of DNA or molecular genetics. It differs from older technologies including double-cross hybridization (itself generated via Mendelian genetics) used primarily in the breeding of plants and animals. Its unique characteristic is that it permits the creation of transgenic organisms or chimeras, that is, organisms which contain, as a result of direct human manipulation at the level of DNA molecule, genetic material which crosses species as well as kingdom boundaries. Such organisms may be just as complex, intricate, diverse, beautiful or useful than either naturally-occurring organisms or the domesticates of more conservative breeding techniques and technologies up to now. In other words, in terms of mere axiological values, there may be no loss of values involved in the creation of such transgenic organisms. Yet to hold this simpliciter is to leave out a very significant philosophical dimension, namely, the ontological one. Even more so than the double-cross hybrids of Mendelian genetics and technology, the transgenic organism establishes definitively the deep level at which humans can now fabricate biotic artefacts. These differ ontologically from naturally-occurring organisms. And when compared to the double-cross hybrids, they may be said to display an even greater degree of artefacticity. The loss of naturally-occurring organisms via their potential systematic replacement by transgenic ones (as well as, of course, from the destruction of their habitats) involves, therefore, a loss of ontological, not merely, axiological value.

Norva Yeuk-Sze Lo (University of Western Australia): 'Callicott on Hume and Holism' Saturday 12.10-12.40pm (Mellick Room)

Alan Carter (2000) argues that Baird Callicott's "partial reading of Hume" does not support his allegedly Humean yet holistic approach to environmental philosophy - which recommends that we care for "our communities per se, over and above their individual members" (Callicott 1988), and that "the summum bonum resides in the 'biotic community' and moral value or moral standing devolves upon plants, animals, people, and even soils and waters by virtue of their membership in this (vastly) large-then-human society" (Callicott 1982). While I think Carter is right in pointing out that Callicott has not provided adequate textual support from Hume's 'Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals' for his own holism, I shall further argue that Callicott's attempt to find the same kind of support from Hume's 'Treatise of Human Nature' also fails. I shall conclude that Callicott's holistic approach to environmental philosophy is at least non-Humean and at worst un-Humean.

Seumas Miller (Professor of Social Philosophy and Director, ARC Commonwealth Special Research Centre in Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics, Charles Sturt University): 'Collective Moral Responsibility as Joint Moral Responsibility' Friday 4.30-5.30pm (Forgan Smith Building Room E357)

There are doubtless a number of different notions of collective moral responsibility. However, in my view the core notion of collective moral responsibility derives from the notion of joint action. Roughly speaking, joint actions are actions involving two or more people performing interdependent action in order to realise some common goal eg. a team of players seeking to win a game of football. In the case of a morally significant joint action, each agent is individually morally responsible for performing his or her contributory action, and the other agents are not responsible for that person's contributory action. But, in addition, the contributing agents are collectively morally responsible for the outcome or collective end of their various contributory actions.

John Morgan (Australian Institute of Ethics and the Professions): 'Business, Religion and the Market' Saturday 9.35-10.05am (Junior Common Room)

The paper begins with a survey of the Judeo-Christian approach to property, work and wealth. The rise of a different approach in the western world beginning with a growing stress on individualism from the 14th Century and the unleashing of what Weber called "the spirit of capitalism" from the time of the Protestant reformation is rehearsed. The idea of the market system as portrayed by Adam Smith is examined and the question is explored as to what Smith meant by "the invisible hand". Some leading criticisms of the market economy are noted and the questions of participation and justice are raised. The position of the churches in the western world is presented as an aspect of the desire to "tame" the market and offer a fuller view of the human person.

