School Science Lessons
2016-10-26 SP MF
Please send comments to:

16a Chemistry of natural products
Table of contents Aliphatic compounds Aromatic compounds Carboxylic acids and fatty acids Isoprene units, (C5H8) Steroids, sterols, steroid alcohols, natural steroid Terpenes, (C10H16) Terpenoids, isoprenoids, (C5H8)n Terpinenes, (cyclic terpenes) Aliphatic compounds
Compounds having an open-chain structure. Alditols, polyhydric alcohols, mannitol Carbohydrate acids, D-gluconic acid, Carbohydrates Carboxylic acids and fatty acids Cellulose, hemicellulose Chitin Cyclitols, inositol Disaccharides Glucosides Glycosaminoglycans, glucosamines Glycosides Glycerides, esterification of glycerol Lecithins Lignans, plant phenols Lipids, fats and oils, fatty acids, glycerides Monosaccharides Monosaccharides, D and L sugars Nucleosides, nucleic acids, DNA, RNA Pectin, Aspergillus japonicus Phenolic compounds Clove oil, eugenol Polyketides, polyketide antibiotics Polysaccharide gum, phycocolloids Reducing sugars / non-reducing sugars
RuBisCo Phospholipids, (phosphoglycerides) Polysaccharides Starches, amylum, glycogen Sugars
Aldose sugars
Ketose sugars
Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, in face creams, in Symphytum officinale, comfrey
Glycolic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, HOCH2COOH, α-hydroxy acid Tannins, plant polyphenols Trisaccharides Tetrasaccharides Waxes Aromatic compounds
Compounds having a benzene ring, and a pleasant smell. Aramids Aromatic aldehydes and ketones Aromatic amines, anilides Aromatic alcohols Aromatic halogen compounds Aromatic hydrocarbons Aromatic nitro compounds Aromatic sulfonic acids Aryl groups
16.8.1 Reactions of benzene, C6H6 Barbiturates (depressants) Benzodiazepines (tranquillizers) Benzofuranoids, benzopyranoids
Bergamottin, C21H22O4 Catecholamines
Coumarin Diazo compounds Five member heterocycles Flavonoids, (Bioflavonoids), plant polyphenols
Geosmin, C12H22O, earth smell, muddy fish smell, after rain smell, cut grass smells Lactams (-NH(CO-), e.g. caprolactam Lignans, plant phenols Parabens Pyridine Tannins, plant polyphenols
Methyl salicylate, C8H8O3
Salicyclic acid
Sodium salicyclate Flavonoids, (Bioflavonoids), plant polyphenols Anthoxanthins Flavones Flavonols, flavan-3-ols Flavanones Flavanonols Flavans, C15H14O Anthocyanidins Isoflavonoids, phytoestrogens Other bioflavonoids Carboxylic acids and fatty acids Carboxylic acids and fatty acids α-hydroxy acids Aromatic carboxylic acids, derivatives Dicarboxylic acids Keto acids, acetoacetic acid, pyruvic acid Perfluorooctanoic acid Saturated carboxylic acids Tricarboxylic acids Unsaturated fatty acids Disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, polysaccharides
| See diagram Maltose molecule
| See diagram Lactose molecule
| See diagram Sucrose molecule
Disaccharides contain two sugar units:
sucrose = (glucose + fructose),
lactose = (milk sugar, glucose + galactose),
maltose = (malt sugar, glucose + glucose). Trisaccharides
Raffinose, (triose: fructose + galactose + glucose), (C18H32O16),
Also, melezitose, maltotriose, (amylotriose) Tetrasaccharides
See diagram Stachyose, acarbose
Acarbose, (C25H43NO18), anti-diabetic drug
Stachyose, (tetrose: fructose + galactose + glucose + galactose, i.e. raffinose + galactose), (C24H42O21), in green beans Polysaccharides, glycans
Polysaccharides are long carbohydrate molecules consisting of repeated monomer units joined together in a chain by glycosidic bonds
and contain linked monosaccharide units, (C6H10O5)n
1. Homopolysaccharides, homoglycans, contain the same type of monomer unit
2. Glucosans, (from glucose)
Starch, amylopectin glucosan + amylose sugar
Glycogen, glucose residues
Cellulose, D-glucose units
2. Fructans, (from fructose)
Inulin, D-fructose, in artichokes
2. Galactans, (from galactose)
1. Heteropolysaccharides, heteroglycans, contain different type of monomer r units
Acidic, mucopolysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans long unbranched polysaccharides, repeating disaccharide units
Chondroitin sulfate
Keratan sulfate
Hyaluronic acid
Dextran, Modified polysaccharide
Chitin, (C8H13O5N)n, is a polymer of the monosaccharide derivative of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, in fungi cell walls, arthropod
exoskeletons, e.g. crabs, insect exoskeleton, mollusc radula, cephalopod beak, e.g. squid.
Similar structure to cellulose and keratin
Used as a binder in dyes, adhesives, fabrics and dissolving surgical thread.
Pectin is a polysaccharide that forms the primary cell walls of many terrestrial plants.
Pectin has various uses in the food industry as it acts as a gelling agent for jams and jellies.
It is also used as a food thickening agent and stabilizer in juices, milk.
Arabinoxylans is a polysaccharide found in the primary and secondary cell wall of plants i.e. wood and also in the cereal grains.
It is a combination of arabinose and xylose.
β-glucan, (cellotriose, β-D-glucan, glucan, C18H32O16), D-(+)-cellotriose, glucopyranosyl
Oligosaccharides raffinose, stachyose and verbascose are present in significant quantities in legume seeds Starches, amylum, glycogen
See diagram Starch, amylose,
(amylum), (amylose, soluble starch, many glucose units), (amylopectin, insoluble starch, 40 to 60 branched glucose units).
(Starch, amylum = amylose + amylopectin)
Glycogen in animals.,
Glycogen, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan, unbranched glucose polymer similar to amylopectin
Inulin = D-fructose units, from Helianthus
Boil cut potato in water then let cool.
Filter the solution to separate the soluble amylase from the insoluble amylopectin of the starch grains.
Add tincture of iodine to the filtered starch solution.
An intense blue colour occurs.
