School Science Lessons
Please send comments to: J.Elfick@uq.edu.au
Table of Contents
p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA), Sunscreens and sun-protective clothing: 19.7.4 (See: 6.)
p-, photography developer
Packaging gases, propellants, food additives: 19.4.22
See: Packaging (Commercial)
Paint, Lead paint
Paint, Red lead, Pb3O4, lead (II/IV) oxide
Paints, safety advice for paints and paint strippers: 19.6.1
Palm kernel oil: 19.2.11 (Table)
Palm oil: 19.2.11 (Table)
Pampl's insect fixing solution, Prepare: 4.13
Pantothenic acid, C9H17NO5, vitamin B5
Papanicolaou stain: 3.33
Paper-making: Soda cellulose
Paper, Cyperus papyrus, papyrus, flat sedge, Cyperaceae (Greek: papuros)
Paper chromatography, Separate by chromatography, mixed inks: 3.24.1
Paper chromatography, Separate by chromatography, green leaf pigments: 3.24
Paper clips and rusting: 5.5.13
Paper towels, Separate with paper towels: 3.28
Parabens : 184.108.40.206.12
Paracetamol, C8H9O2, acetaminophen,
Paracresol, p-cresol (CH3)C6H4(OH), Cresol
Paradichlorbenzene, Reactions of chlorine with benzene: 13.4.6
Paraffin oil, kerosene
Paramethyl red, C15H15N3O2: 29. (indicator)
Paranitrophenol, C6H5NO3: 30 (indicator)
Paraquat, C12H14N2+2: 16.7.4 (herbicide)
Parchment, treated animal skin (parchment, French: parchemin, pergumin, writing material)
Paris Green, Copper (II) acetoarsenite
Particles, matter as particles, size of particles: 3.0.0
Parts per million, Concentration, parts per million, 1 ppm = 1 mg per litre: 3.7.1
Pascal, SI, CGS, FPS., metric conversion: 3.12.0 (See: pressure, stress)
Pastes, Prepare glues and pastes, adhesives, gums: 9.0.0
Pasteurization and UHT (Ultra High temperature) of milk: 19.3.12
Pasteurized milk test: 16.1.11
PBDE, pentabromodiphenyl ether, C12H5Br5O: 16.14.1
PCBs, Dioxins, Agent orange: 16.14.0
PCBs, Polychlorinated biphenyls: 3.7.13
Peak oil, Fossil fuels: 37.32.2
Pegmatite: 35.21.3 (Geology)
PEITC, phenethyl isothiocyanate, C9H9NS
220.127.116.11 Peltier effect (supercooled water)
Pencil, "Lead pencils", "Aquadag": 35.41.4
Pencil sharpener galvanic cell: 33.84.7
Penicillium, penicillin: 9.3.0
Pennyroyal oil (Mentha pulegium)
Pentachlorophenol, C6HCl5O (PCP), Organochlorine compounds: 16.3.0
Pentobarbital sodium salt, Barbiturates: 11.11.7
Pentose, 5 C pentose
Pepper, black pepper, betel pepper
Pepsin, Digestion in the stomach, reaction of pepsin: 9.221
Peptone, Prepare vinegar bacteria solution: 9.2.22
Percentage solutions, %: 5.1.11
Perchloric acid, HClO4, Not permitted in schools
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), C8HF15O2: 16.14.2
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), C8HF17O3S, : 16.14.3
Perfume, Volatility of different liquids: 3.7
Perfumes and smells: 19.7.1 (cosmetics)
Periclase, MgO: Magnesium oxide
Perilla ketone, C10H14O2
Perillyl alcohol, C10H16O
"Coversyl", ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme), blood pressure inhibitor
Periodic acid, H5IO6
Perlite, Obsidian: 18.104.22.168
Perlon plastic, Nylon polyamide: 22.214.171.124
Permalloy bar: 126.96.36.199
Permanent wave, Permanent crease solution: 19.5.6 (hairdressing)
Permanganate ion, MnO4-
Permanganates, hazards: 3.7.12
Permeate (cheese, milk)
"Nix", 4 stereoioimers, medication and insecticide, treat scabies and lice
Perovskite, calcium titanate mineral, CaTiO3, used in newer solar cells
Peroxide ion: O22-
Peroxides, Hazards: 3.7.13
Persistence: 16.18.6 (pesticides and weedicides)
Peru balsam: 2.6 (mounting medium)
Perthite: Feldspars (See: Group 1. Alkaline feldspars)
PET, Polyethylene terephthalate, Birefringent clear plastics: 27.189
PETE, Plastics recycling code: 3.5.3
Pethidine, Morphine and derivatives: 11.11.14
1.31 Petri dish
See: Dishes Petri Dishes, (Commercial)
PFOA, C8HF15O2, Perfluorooctanoic acid: 16.14.2
PFOS, C8HF17O3S, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid: 16.14.3
Phase, Continuous phase / outer phase: 7.9.15
Phenanthroline, C12H8N2, 1, 10-phenanthroline
Phenethylamine group of alkaloids: 16.3.18
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), C9H9NS
Phenetole, ethoxybenzene, use fume cupboard or < 10 g in cross ventilation, Toxic by all routes
Phenidone, 1-phenyl-4-methyl-3-pyrazolidone, photography developer, use solution < 20%, Harmful
Phenobarbital, Barbiturates: 11.11.7
Phenol, C6H5OH, carbolic acid: 16.1.0
Phenol red, C19H14O5S: 28 (indicator)
Phenolic acids: 188.8.131.52
Phenolic compounds: 16.1.0
Phenolphthalein, C20H14O4: 27 (indicator)
Phenothiazine, PTZ, C12H9NS, 184.108.40.206.5
Phenoxyethanol, 2-Phenoxyethanol, C8H10O2, colourless, oily, bactericide, sunscreens, cosmetics
Phenyl group, C6H5-
Phenylamine, C6H5NH2, aniline, aminobenzene
Phloxine B, antibacterial fluorescent dye (2, 4, 5, 7-Tetrabromo-4, 5, 6, 7-tetrachlorofluorescein disodium salt)
Acid Red 92, C20H2Br4Cl4Na2O5
Phosgene, carbonyl chloride, CoCl2: 3.39.2
Phosphatidylcholine group, Lecithins: 220.127.116.11.2
Phospholipids (phosphoglycerides): 18.104.22.168.1
Phosphoric acid, H3PO4
Phthaleins, Fluorescein: 22.214.171.124
Phthalic acid, C6H4(COOH)2: 126.96.36.199.1
Phthalic anhydride, C6H4(CO)2O: 188.8.131.52.1
Phthalides lactone: 184.108.40.206
Physics, Laboratory safety for physics teaching: 7.0
Physical changes and chemical changes: 7.1.6
Physical hazards: 4.0.0 (Draft Australian criteria for the classification of hazardous chemicals)
Picric acid (NO2)3C6H2OH
PIDCP, Tests for vitamin C: 9.143 (See 1.)