Jeremy Moss (Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics University of Melbourne): 'The Concept of Mutual Obligation' Saturday 12.10-12.40pm (Junior Common Room)

For a number of years now debate about welfare in English speaking countries has revolved around the idea that welfare recipients should give something back to society. In Australia, for instance, a significant proportion of the unemployed are liable to perform Mutual Obligation activities. One of the rhetorical justifications for these increased obligations is that they restore the balance between the rights that welfare recipients have and the responsibilities they owe to the state. This new range of enforceable obligations that the unemployed are said to have to society raises the question of what sort of obligations citizens of a given state have to that state and on what basis they owe such obligations. My approach to these questions will be to discuss some of the possible justifications for mutual obligation beginning with some of the classical statements of political obligation in the social contract tradition. I will then consider a more recent interpretation of contract theory in the work of John Rawls. Rawls' work is salient here in that it construes the basis of obligations as stemming from a "principle of fairness". Fairness is especially relevant in the current context because appeals to give something back are so often motivated by a version of the principle of fairness. I will also discuss gratitude as a basis of political obligation. I will argue that none of these approaches provide a justification of the coercive nature of the Mutual Obligation scheme.

Bryan Mowry (Associate Professor and Co-Director, Queensland Centre for Schizophrenia Research, Wolston Park Hospital, Wacol): 'Ethics and The Research Patient' Saturday 11.35-12.05pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

Concepts of ethics and research are discussed and the need for medical research ethics is illustrated with examples from the history of medical research. The emergence of professional codes of ethical and legal guidelines is seen as a necessary but not sufficient condition to safeguard the research patient. To parallel this development, researchers need to be self-reflective in their relationship with their research patients, keeping in mind ethical principles such as respect for persons (autonomy), benefiting others (benificence), and justice, and applying these principles to issues such as informed consent and risk/benefit assessment.

Linda Newman and Lois Pollnitz (Learning Development and Early Education, University of Western Sydney): 'Ethical Response Cycle' Saturday 5.25-5.55pm (Mellick Room)

In this presentation, a new approach to teaching applied ethics will be outlined. The approach was initially developed for early childhood teacher education students but is also applicable for other students preparing to enter professions. Early childhood teacher education students undertaking the fieldwork component of their courses have always experienced some problematic situations. In the new century there is increasing complexity in the profession of early childhood education that demands a response by the tertiary educators who prepare the next generation of professionals. In Western society there is talk of a general moral decline, accompanied by a technological revolution. In the micro world of early childhood education there is also a "revolution of childhood studies" (Kincheloe, 1997) as post modern notions impact on traditional preparation and practice approaches. Concurrently, changes to government funding in Australia are impacting on operations. As early childhood care and education services are increasingly related to … the social capital for healthy and wealthy local communities (Dahlberg, Moss & Pence, 1999), the work of the early childhood educator increasingly gains complexity. In difficult, and rapidly changing times, dilemmas can arise and should be resolved ethically, using sensitive and sound reasoning. The response from teacher educators and education professionals in leadership positions to the need for ethical frameworks for teaching has been slow. Within this context the authors have developed, and will present a new model of ethical response, developed specifically for early childhood education, but applicable to other professions. The "Ethical Response Cycle" (ERC) is shown as a cyclical diagram representing the ongoing, fluid and non-hierarchical nature of ethical judgement that is needed by professionals in response to any problematic situation. The purpose of the model is to facilitate professional preparation for, and later practitioner response to, aspects of early childhood education and professional life requiring judgement and demanding ‘the burden of choice’. It is about the ‘hard stuff’, the multiple perspectives, the diversity, the messiness, the complexities. It is about the elements of professional life that cannot be easily prepared for, the non-technical aspects of the work early childhood professionals do with children and families. In short, it is about the ethical issues that make our professional lives interesting, demanding and rewarding in the long run.

Barbara Nunn (Philosophy, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University): 'The Ethical Dimensions of Self-Care' Friday 4.30-5.30pm (Forgan Smith Building Room E232)

A moral obligation to practise appropriate self care should be taught as part of the ethics education, not just part of the health care, of police officers. I will answer the question, "To whom do police officers owe the duty of self-care?" Then I will address the kinds of institutional practices that would need to be in place to enable police officers to meet this obligation. I will discuss whether these claims might also apply to other service providers, for example, researchers, nurses and clergy.