The solution contains β-amylase, C6H10O5 that forms a complex with iodine: (β-amylase)p, (I-), (I2)r(H2O)s [where r < p < s]. Cellulose, hemicellulose
See diagram Cellulose, three glucose molecules linked to form cellulose
See diagram Cellulose
See diagram Linamarin
See diagram Cyanohydrin
Cellulose is a long unbranched glucose polymer.
Cellulose in plant cell walls, hemicellulose in some plant endosperm to form vegetable ivory.
Gun-cotton was prepared by saturating cotton or cellulose material in nitric acid and sulfuric acid to produce a highly explosive material. Chitin
See diagram Chitin
Chitin, (C8H33O5N)n, is an insoluble nitrogenous polysaccharide, contains chains of N-acetylglucosamine in support structure of
invertebrates and fungi, e.g. shells of arthropods. Pectin, Aspergillus japonicus
Pectin, poly-D-galacturonic acid methyl ester, from apple and citrus peel, is a heterosaccharide component of terrestrial plant cell walls.
It is used as a substrate to identify, differentiate and characterized pectinases.
Pectin is used to study its degradation by pectinolytic bacteria.
Pectin has high molecular weight, cements adjacent plant cells, and is dissolved by pectinase in ripening fruit.
It is sold as a white-brown powder and is used to form gels and as thickening agents.
Galactouronic acid, C6H10O7, is a component of pectin.
Pectinase, polygalacturonase, catalyzes hydrolysis in pectin
Pectinesterase, pectin methylesterase, catalyzes hydrolysis of methyl esters of pectin --> pectate + methanol
Pectolyase from Aspergillus japonicus plant cell culture, catalyzes breakdown of methyl esters --> oligosaccharides Cyclitols, inositol
Cyclitols are cycloalkanes containing one hydroxyl group on each of three or more ring atoms, e.g. Inositol, cyclohexane,
cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol, C6H12O6, prescribed for some medical conditions, but should not be taken as a "vitamin supplement"
to the diet.
Inositol is in eggs: 22.15
Commercial: myo-Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexahydroxycyclohexane, meso-Inositol, C6H12O6 Glycosaminoglycans, (mucopolysaccharides), glucosamines
16.3.0 Amines and alkaloids
Glycosaminoglycans, (mucopolysaccharides), glucosamines, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin, hyaluronic acid, heparin, keratin sulfate.
Glucosamine is converted to glycosamineglycans.
Glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate may repair cartilage and alleviate osteoarthritis.
Commercial: D-(+)-Glucosamine hydrochloride, C6H13NO5. HCl
Heparin, Chondroitin sulfate, Hyaluronan, Heparan sulfate, Dermatan sulfate, Keratan sulfate
Commercial: Heparin sodium salt from porcine intestinal mucosa, anticoagulant Phenolic compounds
Phenolic compounds occur in seeds, grape skins and and are extracted from oak barrels.,
Phenolic compounds: citronella, clove oil, dicoumarin, eucalyptol, ubiquinone, urushiol, vanillin
Catechol, C6H4(OH)2, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, colourless crystalline phenol, harmful, irritant, pyrocatechol, powder, C6H4-1,2-(OH)2
Catechol, benzene-1,2-diol, C6H6O2
Urushiol, mixture of catechol molecules substituted with different alkyl chains, in poison ivy, used in lacquer ware, causes allergic
reactions in people handling mango leaves and stems
Citronella grass, (Cymbopogon nardus), Poaceae
Phenolic polymers: tannins, lignin
Flavours: eugenol, (olive, cinnamon), cinnamaldehyde, (cinnamon, cassia), anethole, (anise), thymol, (thyme), carvacuol, (oregano),
estragola, (tarragon), vanillin, (vanilla)
Polyphenols, e.g. hydrolysable tannins Catecholamines
Catecholamines, [CH4(OH)2 = catechol ring], e.g. dopamine, epinephrine, (adrenaline), norepinephrine, (noradrenaline)
Catecholamines have a benzene ring with two adjacent hydroxyl groups and a side chain of ethylamine to function as psychoactive
compounds, hormones or neurotransmitters
Catecholaminergic substances release a catcholamine as a neurotransmitter.
Catecholamines are catechol derivatives [CH4(OH)2 = catechol ring], e.g.
Dopamine, C8H11NO2, (3-hydroxy tyramine, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylethylamine)
Epinephrine, C9H13NO3, adrenaline
Norepinephrine, C8H11NO3, noradrenaline, [(HO)2C6H3.CHOH.CH2.NH2] Polyketides, polyketide antibiotics
Molecules having more than two carbonyl groups connected by single carbon atoms.
Occur in some bacteria and fungi, e.g. Aspergillus.
They include polyketide antibiotics, streptomyces metabolites, erythromycin, linear tetracyclines, erythromycin polyenes, nystatin,
polyether antibiotics, β-lactams, aflatoxins.
Commercial: Erythromycin, E-Mycin, Erythrocin, C37H67NO13, white powder Nucleosides, nucleic acids, DNA, RNA
| See diagram Nucleic acid
| See diagram 16.21.10: Purines
| See diagram 16.21.13: Pyrimidines
1. Nucleic acids are macromolecules from the nuclei of cells, composed of nucleotide units, and can be hydrolysed into pyrimidine or
purine bases, adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil, D-ribose or 2-deoxy-D-ribose, and phosphoric acid.
2. Nucleic acids do several functions in living cells, e.g., the storage of genetic information and its transfer from one generation to the
3. DNA, (deoxyribonucleic acid), the expression of this information in protein synthesis, (mRNA, tRNA), and may act as functional
components of subcellular units such as ribosomes, (rRNA).
4. RNA, (ribonucleic acid), contains D-ribose, whereas DNA contains 2-deoxy-D-ribose as the sugar component.
5. A nucleoside is a compound in which a purine or pyrimidine base is bound via a N-atom to C-1 replacing the hydroxy group of
either 2-deoxy-D-ribose or of D-ribose, but without any phosphate groups.
Nucleosides include adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, and uridine, (which contain ribose), and deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine,
deoxycytidine and thymidine, (which contain deoxyribose).
6. A nucleotide is a nucleoside in which the primary hydroxy group of either 2-deoxy-D-ribose or of D-ribose is esterified by
orthophosphoric acid.