Pigments: Plant pigments
Pindone, C14H14O3: 220.127.116.11
Ping-pong ball, Ignite a celluloid ping-pong ball: 18.104.22.168
Piped gas, laboratory gas, "lab gas", household gas
Piperonyl butoxide, C19H30O5: 22.214.171.124, insecticide
Pipettes, Handling and transferring chemicals: 3.4.10 (Safety)
Pipettes, Danger of using pipettes in the laboratory: 1.25 (Safety)
See: Pipettes (Commercial)
Pitchblende, Uraninite: 35.20.46 (Geology)
pKa, Strong and weak acids: 126.96.36.199
Placer deposits: 35.3.03 (Geology)
Plagioclase feldspar, NaAlSi3O8,
CaAl2Si2O8, Feldspars, 35.15.0 (Geology)
Plastics, Polymers and plastics: 3.0
Plastics recycling code: 3.5.3
See: Plastic ware (Commercial)
Plaster of Paris, CaSO4.H2O,
Plasticine, modelling clay
Plating, Electroplating: 15.1.0
Pleuran, β-1, 3- and β-1, 6-glucan, oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus
PMMA, para-Methoxymethamphetamine, dangerous stimulant drug, "Dr Death"
Polymethyl methacrylate, [CH2C(CH3)CO2CH3)]n: 3.7.24
Poisons and First Aid: 3.10.0 (Table)
Poisons, Chemical Pesticides: 16.8.5
Poisson's ratio, v: 34.5.06
Polar covalent bonds: 3.01.2
Polarization, Polaroid film: 27.9.0
Pollution, Environmental chemistry: 18.0.0
Pollution, Environmental pollution: 34.9.0
Poly- 3.0 Polymers and plastics
Pools, Swimming pool chemistry: 18.0.0
Porcelain, laboratory items: 1.23
See: Porcelain ware (Commercial)
See: Porous Pots (Commercial)
Porphyrins, porphine: 188.8.131.52.2
Porphyry: 184.108.40.206 (Geology)
Portland cement: 3.66.6
See: Potassium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Potato cell: 33.3.7 (electricity)
Potato dextrose agar solution, Prepare: 6.10
Potential energy, Chemical potential energy, enthalpy: 220.127.116.11
Potential energy, Energy from chemical reactions: 3.80
Poultices: 5.04.6 (herbal compresses)
Povidone, Polyvinyl pyrrolidene: 18.104.22.168.8
Pozzolana (puteolanum): 22.214.171.124
PP, Plastics recycling code: 3.5.3
PPG, aliphatic alcohol, viscosity-decreasing agent, solvent, fragrance ingredient
ppm, parts per million
ppt, parts per thousand, approx. g / kg of salt in solution, salinity sensors, total dissolved salt content in water
See: Salinity, (Commercial)
Practical, Chemicals standards
Practical work, Why are hands-on science activities so effective for student learning? Topic 2.0
Prefixes and suffixes, chemistry: 9.0
Prefixes, SI prefixes, Decimal fractions and multiples: 6.3.5
Prenylation, adding hydrophobic molecule to a protein so as to attach it to cell membrane
Preservatives, food additives: 19.4.23
Preserving food, Food preservation: 19.3.6
Pressure: 12.0.0 (Physics)
Prilled, pelletized, for machine-handled agricultural chemicals, e.g. priilled urea
Primary cell, Cells and batteries, dry cells: 33.3.0
Primary standard, Chemicals standards
Prions, "mad cow disease": 126.96.36.199.3
Procion yellow, Toxic. skin sensitizer, use 10% solution
Producer gas, air gas, similar to water gas, formed by passing air and steam over hot carbon.
Prohibited chemicals, Chemicals Not permitted in schools: 15.10.0
Proline, C5H9NO2 (Table of amino acids)
Proline, DNA codons
Proof spirit, Degrees proof: 3.7.3
Prop-2-enal, C3H4O, acrolein
Prop-2-en-1-ol, CH2:CHCH2OH: Allyl alcohol
Propan-1, 2-diol, propylene glycol
Propanal, CH3CH2CHO, propionaldehyde
Propane gas, C3H8
Propane-1, 2, 3-triol, C3H8O3, Glycerol, glycerin, glycerine
Propanethial S-oxide, C3H6OS: 188.8.131.52
Propanedioic acid, C3H4O4, malonic acid
Propanoic acid, C2H5COOH, propionic acid
Propanol (C3H7OH): 16.1.3a
Propanone, CH3COCH3, acetone
Propellants, packaging gases, food additives: 19.4.22
Propene, propylene, methylethylene: Density (Table)
Propenoic acid, C3H4O2, acrylic acid
Propionaldehyde, CH3CH2CHO, propanal
Propionamide, CH3CH2CONH2, propanamide, propylamide
Propionic acid, C2H5COOH, propanoic acid
Propyl acetate, propyl ethanoate, n-propyl acetate, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable
Propyl alcohol (CH3)2CHOH, isopropyl alcohol
Propyl bromide, 1-bromopropane: 12.18.13
Propyl butanoate, propyl butrate, moderately flammable
Propyl gallate, C10H12O5: 184.108.40.206
Propyl methanoate, n-propyl formate, Highly flammable
Propyl propanoate, propyl propionate, Highly flammable
Propylcyclopentane: See diagram 16.1.1h
Propylene dibromide, 1, 2-dibromopropane, Toxic by all routes, avoid inhalation
Propylene glycol, CH2OHCH2OH, antifreeze
Proscillaridin A, C30H42O8
Prostaglandins, based on fatty acids, in prostate glands, hormones, many functions
Protective clothing and equipment: 3.2.2
Protoalkaloids, Principle classes of alkaloids: 220.127.116.11
Protoanemonin lactone: 18.104.22.168
Protonated, organic chemistry term for when H+ ion is bonded to something
Prussian blue, C18Fe7N18, iron (III) ferrocyanide
Pseudoephedrine, C10H15NO, isomer of ephedrine
PS, Plastics recycling code: 3.5.3
Psilocybin, C12H17N2O4P, Hallucinogenic drugs, hallucinogens: 11.9
PTC tasters and non-tasters: 9.24.2, phenylthiocarbamide
PTU, Prepare phenylthiourea solution: 1.13
PTFE, Polytetrafluoroetheylene: 3.7.32, "Teflon"
Publishers (Commercial websites)
Puerarin, C21H20O9, kudzu isoflavone, reduces alcohol withdrawal anxiety symptoms
Pumice: 35.21.4 (Geology)
Pumpkin seed oil, Dichromatism: 27.124
Pure substances and impure substances, elements and compounds: 7.2.0
Pure substances, Separate pure substances: 10.01.0
Purified, Chemicals standards
Purine derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.22
Purines, DNA and RNA: 4.4.0
Purines and Pyrimidines: 16.3.33
PVA, Polyvinyl alcohol: 22.214.171.124
PVC, polyvinyl chloride (C2H3Cl)n
Pyrazine (1, 4-diazine), N2C4H4, ligand
Pyrene, C16H10, Reactions of benzene, C6H6: 16.8.1
Pyrethrin, Plant extract insecticide, C21H28O3: 16.1.1
Pyrex, Borosilicate glass: 7.9.10
Pyridine, C5H5N: 126.96.36.199.13
Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, C5H4NCOOH, nicotinic acid, niacin
Pyridine-piperidine alkaloid derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.19
Pyrimidine, Nucleosides, nucleic acids, DNA, RNA: 188.8.131.52
Pyrite, iron (II) sulfide, FeS2
Pyroelectricity, ferroelectricity: 35.33.1 (Geology)
Pyrolusite, manganese (IV) oxide, mineral, MnO2
Pyromorphite group, Pb5(PO4)3Cl: 35.20.33
Pyrophoric liquids: 4.9
Pyrophoric solids: 4.10
Pyroxylin, Collodion, cellulose nitrate: 3.5.10 (ether and alcohol)
Pyrrhotite. iron sulfide, FeS: 35.20.34
Pyrrole (CH)4NH, five member heterocycle
Pyridine-piperidine alkaloid derivatives: 16.3.19
Pyrrolidine and Piperidine Alkaloids: 16.3.25
Pyrrolines, C4H7N, 1-Pyrroline
Pyrrolizidine derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.21
Pyrylium ion: See diagram 184.108.40.206
Palladium, Pd, Table of Elements
Palladium properties, 220.127.116.11.3
Palladium (II) acetate
Palladium (II) chloride
Palladium AAS Solution
Palladium hydroxide on carbon
Catalytic converter: 18.104.22.168
Palladium, Pd (Greek Pallas (Athene) goddess),
white metal, hard, ductile, similar to silver, used in jewellery and
transition metal, free element, formerly called "new silver", and used
for contact points for flintlock pistols, boiling vessels and crucibles.