Conor O’Leary (School of Accountancy, Queensland University of Technology) and Renee Radich (School of Economics and Financial Studies, Macquarie University): 'Accepting Bribes, Cheating and Whistleblowing. A Review of the Ethical Attitudes of Final Year Accountancy Students' Saturday 5.25-5.55pm (Junior Common Room)

Ethical behaviour is a critical component of the accountancy/auditing profession. This study examines ethical attitudes of final year accountancy students in Australia. Students were surveyed as to whether they would accept a bribe to defraud a public institution (Taxation Office) or shareholders, cheat in an exam, and/or become whistleblowers in differing circumstances. A high proportion of students appeared willing to accept the bribe (25% Taxation Office and 20% shareholders). This percentage plummeted when the risk of being caught was introduced (9% Taxation Office and 6% shareholders). The difference between male and female responses was significant. Males appeared four times more likely than females to act unethically. 28% of students appeared willing to cheat in an exam. Interestingly, the difference between male and female responses was less significant. Again the risk of being caught drastically reduced these figures (6%). Just greater than 50% of students appeared willing to become whistleblowers for the frauds against the Taxation Office and shareholders, however, only 8% would whistleblow on cheating in an examination. Finally the implications for educators, attempting to provide effective ethical education for trainee accountants/auditors, are considered.

John Pearn (Major-General and Surgeon General, Australian Defence Medical Ethics Committee) and Major Rosemary Landy (Secretariat Australian Defence Medical Ethics Committee): 'Special Issues in Defence Ethics' Sunday 1.45-2.15pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

Medical research in the defence domain imposes extra constraints upon investigators. Reciprocally, medico-ethical issues in the military have done much to advance thinking and practice in the civilian world of biomedical research. This paper highlights some controversies and contemporary themes relating to medical research in the military domain. Issues of "captive subjects", "a priori intention to publish research undertaken in the military domain", "allowable risk", "quantification of risk for volunteer subject interpretation", "privacy/confidentiality issues", "no detriment" provisions, and "informed consent" are issues with particular relevance to biomedical research of a defence nature. A study of 15 members of institutional medical research committees adjudicating on allowable research of captive subjects, has indicated the primacy of the themes of "captive" subjects and of the quantification of risk when projects are presented to potential volunteers for participation into biomedical research. This paper reviews these issues, with implications not only for servicemen and women; but for children, the aged, prisoners, the intellectually disabled and students.

John Pearn (Professor of Paediatrics and Child Health, Deputy Head of UQ Graduate School of Medicine, and Chair of Children's Hospital and District Medical Ethics Committee): 'Ethical Issues in Stereotyping' Saturday 9.35-10.05am (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

Stereotyping is a subject of singular relevance to ethics in general and bioethics in particular. Every medical interaction to the doctor-patient dyad has the potential to involve individuals in a stereotypic view of the other member. Such has the potential to occur in traditional doctor-patient consultations, where often at first interview both doctor and patient bring an a priori view of the others likely persona. Such potential for stereotyping applied equally to biomedical research where the dyad is between volunteer-patient on the one hand and a medical researcher on the other. Stereotyping is an ethical vice when the risk of association between individual and perceived characteristics is relatively low, by contrast, when the risk of association between individual and the character stereotyped is high, not to stereotype may be dangerous. Whether stereotyping is ethically good or bad relates quantitatively to the degree of mathematical risk of association. Along this continuum of risk-association there is a point or zone when stereotypic associations change from being a vice to that of a virtue. This paper explores the implications of this "ethically neutral" zone in the context of medical stereotyping; but with implications for stereotyping more generally in the societal context.

Patricia Petersen : 'Ethics and the Media' Saturday 5.25-5.55pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

The point of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the extent to which the press is under obligation to print the truth and (2) to investigate whether "objective" report writing is possible. I shall argue that although it is impossible for reporters to produce stories which match reality, they are ethically obliged to strive for balance and fairness. Moreover, I shall argue that although journalists bring their own value systems and beliefs to their job, they nevertheless are capable of ethical self-monitoring and therefore generally able to present the full spectrum of fact, untarnished by personal interest.