7. An oligonucleotide is a long linear sequences of nucleotides. Polysaccharide gums, gums, phycocolloids
Food stabilizers and thickeners:
1. Gums: (guar gum from Cyamopsis), (gum tragacanth from Astragalus, locoweed), (locust bean gum from carob, Certonia),
(gum arabic from Acacia senegal), (gum karyaya from Sterculia), (gum ghatti from Anogeissus), (xanthan gum from fermented corn
2. Phycocolloids: (alginates, algin, from kelp, Laminaria and Macrocystis), (carrageenan from red algae, Irish moss, Chondrus
), (agar from red algae, Gelidium and Gracilaria). Lipids, fats and oils, fatty acids, glycerides
Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids.
See diagram Esterification of glycerol to form fatty acids, fats
See diagram 16.3.3: Lipids, cephalins, glycerides, (triglycerides), glycolipids, lecithins, (choline), phosphoglycerides, prostaglandins
See diagram 19.2.1: Oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, (cis and trans)
See diagram Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, triglyceride
See diagram Tristearin
See diagram Human fat molecule Phospholipids, (phosphoglycerides)
Phospholipids form when hydroxyl groups form esters with phosphate groups.
They occur as two groups:
1. Phosphoglycerides, e.g. lecithin in cell membranes and in bile.
Phosphatidyl choline, (formerly lecithin), phosphatide with organic base choline, in biological membranes, e.g. egg yolk, is used as a
natural emulsifier.
Egg yolk phospholipids (EYPL) are used as carriers for lipophilic drugs and are a major ingredient of lipid microspheres.
2. Sphingolipids in plant and animal cell membranes.
It is a fat molecule with a phosphate group, replacing the third fatty acid.
glycerol-3-phosphate + 2-monacyl glycerol --> triacyl glycerol + phospholipids.
Sphingolipids: sphingenine, cerebrosides, sphingomyelin. Lecithins
Lecithins, diacylphosphatidylcholine, esters of glycerol and choline with fatty acids and H3PO4, in cell membranes.
The lecithin group, (phosphatidylcholine group) are yellow-brown fatty phospholipids in egg yolks and plasma membranes of plant
and animal cells.
They are used as emulsifiers in commercial foods, and cosmetics. Lipids
Lipids are biological substances that are soluble in nonpolar solvents:
1. saponification lipids, e.g. glycerides, (fats and oils), and phospholipids,
2. non-saponification lipids, e.g. steroids.
Lipids refers to the oils, fats and waxes found in living organisms.
Lipids are insoluble in water but soluble in inorganic solvents, e.g. chloroform.
The simple lipids do not contain fatty acids, e.g. steroids, terpenes.
The complex lipids are esters of long chain fatty acids, e.g. glycerides, glycolipids, phospholipids, waxes. Glycerides, esterification of glycerol
Glycerides are common biological substances made from esters of glycerol, (propane-1,2,3-triol), with fatty acids:
1. triglycerides,
2. 1,2-diglycerides or 1,3-diglycerides,
3. 1-monoglycerides or 2-monoglycerides.
The fats and oils found in living organisms are mainly triglycerides:
1. Monoglycerols, (monoglycerides), e.g. 1-monoacyl glycerol, 2-monoacyl glycerol,
2. Diglycerols, (diglycerides), e.g. 1,2-diacyl glycerol, 1,3-diacyl glycerol,
3. Triglycerols, (triglycerides), (fats, main storage lipids), e.g. triacyl glycerol.
Glycerides, glycerine esters, are fatty acid esters of glycerol, (HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH).
Esters can form at one, two or three of the hydroxyl groups to form monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides.
Esterification of glycerol
Plant oils are usually triglyceride molecules, esters, composed of a 3C alcohol, glycerol, + 18C or 16C fatty acids containing 12C to
The number of carbon atoms is counted from the end of the molecule with the carboxylic acid group, COOH.
The position of the first double bond is counted from the other end, the methyl or ω end.
Whether the fatty acid is an ω-6 fatty acid or an ω-3 fatty acid depends on the position of the first double bond. Saturated carboxylic acids
Arachidic acid, (icosanoic acid), CH3(CH2)18COOH, (in peanut oil)
Benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, benzenecarboxylic acid, phenylformic acid, harmful if ingested
Butyric acid, butanoic acid, C3H7COOH, CH3(CH2)2COOH, in rancid butter
Capric acid, decanoic acid, CH3(CH2)8COOH, (in coconut oil, palm oil, mammal milk)
Caproic acid, (hexanoic acid), CH3(CH2)4COOH, (in goat fat)
Caprylic acid, octanoic acid, CH3(CH2)6COOH, (coconuts, breast milk, in sting of whip scorpions!)
Chloroacetic acid, CH2ClCOOH, (used in chemical reactions)
Decanedioic acid, HOOC(CH2)8COOH, sebacic acid, from castor oil
Dichloroacetic acid, DCA, CHCl2COOH, (in chlorinated drinking water)
Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, acetic acid, vinegar
Formic acid, CH2O2, HCOOH, methanoic acid, (in insect stings, ants)
Lauric acid, dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH3)10COOH, (in coconut oil, soaps)
Myrstic acid, tetradecanoic acid, CH3(CH3)12COOH, (in nutmeg)
Oxalic acid, C2H2O4.2H2O, HO2CCOOH, ethanedioic acid, (in rhubarb, Oxalis)
Palmitic acid, CH3(CH2)14CO2H, hexadecanoic acid, (palm oil, coconut oil, most animals / plants)
Proprionic acid, propanoic acid, CH3CH2COOH, (stored grains preservative)
Stearic acid, octadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)16COOH, (in fats, soaps, waxes)
Trichloroacetic acid, C2HCl3O2,CCl3COOH, Highly toxic, (used in chemical reactions)
Trifluoroacetic acid, CF3COOH, corrosive, (used in chemical reactions)
Valeric acid, (pentanoic acid), CH3(CH2)3COOH, (valerian herb) Dicarboxylic Acids
Adipic acid, hexanedioic acid, HOOC(CH2)4COOH
Aldaric acid, HOOC-(CHOH)n-COOH
Fumaric acid, butenedioic acid, HCOOHC:CHCOOH } isomers
Maleic acid, butenedioic acid, HCOOHC:CHCOOH } isomers
Malic acid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, HOOCCH(OH)CH2.COOH
Malonic acid, propanedioic acid, HOOCCH2COOH
Oxalic acid, ethanedioic acid, (COOH)2
Oxaloacetic acid, HO2CCH2COCO2H (in Kreb's cycle)
Succinic acid, butanedioic acid, (CH2)2(COOH)2
Tartaric acid, 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, (CHOH)2(COOH)2 Tricarboxylic acids
16.9.5 Citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle
Citric acid, HOOCCH2C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH (in Kreb's cycle, plant and animal cells)
Isocitric acid, C6H8O7 Unsaturated fatty acids ,(have double bond =)
Acrylic acid, (2-propenoic acid), CH2=CHCOOH
α-linoleic acid, CH3(CH2)CH=CH(CH2)CH=CH(CH2)CH=CH(CH2)7COOH, polyunsaturated fatty acid
Linoleic acid, CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH, polyunsaturated fatty acid
Oleic acid, cis-octadec-9-enoic acid, cis-09-octodecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH, mono-unsaturated fatty acid
See: Models, biochemistry, Oleic acid, C18H34O2, 1 molecule, (photograph), "Scientrific", (commercial website)
Oleic acid, C17H33COOH, CH3(CH2)7CHCH(CH2)7COOH, octadec-8-enoic acid, colourless viscous liquid, red oil, m.p. 14oC
Palmitoleic CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Perfluorooctanoic acid
Perfluorooctanoic acid, (PFOA), C8HF15O2, a surfactant, is used to make non-stick cookware, e.g. PTFE, ("Teflon"), and
stain-resistant footwear and clothing.