Now used as foil, powder and wire, in low voltage electrical contacts,
and as palladium catalysts for organic chemical synthesis and
carbon bond forming reactions, e.g. C-C, C-O, C-N and C-F.
Lustrous silver-white metal.
Resistant to corrosion in air and acids, but is attacked by hot acids,
and dissolves in aqua regia.
It can absorb up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen.
Used jewellery as "white gold" alloys with platinum.
It is now the main ingredient of catalytic converters reduce emissions
from car exhausts, replacing platinum.
Also used in wide screen televisions, computers and mobile phones, as
tiny multi-layer ceramic capacitors.
Atomic number 46, Atomic mass 106.42 g. mol-1, Density 11.9
g.cm-3 at 20C.
Melting point 1560 C, 9 isotopes, Standard electrode potential + 0.85
V (Pd2+/ Pd ).
Palmitic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH, saturated fatty acid, hexadecanoic acid, cetylic acid, saturated F A,
in Olive oil
in Coconut oil, palm oil, animals and plants
Palmitic alcohol, hexadecanoic, cetyl alcohol, 1-hexadecanol, CH3(CH2)15OH
Palmityl alcohol, CH3(CH2)14CH2OH, hexadecanol
Palmityl alcohol, Melting point of different substances: 22.214.171.124
Pancreatin (contains pancreatic enzymes, trypsin, amylase, and lipase), digestive aid from animal pancreas
Pancreatin is used to replace digestive enzymes when the body does not have enough of its own.
Digestion in the intestines, pancreatin suspension: 9.224.
Pantothenic acid, vitamin B5
Pantothenic acid, C9H17NO5, vitamin B5, the D-isomer is a water soluble essential nutrient in most food,
especially egg yolks, sunflower seeds, blueberries, mulberries, cherry tomatoes.
Pantothenic acid, an antioxidant, is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and a part of the vitamin B2 complex, a growth factor essential for many metabolic functions
and synthesis of cholesterol, steroid hormones, and other biochemicals
Calcium pantothenate, C18H32CaN2O10, is used as a stable dietary supplement.
Freezing, thawing and cold storage of meat: 19.3.06
Nutritional value of eggs: 22.20
Thermal processing, cooking and canning of food: 19.3.07.
Paraffin oil, kerosene
Nitroparaffins, nitroalkanes: 126.96.36.199
Paraffin, alkanes (CnH2n+2): 188.8.131.52
Paraffin oil, kerosene, fractional distillation: 184.108.40.206
Paraffin wax, fractional distillation: 220.127.116.11
Kerosene, paraffin oil, distillation: 18.104.22.168
Kerosene for bath cleaning: 19.6.4
Kerosene, emulsions, detergent: 22.214.171.124
Catalytic cracking of kerosene: 10.6.4
Prepare household soap: 19.6.6.
Kerosene, Highly flammable, Toxic by all routes,
avoid vapour inhalation, skin irritant
1. Use kerosene to clean chrome-plated taps, to soak greasy overalls
before washing with soap powder.
Use kerosene-soaked cheesecloth left to dry for furniture dusters.
Paraffin, hard paraffin wax (chunks), alkane mixture, CnH2n+2,
paraffin wax black 43 / 46
The term "paraffins" was the former name for "alkanes".
Paraffin (Latin: parum little, affinis connected), because of its low
The name invented by German chemist Karl Reichenbach in 1830. 1. Paraffin,
fp 60oC (UK paraffin oil) (USA, Australia, kerosene),
(also kerosine, "kero"), is a petroleum fraction containing a mixture
of about ten different hydrocarbons, 10 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule,
depending on the origin of the original petroleum.
Its flash point (temperature to form flammable vapour), is 38oC,
so it is a relatively safe fuel.
Use paraffin oil, kerosene, in a well-ventilated space for kerosene lamps
and domestic heaters, but do not use it as a degreaser of
2. Paraffin wax is alkanes C20H42 to C40H82,
and is used to make candles, polish, "wax" paper.
3. Liquid paraffin (petrolatum liquid, paraffin liquid), is a pure mineral
white oil emulsion used as a medicine
It is a colourless, tasteless, liquid form of petroleum jelly, mixture
of >C12 alkanes, known as petrolatum jelly ("Vaseline", trade name)
White paraffin, is another kind of petroleum jelly.
Paraffin wax, has m.p. 45 to 65oC (pastillated wax, 52oC), relative density 0.9.
Paracetamol, Acetaminophen, C8H9O2,
(Paracetamol, Tylenol): 11.11.6
Paracetamol, Separate, chromatography: 10.2.2.6.
Pachypodol, C18H16O7, flavonol, in Korean mint.
colourless liquid, hypnotic, sedative, anticonvulsant, but seldom used because
administration difficult, so now a former sedative.
Arachis hypogaea, groundnut,
Arachidic acid (icosanoic acid), C19H39COOH, CH3(CH2)18COOH,
(in peanut oil)
Arachis oil (peanut oil), fixed oil, non-volatile oil
Classification of fats: 126.96.36.199
Composition of edible oils: 19.2.11
Cooking fats: 19.1.17
Energy from peanuts: 188.8.131.52
Electrical conductivity of liquids: 3.60
Food allergies and intolerances, "hyperactive": 19.2.0 (See: 5. Oil allergy)
Fatty acids in oils of natural products: 17.6
Lipids, fats and oils, fatty acids, glycerides: 184.108.40.206
Microbial contamination of food: 19.3.11
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Fabaceae.