Noel Preston (Adjunct Professor, Griffith Univ Key Centre for Ethics Law Justice and Governance, and Associate of Queensland University of Technology Centre for the Study of Ethics) 'Codifying Ethical Conduct for Australian Parliaments (1990-1999)' Sunday 11.00am-12.00noon (Mellick Room)

In the closing decade of the twentieth century increasing attention was given to the codification of ethical standards among public officials, internationally and throughout Australian jurisdictions. This paper describes, analyses and compares the limited Australian codification initiatives for elected public officials in State and Federal parliaments over this period, with particular focus on the New South Wales and Queensland legislatures. The paper shows that Members of Parliament are reluctant to adopt Codes of Ethics or Conduct and forecasts that a focus on Codes alone, without a range of supporting ethics initiatives, is likely to be of little effect.

Greg Pritchard (Deakin University): 'What Rights the Dead?' Sunday 12.05-12.35pm (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

Recent claims as to the availability (and desirability) of 'Jurassic Park' technology to bring Thylacines back to life using only their preserved DNA poses many ethical questions. I will look at the implications of such technology with regard to many questions and investigate what possible ethical framework could be used in justification. There are seemingly endless questions raised by such programs. Is it right to spend large sums of money to bring one (or any species) back into existence? Could this money be better spent preserving habitat and what species that remain? How does the Zoo industry's claim to a moral high ground, in that they house species that are no longer in existence in the wild, hold up with the advent of such technologies? Is there a hierarchy of desired species to bring back? What rights, if any, do dead species have to resurrection? How do we construct the term 'natural' and the term 'wild'? Could a thylacine resurrected ever be released, ever be wild? The thylacine is not only extinct but its niche as a higher predator has been usurped by introduced species. Does the Australian bush need another predator? There are many species world wide that have disappeared whose position in the ecosystem has not been replaced. Surely they have greater claims to a rebirth? The only grounds on which to argue for such a program is purely utilitarian, and verges on selfish. It is hard to see what 'goods' would arise from the existence again of the Tasmanian Tiger. Is it a program to assuage our guilt at being complicit in its removal? Is this psychological 'good' worthwhile, the comfort one would receive from knowing of its existence, in the same way as some people gain comfort from the existence of wilderness without ever visiting it.

Chris Provis (School of International Business, University of South Australia): 'Ethics and Emotional Labour' Saturday 1.45-2.15pm (Mellick Room)

"Emotional labour" is a phrase coined by Arlie Hochschild in The Managed Heart (1983) where she reported a study mainly of flight attendants (partly, also, of debt collectors). Emotional labour consists of managing emotions, normally so as to present an appearance which is appealing or acceptable to a customer: in Hochschild’s phrase, being "nicer than natural" (in the case of the debt collectors, however, being "nastier than natural"). Hochschild and a number of subsequent authors have considered whether problems of "authenticity" arise in emotional labour, problems to do with the fact that the workers’ emotional display does not represent in an authentic way what they feel or are inclined to feel. By and large, these authors imply that such a lack of authenticity is in some way a bad thing for the individual worker. To some extent, it has been suggested that the requirement for inauthentic expression has bad consequences such as emotional "burnout", perhaps because it involves "emotive dissonance" and psychological stress. Empirical study has cast doubt on the suggestion that emotional labour tends to result in "burnout". This paper investigates other possible concerns. Some of these have to do with authenticity, since people’s emotions are closely connected with their values and self-conception. However, whether an emotional display is problematic may depend primarily on whether the emotions are good ones, rather than whether the display is authentic. Particular concerns have to do with manipulation and deceit, since emotional labour often has to do with influencing others through feigning some emotional display.