It persists in the environment and is toxic to animals may be a carcinogen. α-hydroxy acids
Naturally occurring carboxylic acid, hydroxyl group on the carbon adjacent to the carboxyl group.
Use in skin care.
See diagram Alpha hydroxy acids
Citric acid, HOOCCH2C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH, citric fruits
Glyceric acid, C3H6O4, 2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acid
Glycolic acid, Hydroxyacetic acid, HOCH2COOH, sugar cane, sugar beet
Lactic acid, L-(+)-Lactic acid , 2-Hydroxypropionic acid, Sarcolactic acid, C3H6O3, sour milk
Malic acid, HOOCCH(OH)CH2.COOH, green apple sour taste, grapes
Mandelic acid, C6H5CH(OH)CO2H, bitter almond
Tartaric acid, L-(+)-Tartaric acid, L-Threaric acid, C4H6O6, HO2CCH(OH)CH(OH)CO2H, leavening agent Keto acids
Acetoacetic acid, diacetic acid, C4H6O3, CH3COCH2COOH
Pyruvic acid, C3H4O3, CH3COCOOH, metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, release of energy Waxes
Waxes are fatty acid esters of high molecular weight alcohols, i.e. lipids with a long chain alcohol + more than 3 fatty acids.
Solid at room temperature, harder, more brittle and less greasy than fats at the same temperature.
Waxes are found in skin, fur feathers, and outer layers of leaves and fruits as follows:
Fats and oils that are fatty acid esters of the trialcohol glycerol.
Waxes are esters of long chain C16 and above alcohols, (with one hydroxyl group), and long chain C18 and above fatty acids.
Natural waxes are mixtures of esters and some hydrocarbons.
Beeswax [C30H61(C=O)OC15H31, C25-27H51-55(C=O)OC30-32H61-65] comes from the cells of the honeycomb and contains esters
of C16 and C28 acids with C30 and C32 alcohols + mainly C31 hydrocarbons.
Beeswax is used in furniture polishes.

Candelilla wax, food additive E902, glazing agent, emollient
Candelilla, (Euphorbia antisyphilitica), and (E. cerifera), Euphorbiaceae
Candelilla wax is yellow-brown, hard, brittle, aromatic, and opaque to translucent, glazing agent E902, in chewing gum.

Carnauba wax comes from the leaves of the Brazilian wax palm, Coperniciaprunifera, (C. cerifera), Arecaceae.
It contains esters of the C32 and C34 alcohols and C24 and C28 fatty acids.
This wax is harder and more impervious than beeswax.
Carnauba wax, glazing agent, E903, used to wax fruit, in cosmetics.

Cetyl palmitate [(CH3(CH2)13CH2(C=O)O(CH2)15CH3)] [C15H31COO-C16H33] is a component of spermaceti wax in sperm
whale oil.

Jojoba oil, Simmondsia chinensis, Simmondsiaceae, mainly wax esters, in cosmetics, seed is toxic and indigestible
Meadow foam oil, (Limnanthes alba), Family Geometridea

Wool wax, wool grease, degras, from the scouring of wool contains fatty acid esters of cholesterol, lanosterol and fatty alcohols.
It forms as semi-solid emulsion in water that is purified to make lanolin. Aromatics, aromatic compounds
Aromatics, aromatic compounds, benzene derivatives, ring systems, arenes: benzene, toluene, naphthalene
See diagram Acridine, anthracene, anthroquinone, cinnoline, naphthalene, naphthol, quinoline
See diagram 16.8.0: Acetylsalicyclic acid, (aspirin), benzene, benzoic acid, naphthalene
See diagram Single substitution, more than single substitution
See diagram Heterocyclic compounds: pyridine, (2-aminopyridine, 3-bromopyridine, 3-nitropyridine, nicotinic acid ),
(azines: piperidine, pyridinium chloride), pyrylium ion, (quinoline, isoquinoline, 5-nitroquinoline), (pyrimidines: cytisine, thymine, uracil),
(diazines: pyrazine, pyridazine, pyrimidine)
Aromatics have planar ring-type groups usually composed of carbon atoms, at least one benzene ring in the molecule, e.g. benzene,
naphthalene, with alternating double and single bonds.
Extensive localization occurs because some electrons in the molecule are free to move from one atom to another.
The term "aromatic" was used to describe the smell of some compounds later were found to contain benzene or fused benzene rings in
the structure.
It includes arenes and their substitution products, e.g. benzene, naphthalene, toluene, and aromatic heterocyclic structures, e.g. thiophene. Aryl groups
Groups derived from arenes by removal of a hydrogen atom from a ring carbon atom.
Usually, groups having hydrogen removed from an aromatic compound,
e.g. benzene, C6H6 - hydrogen atom, H --> phenyl group, C6H5. Aramids
Aramids are aromatic polyamides, e.g. "Kevlar", "Nomex".
Aramid fibres are made by spinning liquid crystal aramid polymers to long chain polymer molecules with remarkable strength.
The polymer chains are linked laterally by hydrogen bonds, used in rope and textile high performance fibres.