Peanuts (groundnut) (Arachis hypogaea): 4.24 (care and harvest)
Pod: A dry fruit that opens on two sides to let the seeds out, e.g. legume
(cowpea, wing bean, peanut)
Solvent extraction of oil from peanuts: 10.12.1.
Pectinase, Enzyme technology: 7.1.1
Prepare pectinase: 4.2.9
Tests for pectin in jelly and jam: 220.127.116.11.
Pentan-1-ol, colourless liquid, bad smell
Pentan-1-ol, C5H12O, 1-pentanol, n-amyl alcohol,
n-amyl alcohol, normal amyl alcohol, Toxic, Flammable
Pentan-1-ol, Solution < 25%, Not hazardous
Pentan-2-ol, C5H12O, 2-pentanol, sec-amyl alcohol,
n-pentyl alcohol, Toxic by all routes, Flammable
Pentan-2-one, methyl propyl ketone, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable
Pentan-3-one, diethyl ketone, Toxic by all routes, Highly flammable.
Pentane, n-pentane, C5H12, CH3(CH2)3CH3,
Pentane, Highly flammable, so use other less volatile alkanes
Pentane (C5H12): 18.104.22.168
Pentane: See diagram 16.1.1h octane number
Pentane-1, 5 diol
Pentanedioic acid, glutaric acid (not glutamic acid!), COOH(CH2)3COOH
Pentanoic acid, valeric acid: 22.214.171.124.7.
Pentyl alcohol, pentan-1-ol (amyl alcohol, n-pentyl alcohol, C5H11OH)
Pentyl butyrate, n-amyl butyrate (apricot odour), moderate flammability
Pentyl ethanoate, C5H12O, n-amyl acetate, normal
amyl acetate, pentyl acetate, 1-pentanol
Pentyl propanoate, n-amyl propionate, Highly flammable
Prepare amyl acetate (pear oil): 16.5.6.
Pepper, black pepper, betel
Pepper, black pepper, spice, Piper nigrum
Betel pepper, Piper betle, consumed as betel quid (pan), containing
betel leaf, areca nut and slaked lime.
Betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum),
Betel nut palm (Areca catechu),
Betel pepper (Piper betle),
Chilli pepper, Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae
Piperaceae (pepper family), Piper nigrum, pepper, black pepper,
Piper methysticum, kava
Separate pepper from salt: 31.2.8
Sprinkle salt on water, surface contracts momentarily towards crystals,
opposite with pepper
Succulent fruits (fleshy fruits): 9.5.3
Tomato family (Solanaceae): 6.6.9
Use pepper, black pepper, around skirting boards before carpeting to deter
Peptides, peptide bond
Models, Peptides, (Commercial)
Amino acids: 126.96.36.199.0
ATP, adenosine triphosphate: 188.8.131.52
Blood constituents (humans): 9.214
Fibrous proteins and globular proteins: 184.108.40.206.2
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide): 220.127.116.11
Molecular models: 3.5.1
Proteins, peptides, amino acids: 16.6.0
Structural forms of proteins: 18.104.22.168.1
Tests for proteins, biuret test: 16.6.5
Tests for proteins, heat test for proteins: 16.6.1.
Peptides have amino acids linked in a linear sequence,
where the carboxyl group of a amino acid is linked to the amino group
next amino acid.
A covalent bond forms between the carbonyl carbon of a amino acid with
the nitrogen atom of the next amino acid, with the loss of
Peptides include structures formed from α-amino acids and from any amino
Natural peptides include oxytocin (uterus contraction hormone and stimulates
lactation), and insulin (pancreatic hormone).
Perchloric acid, HClO4
Perchloric acid, HClO4, chloric (VII) acid, 70% W/W (strong
acid), clear, colourless, odourless aqueous solution, Toxic by all routes
Perchloric acid, strong oxidizing agent if hot, spontaneous explosion
of soaked wood, explosive mixture with combustibles or organic
compounds, corrosive to metals and tissues, closed containers may rupture
violently if heated
Perchloric acid should not be used or stored in a school science laboratory.
Storing oxidizing agents: 22.214.171.124
Periodic acid, H5IO6
Periodic acid, H5IO6, Toxic by all routes, explosive
mixture with combustibles or organic compounds
ACS reagent, 100 g in glass bottle.
See: Periodic Table (Commercial)
Introduction to the periodic table: 1.10.1
Oxides and the periodic table: 126.96.36.199
Patterns in the periodic table: 1.10.2
Periodic table: Table 1
Reactions of calcium and calcium compounds: 12.4.1.
Permanganate, manganate (VII) ion, MnO4-
Permanganates have purple colour and are soluble in water, noncombustible, but accelerate burning of combustible material,
especially finely divided material when permanganates may spontaneously ignite.
Contact of permanganates with sulfuric acid may cause fire or explosion.
See: Petroleum Jelly (Commercial)
Petroleum, petrol, gasoline, "gas", Highly flammable, Toxic by all routes.
Do not inhale vapour.
Do not use petrol as a paint "thinner"
Cracking, thermal and catalytic cracking: 188.8.131.52
Fractional distillation of crude oil: 16.1.12
Petrol, "gas", gasoline, motor fuel: 184.108.40.206
Petroleum (crude oil and gas): 35.23.4,
Petrol-sniffing (Abuse of volatile substances): 11.11.2
Petroleum-based spray oils, + emulsifying agent, horticultural oils, block
insect spiracles, e.g. "PestOil"
Petroleum, Composition of gasoline: 10.6.3
Petroleum ether, Cleaning agents, solvents: 2.20.4
Petroleum fraction: 7.9.41
Petroleum spirit: 220.127.116.11
Petroleum jelly, "Vaseline", petrolatum.
"Vaseline" is a trade name for petroleum jelly.
Pewter, malleable, alloy of mostly Sn, + some Cu, Sb, and Bi,
previously used for cheap mugs and dishes.
See: pH (Commercial)
Acidity and alkalinity: 18.104.22.168
pH change near the equivalence point:
Multiple reagent strips: 22.214.171.124
pH of salt solutions: 12.10.4
pH of solid acids: 19.1.2
pH of swimming pools: 18.3.0
pH soil test: 6.50.1
pH tests (Environmental chemistry): 18.1.0
Prepare acid-base indicators: 37.0
Soil acidity, soil pH: 6.1.0
Soil pH tests, acid soils and alkaline soils: 6.12.0
Tests for pH of water (lakes and rivers): 18.1.0 (Environmental chemistry)6.12.1
1, 10-phenanthroline monohydrate, use in fume cupboard or < 10 g in
cross ventilation (redox indicator), Toxic
1, 10-phenanthroline iron complex, ferroin solution (redox indicator),
Toxic if ingested
1, 10-phenanthroline iron complex, [10-phenanthroline with iron (II) salt],
purchase already diluted solution.