Paul Rasmussen (University of Queensland): 'Disability, transplantation surgery and public health care' Sunday 12.05-12.35pm (Junior Common Room)

I intend to discuss the problems raised by denying disabled persons access to surgery such as organ transplantation via publicly funded health care systems. I will be contending that fully functional persons, have a greater right to these forms of surgery which are a matter of survival and that it is justified even obligatory for doctors and administrators to either place severely mentally disabled human beings on the bottom of the waiting lists or to exclude them altogether. The paper will also discuss the ramifications of these ethical considerations for bioethics in the 21st century

Don Saunders (Western Australia Public Sector Standards Commissioner): 'Monitoring Public Sector Ethics' Sunday 11.00am-12.00noon (Mellick Room)

In 1994 following an extensive Royal Commission into the government and public sector of Western Australia as a result of some significant political scandals, a new Public Sector Management Act was established which created an independent Office of Commissioner for Public Sector Standards reporting to Parliament. The new Office was given responsibility to establish standards in human resource management and the Western Australian Public Sector Code of Ethics and responsibility to monitor and report to Parliament on compliance with those standards and codes. Over the last 5 years, in addition to establishing the standards and codes, a formal process of monitoring individual public sector agencies and reporting on compliance to Parliament has been established. The process includes a formal review of individual agencies carried out by private contractors, a confidential employee survey on ethics and HR practices which is analysed and compared to whole of public sector data, and a process for examining individual complaints of unethical behaviour by using the services, the Office's own staff or independent inquirers.

Sharon Schembri (Graduate School of Management, University of Queensland): 'Swingers in our midst: evidence of context specific ethical assessment' Saturday 1.45-2.15pm (Junior Common Room)

This study reports on the fickle nature of individual ethical assessment in specific contextual circumstances. Using a broad based definition of normative ethics and a methodology of scenario based vignettes, individuals making ethical assessments are shown to swing from one ethical approach to the opposite extreme according to the contextual circumstances. Through the identification of an individual's predominant ethical orientation, evidence is provided of individuals assessing ethical situations in a manner inconsistent with their identified predominant ethical orientation. Individuals identified as holding a predominantly utilitarian orientation are shown to use a formalistic framework in certain contexts, while formalists are shown to focus on consequences in certain situations. The propensity of individuals to swing from one ethical orientation to another of contrary reasoning is an area highlighted for further research. Similarly, delineation of the particular contextual circumstances associated with switching ethical orientations is also highlighted for further research.

Michael Schwartz (Course Leader for the B. Business (Marketing) at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology): 'Drucker and the Ethics of German Industrialists' Friday 4.30-5.30pm (Forgan Smith Building Room E220)

The paper takes a historical perspective. It considers initially the period prior to the First World War, when the Ruhr industrialists collaborated with the Junker agrarians, to thwart economic liberalism, and protect their home markets. It then considers the period after that war, and the ongoing conflict between the heavy industrialists concentrating on the domestic market, versus the light manufacturers seeking foreign markets. It questions how this conflict, along with the emergence of Keynesian economic thought, might have influenced Drucker, who was then working in Weimar, towards his theory of management, and his misgivings as to the ethics of management.

Edward Spence (Charles Sturt University): Gyges' Ring: The Anatomy of Corruption Saturday 11.35am-12.05pm (Junior Common Room)

The paper will explore the anatomy of professional corruption through the myth of Gyges in Plato's Republic. Instances of academic,media, and police corrupton will be discussed.

Daniel Star (City University of Hong Kong), 'Do Confucians Really Care?' Sunday 10.05-10.35am (Sylvia Pidgeon Room)

The 'ethic of care' is a fairly recent addition to the catalogue of ethics that are of interest to modern ethicists, inasmuch as it has only been in the last two decades that this ethic has begun to be articulated and defended. The Confucian ethic, on the other hand, has a very long history of being acknowledged as an important ethic, although, as with the ethic of care, it has only been in fairly recent times that it has begun to be viewed by the world community as having anything philosophically interesting to contribute to moral philosophy in general. During the last decade, articles have been published in which arguments have been presented for the view that the Confucian and care ethics are similar in nature. The present paper aims to show that the comparisons that have been made are, in crucial respects, superficial and misleading. The Confucian ethic can be better understood as a particular kind of virtue ethic, rather than a care ethic. The Confucian and care ethics in fact differ substantially in their approaches to the human relationships they consider it essential to take account of in moral deliberations. Each approach to ethics has its own strengths and weaknesses.