"Kevlar", a synthetic fibre with of high-tensile strength, is used as a reinforcing material for the rubber in motor vehicle tyres. Aromatic hydrocarbons, arenes
See diagram 16.8.1: Benzene compounds, anthracene
Aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. Benzene, (C6H6), also in some countries: petrol, pentane-hexane mixture, petroleum spirit.
Benzene is the simplest aromatic compound. As it is toxic and carcinogenic, it should not be used in schools.
Aromatic hydrocarbons, arenes, alkylbenzenes, e.g. benzene C6H6, toluene C6H5CH3, [xylene (dimethylbenzene) (CH3)2C6H4],
[styrene, (phenylethene), (C6H5CH=CH2)], naphthalene C10H8, anthracenen C14H10, cyclohexane C6H12.
Anthracene, C14H10, paranaphthalene, anthracin, anthracene oil, Irritant, harmful if ingested, Very Hazardous, Toxic Aromatic nitro compounds
Aromatic nitro compounds, e.g. Nitrobenzene, oil of mirhan, (C6H5NO2) Lactams
Lactams, (-NH(CO-), e.g. caprolactam, (6-hexanelactam), (C6H11NO)
See diagram Lactams, penicillin G, amoxicillin
Lactams in part of a ring, cyclic amides, amino group + carboxylic acid group --> amide linkage, e.g. caprolactam, (6-hexanelactam),
(C6H11NO), to make nylon, 4-aminobutanoic acid lactam, (β lactam 4C ring, γ-lactam 5C ring, δ-lactam 6C ring), e.g. the pyrimidine
base uracil, β-lactam antibiotics, e.g. penicillin, also: caprolactam, (C6H11NO), also: lactones, (cyclic esters), e.g. 4-hydroxybutanoic
acid lactone CH2CH2CH2OC=O, γ-butyrolactone, GBL, C4H6O2. Aromatic amines
Aromatic amines, anilides, e.g. phenylamine, (aniline, amino benzene), (C6H5NH2)
(phenylammonium ion, anilinium ion C6H5NH3+), benzylamine, diphenylamine, methylaniline, triphenylamine, dimethylaniline, acetanilide,
quinoline, (C9H7N). Diazo compounds
Diazo compounds, (2 linked nitrogen compounds), e.g. methyl orange, (dimethyl-aminoazobenzene sulfonic acid),
(diazonium ion: C6H5N2+, C6H5N+N), diazonium salts [(RNN+)Cl-], e.g., methyl orange, (dimethyl-aminoazobenzene sulfonic acid),
[(CH2)2NC6H4N=NC6H4SO2O-Na+] benzene diazonium chloride, chrysoidine azo compounds, (-N-N-), (diazonium ion + benzene
ring) Barbiturates (central nervous system depressants)
See diagram Amylobarbital, barbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, quinalbarbital, sodium phenytoin, thiopental
barbiturates were formerly used as sedatives and hypnotics.
Barbituric acid is formed by condensing urea with diethyl malonate, an ester from apples.
Barbituric acid derivatives include the following:
1. Barbital (US), barbitone, C8H12N2O3, "Veronal", formerly used or attempted used by would-be suicides
2. Phenobarbital (US), phenobarbitone, C12H12N2O3, "Luminal", sedative and hypnotic, an anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy.
Phenobarbital causes side effects, e.g. sedation, depression and agitation, so it may be replaced by phenytoin, C15H12N2O2, in the
anti-epileptic drug sodium phenytoin, "Dilantin".
3. Sodium thiopental, C11H17N2NaO2S, ("Sodium Pentathol", thiopentone sodium, "Trapanal"), "truth drug", is a short acting
barbiturate general anaesthetic, used to start anaesthesia, e.g. for caesarian section operation.
It causes unconsciousness in seconds. Benzodiazepines (tranquillizers, sedatives, hypnotics)
See diagram Diazepam (Valium), oxazepam (Serax), nitrazepam (Mogadon), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), flunitrazepam
Benzodiazepines assist the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid to treat anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and preparation for medical
procedures. Aromatic halogen compounds
Aromatic halogen compounds, aryl halide, halogenarenes, e.g. benzyl chloride, (C6H5COCl)
See diagram DDT, methoxychlor, Synergists: piperonyl butoxide
See diagram 16.13.3: Benzene hexachloride, chlorothalanil, DCPA, dalapon
See diagram 16.13.4: Aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor
16.7.2 Dalapon
Bromobenzene, iodobenzene, chlorobenzene, (BHC, benzene hexachloride, lindane), chlorothanil
Cyclodienes: chlordane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan
DDT insecticide: (ClC6H4Cl)2CH(CCl3), (Former name: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), ( New IUPAC name:
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis, (4-chlorophenyl)ethane.)! Aromatic sulfonic acids
Aromatic sulfonic acids, e.g. benzene sulfonic acid, (C6H5SO2OH), sodium benzene sulfonate Aromatic alcohols
Aromatic alcohols, e.g. phenyl methanol, (benzyl alcohol), (C6H5CH2OH), Aromatic aldehydes and ketones
Benison, C14H12O2, 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetophenone, 2-Hydroxy-1,2-Diphenylethanone, desyl alcohol, bitter almond oil
Benzaldehyde, benzenecarbaldehyde, benzene aldehyde, C6H5CHO, almond kernel flavouring, camphor is synthesized from
benzaldehyde in a condensation reaction.
See diagram 16.8.1 Aromatic acids
Aromatic acids and their derivatives, e.g. benzoic acid, (C6H5COOH)
See diagram Acetyl salicyclic acid, (aspirin), | See diagram Benzoic acid, caffeine, paracetamol, phenacetin
e.g. benzoic acid, (C6H5COOH), benzoyl chloride, (C6H5COCl), salicyclic acid, (1-hydroxybenzoic acid), (HOC6H4COOH),
aspirin, acetyl salicyclic acid, (2-acetoxy benzoic acid), [C6H4(OCOCH3)COOH] alcohol detergent, aromatic detergent, weed killer
2:4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, shikimic acid [C6H6(OH)3COOH]
Acetyl salicyclic acid is hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid to salicylic acid and acetic acid.