Phenyl group, C6H5
1-phenylazo-2-naphthol, sudan I, C.I. Solvent Yellow 14, Toxic. skin irritant,
3-phenylpropenoate, C11H12O2 (Ethyl
cinnamate, 3-phenylpropenoate, Toxic, Flammable)
3-phenyl propenoic acid, C9H10O2, C6H5CH:CHCOOH,
cinnamic acid, Toxic if ingested
Phenyl benzoate, C13H10O2 (recrystallization
experiments, ethanol solvent), benzene substitute, Toxic, Irritant, Flammable
Phenyl bromide, Bromobenzene: 12.18.3
Phenyl salicylate, C13H10O3
Phenylammonium chloride, C6H5NH2.HCl,
Phenyldimethylamine, C8H11N, dimethylaniline
Phenylethene, C6H5CH:CH2, Styrenes:
vinyl benzene, styrene
Phenylformic acid, C6H5COOH, benzoic acid, benzene
Phenylhydrazine, C6H8N2, Highly toxic
by all routes
Phenylhydrazine, C6H8N2, Solution / mixture
< 1%, Not hazardous
Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride, phenylhydrazinium chloride, Highly toxic
by all routes
Phenylhydrozone, C13H12N2, benzaldehyde
Phenylmethyl benzoate, C6H5COOCH2C6H5.
Phenylthiocarbamide, C7H8N2S, PTC, phenylthiourea,
(PTU), tasters: 9.24.2
Phenylthiocarbamide, C7H8N2S, PTC: 1.13
Phenylthiourea, C7H8N2S, phenylthiocarbamide,
1-phenyl-2-thiourea (rat poison), Highly toxic if ingested, asthmatics
may be allergic
Phenylthiourea, C7H8N2S, 0.1% solution
soaked in paper used for taster / non-taster genetic test, Experiment Not
permitted in schools
Phenylurea, C6H5NHCONH2, phenylcarbamate, Toxic if ingested.
Phenyl salicylate, C13H10O3, phenyl-2-hydroxybenzoate,
salol, Toxic if ingested, flammable
Prepared by heating salicylic acid with phenol
Used in experiments to show cooling rates affect crystal size, formerly
Phenylalanine derivatives, True alkaloids: 16.3.30
Phenylalanine, DNA codons
Phenylalanine, sweetener: 19.2.6
Phenylalanine (Table of amino acids).
See: Phosphates Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Phosphate ion: PO43-
Ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4, triammonium
phosphate (V)-3-water, ammonium phosphate tribasic, nitrogen and phosphorus
garden fertilizer, flame retardant, added to baking powders to promote yeast growth
Ammonium sodium hydrogen phosphate (V)-4-water, Na(NH4)HPO4.4H2O,
ammonium sodium hydrogen orthophosphate, microsmic
salt (from urine)
Ammonium sodium hydrogen orthophosphate, Na(NH4)HPO4.4H2O,
microsmic salt (from urine)
ATP, adenosine triphosphate: 126.96.36.199
Bone phosphate: E542
Chromium (III) phosphate, CrH8O8P, Chromium (III)
Decomposition of phosphates: 3.30.13
Detergent phosphates: 12.12.05
Detergents use polyphosphates or zeolite to make calcium inactive in the
Diammonium phosphate, diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP) (NH4)2HPO4
Food additives: 19.4.4 (Search:
phosphate, e.g. Potassium phosphates: E340)
Group tests for phosphorus and phosphates: 12.13.0
Inorganic builders in washing powders: 12.12.03.2a
Monoammonium phosphate (MAP)
Monopotassium phosphate (MKP)
Phosphate buffer reagent: 9.2.25
Phosphate ions in water: 18.4.1
Phosphates, essential for development of bones and teeth, genetic material
Phosphates hazards: 3.7.14
Phospholipids (phosphoglycerides): 188.8.131.52.1
Phosphorylation means adding a phosphate group to a molecule
Phosphorous compounds, organophosphorus insecticides: 16.2.6
Prepare solutions: 184.108.40.206
Reactions of phosphorus and phosphates: 12.13.1
Remove water hardness: 220.127.116.11
Soaps and synthetic detergents, "syndets": 12.12.0
Sodium acid pyrophosphate food grade
Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP)
Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), Na5P3O10
Soil-less culture, Knop's, hydroponics: 18.104.22.168
Struvite mineral, [(NH4)MgPO4.6H2O],
ammonium magnesium phosphate
Superphosphate production: 12.14.5
Teeth and toothpaste, calcium hydroxyapatite: 9.226
Tests for phosphates: 22.214.171.124
Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate (TKPP )
Na3PO4 (TSP), "sodium phosphate", E339
Urea phosphate, UP, CH7N2O5P, urea phosphoric acid.
Phloroglucinol, C6H6O3, 1, 3, 5-trihydroxybenzene,
benzene-1, 3, 5-triol, Harmful if ingested, corrosive to skin, 1% solution in ethanol, as wood stain
Microscopy stain: 3.22
Microscope staining techniques: 9.61 (See: 3. Test for lignin).
Phosphine, PH3, gas, colourless, flammable, high toxic, rotten
fish garlic smell, silicon solid state device doping agent, grain insecticide,
"QuickPhos", in marsh lights (will-o'-the-wisp), from decayed organic matter
Phosphorescence: 7.33.3 (chemistry of phosphorus)
Phosphorus: 126.96.36.199 (See: 2.)
Phosphoric acid, concentrated, 16 M, 95%,
Phosphoric acid 85% min food grade 130 mL of concentrated solution for
1 litre of 2 M solution.
Phosphoric acid, > 4 M (72%) (may be supplied as 85%) (used in rust
converters), Toxic. Highly corrosive to skin
Phosphoric acid, < 4 M (72%), > 2 M (36%), Toxic. Highly corrosive
Phosphoric acid, < 2 M (36%), > 0.5 M (10%), Toxic. skin irritant
Phosphoric acid, < 0.5 M (10%), Not hazardous, but do not ingest.
Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, orthophosphoric
acid, phosphoric (V) acid, crystalline, as solution is colourless, odourless
conc. 14.7.M, r.d. 1.71 to 1.75, miscible with water and ethanol, "Kill-rust",
E33, weak acid, or, white rhombic solid,
85% W /W, 90% W / W, toilet bowl cleaner.
Phosphoric acid is prepared in industry by heating calcium phosphate
rock with sulfuric acid, prepare by red phosphorus with nitric
Low cost: from hardware stores, rust remover, e.g. "Naval Jelly", "Kill
rust", or, for cleaning concrete, from brewing or wine making
suppliers, from hydroponics suppliers.