Peter Tod (MB BS), 'Ecumenical and Scientific Ethics for the New Millenium' Saturday 9.35-10.05am (Mellick Room)

Basic ethics are being contravened in regard to those innocents, our children and grandchildren. For some thirty years, the world’s greatest scientists have been telling us that we are wilfully endangering future life on earth by human overpopulation, depletion of Earth’s natural resources and pollution of the environment. For example, in 1992, the majority of Nobel laureates in the sciences (in a group of some 1670 scientists) announced that we must act forthwith on these problems. In the following year, the world’s leading Academies of the Sciences, including the Academies of the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia spoke in similar strong terms. As Yale Professor of history Paul Kennedy announced, "The forces for change facing the world are so far-reaching that we need to re-equip ourselves with a system of ethics and a sense of fairness."

Nicole Vincent (University of Adelaide): 'What's at stake in taking responsibility: lessons from third-party insurance' Friday 3.10-4.10pm (Forgan Smith Building Room E232)

Third party property insurance protects the insured from financial ruin in such cases as, for example, accidentally back-ending a Rolls Royce Silver Shadow due to inadequate concentration whilst driving. Taking out third party insurance also guarantees that we can meet our obligation to victims who may otherwise go uncompensated. Ought we therefore take out third party property insurance? The answer to this question hinges on what's at stake in "taking responsibility". It could be argued that it is unfair that others' choices of motor vehicle should determine the extent of our liability. Had they chosen to drive a cheaper car our liability would be smaller, but because they chose a Rolls Royce our liability is huge. Since others are responsible for their choice of vehicle, why should we be liable for their choices? This objection, along with others, will be considered in an effort to show that although injurers are often required to compensate their victims for their losses, no principles of justice necessitate that compensation ought to flow from injurer to victim. This means that we are not obliged to take out third-party insurance because we have no moral obligation to compensate our victims for their losses.

Jane Walton (Ethica Management Group): 'An Ethical Education?' Sunday 1.45-2.15pm (Mellick Room)

Human capital — intelligence, skill and information possessed by individuals is now being named as the ‘critical factor’ for production and continued growth of prosperity. Business is realizing the importance of ethics to its operations, in particular culture, governance, and risk minimization strategies. Who is preparing young people for lives in a business world that allows and even encourages the raising of ethical issues as part of the general decision- making process? This paper will consider some of the difficulties of ‘teaching ethics’ and, in particular, teaching it in the nation’s schools. . How do we avoid reducing ethics to mere motherhood statements? How do we introduce the study of ethics in schools against the background of a system that may not be ethical? Does Australia’s pluralistic culture present further difficulties? The paper will draw upon research that has been carried out in NSW that examines the community assumptions that lie at the base of education in this country. The paper will give a preview of some of the findings of the research and conclusions that might be drawn for the future of education in Australia and , in particular, for ethical education.

Martin Wilkinson (University of Auckland): 'Parental Consent and the Use of Dead Children's Bodies' Friday 3.10-4.10pm (Forgan Smith Building Room E357)

It has recently become known that, in Liverpool and elsewhere, bits of children's bodies were taken at post-mortem and used for research without the parents being told. But should parental consent be sought before using children's bodies for medical purposes? I argue that parental consent is overrated and I do this by rejecting arguments for consent from dead children's interests, property rights, family autonomy, and religious freedom. I defend the claim that the only direct reason to get parental consent is to avoid distressing the parents, and I point out the radical implications for the consent process, secret harvesting of body parts, and the weight to be given to parental feelings.