Sometimes old bottles of aspirin have a vinegar (acetic acid) smell because of this reaction. Parabens
Parabens get their name from their origin as esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid., Parabens, HO.C6H4.CO.O-R, where R = alkyl group
See diagram Parabens
See Preservatives, food additives: E214 to E219
Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid and are used commonly as preservatives in cosmetics and food.
However, some parabens may cause allergic reactions in some people and affect DNA.
Some parabens are said to imitate oestrogen and are suspected of causing cancer, but there is no evidence that they are carcinogenic.
However, in Australia, some skin care products are labelled "Paraben free" because of this suspicion.
Propyl paraben, propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, "Nipagin A", E216, is a natural subsonic but is usually manufactured for use as a food
preservative against fungi and as a cosmetics industry preservative.
Methyl paraben, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, "Nipagin B", E218, CH3(C6H4(OH)COO, is used as anti-fungal agent in hair gels and
similar products, it occurs in blueberries
Ethyl paraben, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, E214, is used as a food preservative. Pyridine
Pyridine, (pyridino), C5H5N, monodentate ligand
Pyridine, C5H5N, has a penetrating offensive odour and in some countries it is added to methylated spirit to deter ingestion.
Pyridine, Solution / mixture < 25%, Not hazardous Benzofuranoids, benzopyranoids
See diagram Coumarin, furan, bergamottin | See diagram Bergamottin, lovastatin, atorvastatin
Atorvastatin calcium salt trihydrate, C33H34FN2O5.0.5Ca.1.5H2O
Benzofuranoids: (furan C4H4O), (benzofuran, coumarone, C8H6O, 2,3-benzofuran), (benzodifuran), (isobenzofuran)
Benzofuranoid derivatives used as anti-inflammatory constituents from Eupatorium cannabinum.
Benzopyranoids: (pyran, C5H6O, oxime, 2H pyran, 4H pyran), (1-benzopyrans), (3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran, chroman),
4-chromanone, C9H8O2), (chromone, C9H6O2), (2-chromeme), (3-chromeme), (flavone, C15H10O2), (flavanone C15H12O2),
(fisetin flovanol C15H10O6.nH2O), (coumarin, C9H6O2)
Benzopyrans, chromenes, have a benzene ring + heterocyclic pyran ring, C5H6O.
Coumarin, warfarin, (C9H6O2, 1,2-benzopyrone, 1-benzopyran-2-one), in perfumes, (tonka bean Dipterix odorata, Aloe vera,
Artemisia vulgaris), (used to make warfarin, C19H16O4, a medical anticoagulant and rat poison, e.g. "Ratsac".) Other bioflavonoids
Proanthocyanidin, rotenone, pisatin, isoflavan, pisatin, proanthocyanidins, orcein, vulpinic acid, taxol, urushiol, (pentadecyl-catechol),
(phytoalexins: resveratrol, psoralen), (flavone alkaloids: ficine, vochysine).
Brazilin, red pigment, (C16H14O5), from Caesalpinia echinata, "Brazil wood" originally "bresel wood", Natural Red 24
Haematoxylin, log wood, (C16H14O6), from Haematoxylum campechianum, logwood tree, Natural Black Five member heterocycles
See diagram 5-member heterocycles | See diagram 14.05: Histamine, major tranquillizers, tricyclic anti-depressants
Heterocyclic molecules have different atoms in the ring: furan C4H4O, thiephene C4H4S, pyrrole, (CH)4NH, thiazole C3SNH3,
saccharin C7H5NO3S,
Histamine, C5H9N3, immidazole C3N2H4
Indole, C8H7N, [amino acid proline (CH2)3NHCHCOOH] Terpenes, (C10H16)
See diagram Isoprene | See Dienes, isoprene units Hemiterpenes, C5, (one isoprene unit) Monoterpenes, C10H16, (two isoprene units) Sesquiterpenes, C15H24, (three isoprene units), e.g. selinene, C15H24, in celery seed Diterpenes, C20, (four isoprene units), e.g. sclarene, C20H32 Sesterterpenes, C25, (five isoprene units), e.g. scalarane, C25H44 Triterpenes C30, (six isoprene units), e.g. gammacerane, C30H52, squalene C30H50 Tetraterpenes C40, (eight isoprene units), e.g α-carotene, C40H56, β-carotene C40H56 Polyterpenes, (many isoprene units), e.g. rubber, (C5H8)n List of terpenes, molecular formula
Bergamotene, C15H24, alpha bergamotene, in kumquats Fortunella sp. , Rutaceae
Bisabolol, C15H26O, sesquiterpene alkaloid, (-)-α-Bisabolol, from leaves of Hymenocrater yazdianus, Lamiaceae
Caryophyllene, C15H24, bicyclic sesquiterpene, 3 isoprene units, contains a cyclobutane ring (CH2)4, two forms: beta-caryophyllene
(BCP), possibly anticancer, and trans-caryophyllene, (TC)
BCP, weak aromic taste, food additive, in cosmetics, large amounts in essential oils of  in oregano, cinnamon, black pepper, cloves,
hops, rosemary, basil
BCP is a dietary cannabinoid, a major component in hemp Cannabis sativa

Dimethyl-3-octanol, C10H22O, Tetrahydrolinalool
Mercaptomenthone, 8-Mercaptomenthone, C10H18OS
Myrtenal, C10H14O, in cumin seed, juniper berry, pepper, peppermint, scotch spearmint.
Terpinene, cyclic terpene, C10H16
alpha-Terpinene, oil with lemon smell, cardamum, coriander, marjoram
beta-Terpinene, from oil of savin
gamma-Terpinene, coriander, cumin lemon, samphire
Terpineol, C10H18O, α-terpineol, from pine oil
Terpinoline, C10H16, flavour and fragrance agent
Terpinyl acetate, C12H20O2, oleoresin from pine oil
Terpyridine, C15H11N3, tridentate ligand Terpenoids, isoprenoids, (C5H8)n, modified terpenes Hemiterpenoids, C5 Monoterpenoids, C10 Sesquiterpenoids,C15 Diterpenoids, C20 Triterpenoids, C30 Tetraterpenoids, Carotenoids, C40 Carotenes Xanthophylls Isoprene units, (C5H8)
Different structural forms are called isomers.
Isoprene: [2-methyl-1,3-butadiene], [CH2=C(CH3)CH=CH2], (C5H8)
Isoprenoids are compounds derived from isoprene, often showing repeated occurrence of isoprene units.