See: Phosphorus Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Phosphorus, P, Table of Elements
Reactions of phosphorus, P: 12.13.0
Phosphorus deficiency: 1.11.0 (in soil)
Phosphorus deficiency symptoms: 1.5.4 (in plants)
DEA list of chemicals: 3.9.5 (See: phosphorus)
Reactions of phosphorus: 12.13.1
Red phosphorus: 7.33.1
Red phosphorus, safety matches: Matches
Superphosphate production: 12.14.5
White phosphorus: 7.33.2
Tests for phosphorus and phosphates: 12.13.0.
(Greek phōsphoros, light-bringing), non-metal, allotropes, white waxy solid, in
minerals and organisms, occurs mainly as phosphates and in many minerals, e.g. apatite.
Phosphorus has 2 main allotropes:
1. White phosphorus, yellow phosphorus, translucent, white-yellow, very
reactive, poisonous, not permitted in schools
2. Red phosphorus, high mp. low reactivity, low toxicity
Phosphorus-32, reactor-produced medical radioisotope, half-life 14.28
days, used to treat excess red blood cells.
Phosphates are important agricultural fertilizers, e.g. NPK.
See: Phosphate Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Phosphorus occurs as inorganic calcium phosphate in bones and teeth,
in tissue and in the ATP molecule, and in urine.
The recommended daily allowance, RDA, is 1200 mg.
Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, behaves as a tribasic acid
although the normal salts are much hydrolysed in solution.
Decomposition of phosphates: 3.30.13
Detergent phosphates: 12.12.05
Matches, safety matches
Organophosphates and carbamate insecticides: 16.2.2
Phosphorous compounds, insecticides: 16.2.6
Phosphorus deficiency: 1.11.0
Phosphoric acid, ionization reaction: 12.9.0
Phosphorus (III) chloride, PCl3,
phosphorus trichloride, + water --> phosphorous acid, H3PO3
Phosphorus (V) chloride, PCl5
Phosphorus acid, H3PO3 (HO)2HPO, HPO(OH)2,
garlic-like odour, very soluble in water
Phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoryl chloride, Highly toxic by all routes,
Highly corrosive, toxic fumes and heat with moisture
Phosphorus oxychloride, Solution / mixture < 5%, Not hazardous
Phosphorus pentachloride with water: 188.8.131.52
Phosphorus sesquisulfide, P4S3, yellow solid, in
"strike anywhere" matches
Phosphorus tribromide, phosphorus (III) bromide, Highly toxic by all
routes, Highly corrosive,
Phosphorus tribromide, reacts with moisture to form toxic fumes and heat,
so use in fume cupboard or small quantities in
Phosphorus tribromide, Solution / mixture <5%, Not hazardous
Phosphorus trichloride with water: 12.13.4
Phosphonates, Ethephon, Glyphosate: 9.88.1
Prepare microcosmic salt: 12.13.5
Prepare phosphorus trichloride, PCl3: 12.13.2
Prepare phosphorus pentachloride, PCl5: 12.13.3
Prepare phosphorus pentoxide: 184.108.40.206
Reactions of phosphites, HPO32- : 12.13.6
Reactions of phosphorus, phosphates: 12.13.1.
P2O5, phosphoric anhydride, P4O10,
phosphorus (V) oxide, phosphoric oxide, white powder, hexagonal
crystals, deliquescent, thermoluminescent, Toxic by ingestion, Highly
Prepare nitrogen gas: 3.46
It reacts violently with water to form phosphoric acid, liberating a
large amount of heat, reacts violently with iodides.
With sodium and potassium metals ignition on contact.
With formic acid forms highly toxic carbon monoxide gas.
Used as a dehydrating agent.
The crust on the surface of old samples is mostly phosphoric acid, but
remove it before using the phosphorus pentoxide beneath.
ATP, adenosine triphosphate: 220.127.116.11
Tests for glucose, urine test: 18.104.22.168
Tetrapyrroles, bilin, bilirubin, biliverdin, haeme: 22.214.171.124.1
Phosphorylation means adding a phosphate group to a molecule.126.96.36.199.1.
Phosphorus (V) chloride, PCl5, phosphorus pentachloride, light
yellow colour, + hot water --> ortho-phosphoric acid, H3PO4
Phosphorus (V) chloride, PCl5, phosphorus pentachloride
Phosphorus (V) chloride, phosphorus pentachloride, Highly toxic by all routes, highly corrosive
Phosphorus (V) chloride, Solution / mixture < 5%, Not hazardous: 188.8.131.52
"Sun Blueprint Paper", photochemical reactions (toy product)
Chloramines in swimming pools: 18.7.23
Chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, "Freons": 184.108.40.206
Ozone and photochemical smog: 3.50.01
Silver chloride precipitate in photography: 220.127.116.11
Photography, Reactions of silver halides: 18.104.22.168
Photography wastes, Disposal: 22.214.171.124.
Photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b: 126.96.36.199.3
Tests for photosynthesis: 6.5.7.
Picric acid (NO2)3C6H2OH,
2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol, trinitrophenol, carbazotic acid, Toxic. skin irritant,
Not permitted in schools
Picric acid, yellow crystals stain skin yellow
Explosive when dry and compacted
Do not open bottles because crust may explode.
Picric acid, C6H2(NO2)3,
2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol, stains yellow, unstable explosive. used in Gram stain
and Bouin's picro-formol
Picrates, salts of picric acid (2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol).
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, monobasic ammonium phosphate (piezoelectric
crystal in microphones and transducers)
Earphones, crystal microphones: 38.2.05
Piezoelectricity (voltage produced by mechanical stress to crystals):
Piezoelectricity with red lead and sulfur: 35.33.0
Transducer, carbon microphone: 26.9.01.
Pitch, resinous semi-liquid distillate from wood tar, for caulking wooden ships, link torches were used in dark streets.
Plaster of Paris
Plaster of Paris, calcium sulfate hemihydrate, hygroscopic, CaSO4.H2O,
Harmful, very hot when water added to dry sulfate
Plaster of Paris, calcium sulfate, gypsum: 35.22.6
Heat calcium sulfate, gypsum: 8.3.5
Fibrous plaster board with plaster of Paris: 3.2.6
Make objects and moulds with plaster of Paris: 3.2.7
Tests for strength of plaster of Paris bricks: 3.67.0
See: Platinum Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
Platinum, Pt, Table of Elements
Platinum properties: 188.8.131.52
Platinum, natural platinum: 35.20.31
Catalytic converter in a car: 184.108.40.206
Catalytic oxidation of ammonia forms nitrogen monoxide, with red-hot
platinum wire: 220.127.116.11
Platinum (IV) chloride, PtCl4
Platinum (IV) oxide, platinum dioxide, P2O2
Adams's catalyst, platinum oxide hydrate, PtO2.H2O,
organic hydrogenation catalyst
Platinum, Pt (Spanish plata silver, platinum has silvery colour),
platinum wire, 0.375 mm diameter, loop for inoculation of microbial
cultures, possibly sensitizes skin, powder
Platinum Group of Metals (PGMs), jewellery plating industry term for
"4 PGM's, platinum, rhodium, osmium, ruthenium, iridium"
Chloroplatinic acid, hexachloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6.(H2O)6
or [H3O]2[PtCl6].4H2O, platinic
Platinic chloride, chloroplatinic acid
Platinum (IV) chloride
Platinum (IV) oxide.