(2) Timetable for the Conference

Friday afternoon sessions will be held in the Forgan Smith Building, University of Queensland

All other sessions will be held at St John's College, University of Queensland






AAP-AAPAE Joint sessions

12 :00-1.45


AAPAE Committee Meeting (12:15-1:45)



Keynote address — Forgan Smith E213

Andrew Brennan: Better Policy Processes


Forgan Smith E357

Martin Wilkinson

The Use of Dead Children's Bodies

Forgan Smith E232

Nicole Vincent:

Should Responsible Drivers take out Insurance?



BREAK (Afternoon Tea)


Forgan Smith E357

Seumas Miller

Collective Responsibility and Omissions

Forgan Smith E232

Barbara Nunn:

Ethical Dimensions of Self-Care

Forgan Smith E220

Michael Schwartz

Drucker and the ethics of German Industrialists







Bruce Langtry: Accountability and Business





Damian Cox

Integrity and Politics

Maarten de Vries:

Betrayal by Language

Chris Gardiner:

Organisational Decision-Making


Peter Tod:

Ecumenical and Scientific Ethics for the New Millennium

John Pearn:

Ethical Issues in Stereotyping

John Morgan:

Business, Religion and the Market


BREAK (Morning Tea)


Keynote address:

Brenda Almond: Biomedical Technology in a Humanistic Culture


11:35 -12:05

Stephen Gardiner:

Population, the Environment and Tragedies of the Commons

Brian Mowry:

Ethics and the Research Patient

Edward Spence:

Gynges' Ring: The Anatomy of Corruption


Norva Y. S. Lo:

Callicott on Hume and Holism

Keekok Lee:

Biotechnology: Ethics and Ontology

Jeremy Moss:

The Concept of Mutual Obligation




Chris Provis:

Ethics and Emotional Labour

Nigel Harris:

Should Ethicists Have their own Code of Ethics?

Sharon Schembri:

Swingers in our Midst


 Charles Barton:

A New Paradigm forn Justice

Robert Kelso:

Codes of Conduct for Non-metropolitan Settings

Stuart Dawson:

Ethics in Australian Small Business

2.50 -3:25

BREAK (Afternoon Tea)



SATURDAY (continued)



Andrew Brennan: Corporations and the Environment

Virginia Falk: Corporate Responsibility and the Environment

Padmasiri de Silva: Reinventing a Corporate Ethic


Rhyl Hurley

Loyalty: the Awesome Adminstrative Responsibility

John Harrison:

A Tale of Two Codes: Public Relations and Media

Josie Fisher:

What if Kohlberg is Right? Implications for teaching Applied Ethics


Linda Newman & Lois Pollnitz

Ethical Response Cycle

Patricia Petersen:

Ethics and the Media

Conor O'Leary:

Attitudes of Accountancy Students to Bribes, Cheating and Whistleblowing





Special Speaker: Senator George Brandis





Alan Hall

Teachers as "Hired Guns"

Shimon Cowan

The Noahide Laws

Peter Gorman

Professionalism and Ethical Expertise: The Public Service Ethics Act 1



David Ardagh:

Ethics, Empowerment and Education

Daniel Star:

Do Confucians Really Care?

Peter Gorman

Professionalism and Ethical Expertise: The Public Service Ethics Act 2



11 :00-12:00


Noel Preston: Codifying Ethical Conduct for Australian Parliaments (1990-1999)

Don Saunders: Monitoring Public Sector Ethics


Howard Harris

Spirituality at Work

Greg Pritchard

What Rights the Dead?

Paul Rasmussen:

Disability, transplantation surgery and public health care



AAPAE Committee Meeting


Jane Walton: An Ethical Education?

John Pearn and Rosemary Landy: Special Issues in Defence Ethics

Margot Mackay and Bernadette Murray: Ethics as a Business Tool: Surviving when the Boundaries Fall



Chris Gardiner:

Quality Care in Nursing Homes

Steven Curry:

Do We Know What We are Doing?

3 :00

CONFERENCE ENDS - Afternoon tea