Terpenes have linked isoprene units that occur in natural rubber. Hemiterpenes, (one isoprene unit), (C5H8)
Isoprene, (C5H8) is the only hemiterpene Hemiterpenoids, C5
Prenol, C5H10O, fruit-like odoour in citrus, tomato, passionfruit
Prenol hemiterpenoids, alcohols, carbon skeleton is one or more isoprene units.
Isovaleric acid, C5H10O2, 3-Methylbutanoic acid, fatty acid, in Valerian
Isovaleric acid has sweaty smell, underarm smell, foot smell, bad smell in wine to be reduced with sulfur dioxide
Isovaleric acid esters have pleasant smells, used in perfumes
So terpenes can be defined as a class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of hemiterpenes. Monoterpenes, (two isoprene units), (C10H16) Monoterpenoids, C10
Anethole, C10H12O:
Ascaridole, C10H16O2,  bicyclic monoterpene, colourless liquid, pungent smell, in Boldo, Epazote, tea tree oil, antihelminthic
Borneol, C10H18O
Camphene, C10H16, bicyclic monoterpene
Camphor, D-Camphor, C10H16O, original source was camphor tree, camphor laurel, Cinnamomum camphora, Lauraceae
Carvacrol, C10H14O
Carvone, C10H14O, terpenoid, ketone, colourless to slightly yellow liquid, D-carvone and L-carvone are flavouring agents, smells like spearmint, prevents potatoes sprouting, mosquito repellent, in caraway, dill, spearmint
Carvonic acid,
Chrysanthemic acid,
Cineole, C10H18O, 1,8-Cineol, eucalyptol
Citral, C10H16O, monoterpenoid, in Cymbopogon citratus lemongrass, Melissa officinalis lemon balm
Citronellal, C10H18O, in Citrus depressa Taiwan mandarin, Melissa officinalis lemon balm
Citronellol, C10H20O, monoterpenoid, in citronella oils, Cymbopogon nardus, oils of rose, Pelargonium geraniums, Melissa officinalis
lemon balm
Cymene, C10H14, 4-Isopropyltoluene
Cuminaldehyde, Epomediol
Eucalyptol, C10H18O
Geranic acid
Geraniol, C10H18O, monoterpenoid, rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil, geranium, lemon, rose-like scent
Geranyl acetate, Gerenyl pyrophosphate, Halomon, Hinikitiol, Hydroxygeraniol, (8-Hydroxygeraniol), Ipsdeniol, Jasmolone
Lavandulol, C10H18O, monoterpenoid alcohol, lavendar oil, weak floral, herby odor, with lemon-like cirus fruity nuance, insect
Lavandulyl acetate, C12H20O2, ester of lavandulol, acetic acid lavandulyl ester, colourless clear oily liquis, perfuming agent, in lavender oil
Limonene, C10H16, d-limonene
Linalool, C10H18O, monoterpenoid, terpene alcohol, in Basil | Mugwort, and  in many flowers and spice plants, pleasant odour
Linalyl acetate, (S)-linalyl acetate, C12H20O2, CH3COOC10H17, acetate ester of linalool, flowery fruit odour, plant metabolite,
mildly toxic, toxic to fish, in Bergamot, Lavender,
Methane-3-8-diol, P-Methan-3-8-diol, Methofuran
Menthol, C10H20O:
Menthone, C10H18O, monoterpene ketone
Menthonementhoxypropanediol, Menthyl acetate, Menthylisoborneol, 2-Menthylisoborneol, Myrcenol,
Menthatriene, C10H14, 1,3,8-p menthatriene, para menthatriene, aroma of parsley
Myrcene, C10H16,
Nerol, Nerolic acid, Ocimene, Oxogeranial, 8-Oxogeranial, Paramenthane hydroperoxide, Perilla ketone
Perillaldehyde, C10H14O, in Perilla frutescens, sushi flavour, terpene aroma, perilla sugar, perillartine, C10H15NO, much sweeter than
Phellandrene, C10H16, cyclic monoterpene, alpha phellandrene and beta phellandrene double bond isomers, peppermint / citrus taste
in Eucalyptus radiata. beta-phellandrene in Canada balsam oil, Foeniculum vulgaren sucrose, also in Perilla frutescens,
Pinene, C10H16, from stem of Canarium tramdenanum, α-pinene, main component of turpentine
Pinene, Alpha-pinene, α-pinene in turpentine, (pine needles flavour)
Pulegone, C10H16O, monoterpene, natural pesticide, in Schizonepeta tenuifalia, Nepeta cataria, Mentha piperita, pennyroyal
Rose oxide, C10H18O, monoterpenoid, fragrance chemical, roses oil, lychee, Gewurztraminer wines
Sabinene, C10H16, thujene, bicyclic monoterpene, colourless to pale yellow clear liquid, woody, spicy, pine-like odour and taste
in Quercus ilex, Fagaceae, Picea abies, Picea abies, Pinaceae, black pepper, carrot seed oil, tea tree oil, nutmeg, bay tree
Sabinene hydrate, 4-Thujanol, C10H18O
Safranal, Soberol, Terpinen-4-ol, Terpinene
Thujene, Thujene, α-thujene
Thujone, C10H16O, monoterpene ketone, menthol odour, in oil of wormwood, from (Artemisia absinthium), cedar leaves, used
in the alcoholic drink absinthe, colourlessliquid, almost insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol
α-thujone (alpha-thujone), C10H16O | L-thujone, C10H16O | β-thujone (beta-thujone) C10H16O,
Pinocamphone, C10H16O, monoterpene ketone, dark yellow liwuid, aromatic ,pleasant odour, in the alcoholic drink absinthe, may
lead to disorders of the nevous system
Fenchone, C10H16O, monoterpene ketone, colourless oily liquid, in the alcoholic drink absinthe, in oil of Fennel
Verbenone, C10H14O, pleasant odour, lemon verbena Aloysia citrodora
Wine lactone Monoterpenoids, C10
Iridoids are cyclic monoterpenoids having the iridane skeleton, (1-isopropyl-2,3-dimethylcyclopentane)
Thymol, C10H14O, monoterpene phenol derivative of alkylbenzene cymene, C10H4, used as a topical antifungal, from Thymus
, (thyme), and Origanum vulgare, (origano).