Platinum is a soft, ductile transition metal, resists
most chemical agents and does not oxidize at high temperature, available
as foil and
wire, occurs in free elemental form placer deposits or in alloys, used
for electrical contacts electrodes and jewellery.
No reaction with dilute HCl or H2SO4, air, water
or concentrated oxidizing acids, e.g. HNO3 or H2SO4,
reacts with aqua regia
(concentrated HNO3 + HCl) to form H2PtCl6.
Platinum is malleable, ductile and can be cut into slices.
It has a slightly grey lustre.
It is harder than gold and silver, so it is mixed with those metals when
making rings and other jewellery.
Platinum vessels can hold acids because they do not react with them.
Platinum was first used for decorative objects and jewellery settings,
but nowadays is used in scientific apparatus, electrical equipment,
electrodes and resistance thermometry and many industrial processes as
It has weak magnetism.
Platinum black is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions.
Platinum can absorb hydrogen and is used in catalytic converters to treat
exhaust gases of motor vehicles.
The melting point of platinum is 1768oC, higher than gold,
bronze and iron.
It was used to cast the platinum-iridium cylinder called the International
Prototype Kilogram (IPK), in France because of its high
density and resistance to corrosion.
A "platinum" record has sold one million copies.
Atomic number: 78, Relative atomic mass: 195.08, r.d. 21.4, m.p. = 1769oC,
b.p. = 4530oC.
Specific heat capacity: 134 J kg-1 K-1.
Plutonium, Pu (Greek Ploutōn underworld god), alloyed with
Gallium in nuclear weapons core, "the most complex element in the
periodic table", isolated from uranium by Glen Seaborg in Chicago, 1942
within the Manhattan Project later used in the first atomic bomb.
See: Polonium Elements, Compounds, (Commercial)
(Latin Polonia Poland, native country of Marie Curie), radioactive poison to treat lung cancer.
Polymers and plastics: 3.0
Polymers and plastics (Experiments): 3.4.0
Poly-, polymers and plastics,
Plastics called "Poly-"
Polycaprolactam Perlon plastic, Fibre from polycaprolactam: 18.104.22.168
Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs : 3.7.13.
Polyethylene glycol, poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, H(OCH2CH2)nOH,
Polyethylene oxide, poly(ethylene oxide), PEO (-CH2CH2O)n
Polyethylene terephthalate, Birefringent clear plastics, PET : 27.189
Polyketide, organic compound, carbonyl groups alternate with single carbon atoms in a chain, -CO-C-CO-C-
Polyketides, polyketide antibiotics: 22.214.171.124
Polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, Acrylic resin, Perspex (Lucite): 3.7.24
Polyprotic acids: 126.96.36.199
Polysaccharide gums: 188.8.131.52
Polyterpenes (many isoprene units): 184.108.40.206.9
Polytrifluorochloroetheylene, PTFE, : 3.7.32
Polyvinyl acetate, polyvinylacetate, PVA: 3.7.36
Polyvinyl alcohol, PVA, PVOH: 220.127.116.11
Polyvinyl chloride, PVC, polychloroethene: 3.7.37
Polyvinyl chloride: PVC
Polyvinyl pyrrolidene: 18.104.22.168.8.
3.7.24 Polymethyl methacrylate
Attraction and repulsion, parallel currents: 30.3.11
Breakdown polymers into small molecules: 22.214.171.124
Breakdown of polymers with heat: 3.97
Cut window glass and Perspex (Lucite): 2.15
Density (characteristics of synthetic fibres): 3.6.1
Metal on Perspex, Volta's experiment: 31.1.19
van de Graaff generator: 31.9.0
Polymethyl methacrylate, poly(methyl methacrylate),
Methyl methacrylate, CH2C(CH3)COOH3. methyl
ester of methylacrylic acid, CH2=C(CH3)COOH
Lucite (C5O2H8)n (Perspex), Poly (methyl
methacrylate), PMMA, acrylic glass, e.g. Plexiglass
Polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, acrylic glass, e.g. Plexiglass, Perspex,
Polymethyl methacrylate, perspex, PMMA, acrylic resin, polymethymethacrylate,
polymethyl 2-methylpropenoate, methyl
methacrylate, thermoplastic transparent polymer (Trade names, "Perspex",
See diagram 3.4.2: Methyl methacrylate,
Polymethyl methacrylate is a rigid, transparent material that transmits
light better than glass.
PMMA is used for acrylic "glass" glazing, optical devices, perspex chips,
perspex stirring rod, plexiglass, reflectors, domes, safety glass,
aircraft windows, baby baths, traffic signs.
Perspex is made by the polymerization of the monomer methyl methacrylate
with lauroyl peroxide as a catalyst.
This reaction is highly exothermic if the concentration of the organic
peroxide < 1% by weight.
Has very high molecular mass when in sheet form.
Moisture leaves the air, precipitation: 37.8.0,
Precipitation, decanting, filtration: 10.11.01
Precipitation, Coloured precipitates: 12.2.1c
Precipitation reactions, prepare salts: M3
Precipitation reactions (double decomposition, double exchange, metathesis)
Tests for precipitates when solutions added to lead (II) nitrate: 3.71.4
Tests for precipitates, salt solutions with other salt solutions: 3.71.3.
Praseodymium, Pr (Greek prasios green, didumos twin
didymium mineral), green compounds, ceramics, glass.
deposited as a solid from a solution
Coloured precipitates, double decomposition reactions: 12.2.1c
Precipitates with ammonium carbonate: 12.12.4
Precipitates with sodium bicarbonate: 12.1.19
Precipitates with sodium carbonate: 12.1.26
Precipitation reactions, neutralization reactions: 126.96.36.199
Precipitation, Moisture leaves the air: 37.8.0,
Tests for precipitates, lead (II) nitrate: 3.71.4
Tests for precipitates, mix salt solutions: 3.71.3.
Proactinium, Pa (proactinium "parent of
actinium" because radioactive decay to Actinium), radioactive, toxic,
no uses, most stable isotope Protactinium-231.
See diagram: 14.05
Promethazine, C17H20N2S, phenothiazine derivative drug,
sedative, antiallergic, and used for motion sickness.
Promethium, Pm (Greek Prometheus, who stole fire from the
gods), synthesized in radiation laboratory.
Propane gas, C3H8
Propane gas, a bottled gas, a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
propyl C3H7-, Stem name: prop-
Propane: See diagram: 16.1.1h, octane number
Density, propane (Table)
Packaging gases, propellants, food additives: 19.4.22
propane-1, 2, 3-triol, glycerin, glycerine
Relative molecular mass of gases, propane: 13.1.02.
CH3CH2CHO, propanal, propyl aldehyde, Toxic by all
routes, Highly flammable, suffocating odour
Propionaldehyde, Solution <20%, Not hazardous, but should not be ingested.
Propionic acid, CH3CH2COOH,
propanoic acid, Corrosive by all routes, Highly irritant vapour, skin irritant
Propionic acid, Solution / mixture <10%, Not hazardous (stored grains
Propanoic acid, ionization reaction: 188.8.131.52.5
Propionates, Food preservation184.108.40.206.
Protease (peptidase, proteinase) is a proteolysis enzyme, it hydrolyses (breaks down) proteins into amino acids.
An endopeptidase is an enzyme which breaks peptide bonds other than terminal peptide bonds in a peptide chain,
and include ficin from fig tree latex, papain
derived from papaya latex, bromelain (bromelase),
extracted from pineapple stem
Food additive E1101 Proteases: papain, bromelain, ficin, enzymes (stabilizer, flour treatment agent, tenderizer, flavour enhancer),
avoid skin contact.
Proteases are used in bread making as a bread improver/flour treatment agent and raising agent.
Proteases acts on the yeast and gluten to improve the extensibility of the dough and strengthen the structure of the bread to retain the
carbon dioxide produced that causes the bread to rise.
See: Protein (Commercial)
Peptone: water-soluble mixture of polypeptides and amino acids from partial hydrolysis of protein, e.g. beef peptone.
Proteins, peptides, amino acids: 16.6.0
Breakdown of protein by micro-organisms: 4.3.7
Burn carbohydrates, fats and proteins: 16.9.1
Casein, fibrous and globular proteins: 220.127.116.11.2
Casein, thermoset plastics: 3.5.6
Milk proteins: 16.3.0
Proteins, Multiple reagent strips
Tests for proteins, Albustix test strips: 16.6.8
Tests for proteins, Millon's test: 16.6.7
See diagram 16.21.10: Purine
Purine, C5H4N4, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Two of the bases in nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, are purines.
16.3.33 Purines and Pyrimidines
(Purine-like compounds not from amino acids, so called "pseudoalkaloids".) (Purine derivatives)
1. Purines, Five bases of nucleic acids: | Adenine | Guanine
| Cytosine | Thymine
| Uracil |
2. Pyrimidine glycosides: 5-Methylcytosine wheat germ, Vicine C10H16N4O7, Convicine C10H15N3 O8, in Vicia, in Pisum
3. Methylated purines: | Caffeine | Theobromine | Theophylline |
(Only Caffeine, Theobromine and Theophylline are regarded as "alkaloids".)
See diagram 16.3.22 Purine derivatives
DNA and RNA: 4.4.0
4. Purines, Cytokinins: Zeatin C10H13N3O in Maize
Pyrogallol, C6H3(OH)3, benzene-1, 2, 3-triol,
1, 2, 3-trihydroxybenzene, pyrogallic acid, Highly toxic if ingested, corrosive
Germination and air: 9.118
Test gas collected in a respirometer: 6.6.12
Toxicity, Poisons and First Aid: 3.10.0.
Pyrrolines, C4H7N, Cyclic Amines.
Pyrrolines, C4H7N, dihydropyrroles, isomers differ in position of double bond
1-Pyrroline (3, 4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole), cyclic imine, colourless, less dense than water, soluble in water and alcohol, strong ammonia smell
like shrimp seafood
2-Pyrroline, cyclic amine,
3-Pyrroline, cyclic amine.
7.33.1 Red phosphorus
(Greek phosphoros Morning star) (Discovered by Henning Brand,
Germany, 1669), light from phosphorus caused by combustion of
oxides on its surface when exposed to air.
Red phosphorus, brown phosphorus, P4, is not poisonous, ignites
above 300oC, has phosphorus atoms bound in a covalent network
so is less reactive than white phosphorus and can be stored in air, used
in "safety match" striking surfaces that contain red phosphorus,
powdered glass, carbon black, a binder and a neutralizer, e.g. calcium
Used for "doping" semiconductors.
Red phosphorus is relatively harmless compared with the white phosphorus
However, some school systems do not allow red phosphorus to be used in
school science experiments.
It is not poisonous when pure.
It is deliquescent so keep it in a sealed container.
Do not heat red phosphorus in a test-tube because it produces phosphorus
vapour that condenses to form white phosphorus.
Red phosphorus forms violently explosive mixtures with oxidizing agents,
e.g. metal nitrates (potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate,
potassium permanganate), nitric acid, chlorates, perchlorates, peroxides,
Do not heat phosphorus on a platinum wire because it corrodes the platinum.
P (red) Atomic number: 15, Relative atomic mass: 30.9738, r.d. 2.34, m.p.
= 590oC, b.p. = 280oC.
Specific heat capacity: 670 J kg-1 K-1
7.33.2 White phosphorus
White phosphorus (yellow phosphorus), P4, is too reactive
to be used in school science teaching so it is not permitted in schools.
In 1943 tonnes of white phosphorus in incendiary bombs were dropped by
Allies' air forces on Hamburg.
White phosphorus is waxy, poisonous, spontaneously flammable, reacts
with oxygen gas in the air to form P2O5, so it is
White phosphorus is extremely toxic.
On contact with iodine it ignites, with bromine it explodes, and it can
be ignited with a hot glass rod.
Cover spilt white phosphorus with 0.2 M copper sulfate solution that converts
it to harmless copper sulfide.
P (white) Atomic number: 15, Relative atomic mass: 30.9738, r.d. 1.82,
m.p. = 44.2oC, b.p. = 44oC.
Specific heat capacity: 757 J kg-1 K-1.
"Glow in Dark Sheet and Pen", UV light pen on GID phosphorescent sheet,
"Glow Jumping Putty", phosphorescence (toy product)
Phosphorescence is the green glow from the slow oxidation of white phosphorus,
an example of chemiluminescence.
However, the term phosphorescence is also used to describe a situation
when the luminescence persists although the exciting cause
has been removed.
A phosphorescent material irradiated with UV light will emit light of
a lower energy for an appreciable interval of time.
If a phosphorescent powder is irradiated with another fluorescent material,
when the radiation source is removed the phosphorescent
powder emits light for tens of seconds.
Marine phosphorescence is not caused by phosphorus, but by chemical reactions
in bioluminescent bacteria.
However, rotting herring glows, caused by combustion of rotting products,
Phosphorescent minerals continue to emit light after the ultraviolet
Pyrolysis is decomposition caused by heat.
It usually involves a chemical change caused by the application of heat.
Charcoal production is made possible by cutting naturally growing trees
and undergoing a process called pyrolysis which involves
heating wood in absence of oxygen.
A mixture of liquid, gas and charcoal is produced.
The process takes about 7 to 12 days in traditional kilns, where 8 to
12 kgs of wood are used to produce 1 kg of charcoal.
With the above inefficiency in the production and the growing usage of
charcoal suggests that greenhouse gas emissions associated with
charcoal could reach 15 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide by 2050, which
will be released into the atmosphere leading to climate change.