Thymoquinone, Umbellolone
Thymol, C10H14O, monoterpenoid Terpinenes, (cyclic terpenes)
Terpinenes, (C10H16), Terpinenes are cyclic terpenes and occur as three isomers:
1. α-terpinene is an oil with a lemon smell.
It occurs in cardamom, coriander, and marjoram.
2. β-terpinene occurs in oil of savin.
3. γ-terpinene occurs in coriander, cumin, lemon, samphire.
It can be formed from the action of alcoholic sulfuric acid solution on pinene from turpentine. Sesquiterpenes, (three isoprene units), C15, terpene with formula C15H24 Sesquiterpenoids, 15 C compounds Abscisic acid, C15H20O4, isoprenoid plant hormone, guard cells
Bergamotene, C15H24, α-bergamotene, Cinnamomum zeylandicum
Cadalene, in essential oils many plants
Capsidiol, in tobacco Nicotiana tabacum, chili pepper Capsicum annuum
Caryophyllene, C15H24,
Cedrol, C15H26O, sesquiterpene alcohol, cedarwood oil
Curcumene, C15H22, alpha-curcumene, sesquiterpene,Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Javanese tumeric, wild tomato Lycopersicon
hirsutum, insecticide, insect repellent in tumeric, bright yellow
Elemene, C15H24, (four isomers, alpha-, beta- , gamma-, delta-), floral aroma, possibly anticancerous
Farnesol, C15H26O
Farnesene, C15H24, (six isomers), alpha-farnesene, flavour and fragrance agent, green apple odour, oxidized to cause fruit
skin scald, in oil or perilla, Perilla frutescens, gardenia scent
Isomers occur in apple, orange, grapefruit, mandarin and lime peel, grape , pear ginger, nutmeg , basil.
Germacrene, C15H24
Geosmin, C12H22O, earth smell, muddy fish smell, after rain smell, cut grass smells
Globulol, C15H26O, floral roseodour, in perfumes
Gossypol phenol, C30H30O8, terpenoid alkaloid, inhibits some dehydrogenase enzymes, in cotton plant Gossypium, yellow pigment,
former contraceptive but causes low blood potassium
Humulene, C15H24, alpha caryophyllene , monocyclic sesquiterpene, in essential oil hops Humulis lupulus
Juvabione, C16H26O3, paper factor, wood of Abies, balsum fir, anti-insect
Lactucin, C11H14O4
Laurene, C15H20, Laurencia glandulifera
Longifolene, C15H24, tricyclic sesquiterpene, Pinus roxberghii, lapsang souchong tea
8-Deoxylactucin, C15H16O4
Nerolidol, C15H26O, peruvidol, (in neroli, ginger, jasmine, lavender, tea tree and lemon grass, Cannibis sativa), oleoresin, fresh bark
smell, flavour, perfume
Patachoulol, C15H26O, sesquiterpene alcohol, in Pogostemon cablin
Picrotoxins, C30H34O13
Selinene, C15H24, (group of 4 isomers) , beta-Selinene, in celery oil,
Thujopsene, Turpentine --> rosin
Zingiberine, C15H24, monocyclic sesquiterpene, ginger flavour, in ginger Sesquiterpenoids, 15 C compounds
Vulgarin Diterpenes, (four isoprene units), C20H32 Diterpenoids, C20
In perfumes and resins, pine turpentine, distilled essential oil,
Casbene, (disease resistance),
Crocin, (in saffron),
Cembrene phytol, a building block of the chlorophyll molecule
Dehydroleucodine, (medicine from Artemisia douglasiana),
Gibberellin, (phytohormones and germination), gibberellin A1, gibberellin plant hormones.(stem elongation),
Podocarpic acid, (disease resistance),
Retinol, C20H30O, diterpenoid alcohol, Vitamin A activity:
Steviol C20H30O3, from Stevia rebaudiana, artificial sweetener
Taxadiene, taxol, (in yew tree bark, anticancer)
Trisporic acid, (fungal hormones). Diterpenoids, C20
Forskolin, C22H34O7, Coleus forskolin, anti-hypertensive
Ginkgolides, Ginkgo biloba, leaves
Gingolide A, C20H24O9, antioxidant
Gingolide B, C20H24O10, treat gardivascular diseases, possibly anti-cancer, neuroprotective
Lupulin A
Pachydictol A
Taxodone Sesterterpenes, (five isoprene units)
Sesterterpenes, C25, insect waxes, fungi products, phytotoxins, geranyl, farnesol, ceroplastol, insect gascardic acid Triterpenes, (six isoprene units), (C30H48), C30, steroids and sterols Triterpenoids, C30
Squalene in amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ olives, used in cosmetics
Ambrein, C30H52O, a triterpene alcohol, is the main constituent of ambergris found in the sperm whales or floating on the sea as whale
barf (vomit), whale spit.
It is supposed to protect the intestines of whales from the sharp beaks of cuttlefish.
It was used for food flavouring and in the perfume industry to prevent scent from dissipating too quickly.
Since 1970 the perfume industry has turned to substitutes to protect whales.
It is supposed to be an aphrodisiac.
Saponins are toxic glycosides forming frothy colloidal solutions when agitated in water.
Some saponins cause breakdown of red blood cells but some saponins occur in traditional medicines, e.g. Maesa balansae in
Vietnam is used to treat leishmaniasis
Saponins that foam in water occur in the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum.
One triterpene saponin has formula C30H48O4.hederagenin
sterols, (steroids) in animal sex hormones, squalene, (in shark liver oil), cephalosporin, gonane, hopane, diplotene, lupeole
Squalene, in liver oil of sharks Triterpenoids, C30, any terpenoid derived from triterpene
Azadirachtin, C34H44O16, tetranortriterpenoid, natural pesticide, in Azadirachta indica, neem, seeds
Oleanoic acid, C30H48O3, pentacyclic triterpenoid, in Olea europea, (olive oil). Phytolacca, Syzygium, Hyptis, American pokeweed,
Syzygium species
Ursolic acid, C30H48O3, pentacyclic triterpenoid, in apple wax, Mirabilis japanica, basil, bilberry, cranberry, elder, peppermint, lavender,
origano, hawthorn, prunes
Betulinic acid, pentacyclic triterpenoid, Betulone, Deltonin, Isobrucein, Moronic acid, Picrasin, Ber tree, white birch, diospyros

Triterpenoid saponins in legumes, maize, alfalfa,
Alpha-hederin, Araloside A, Astragaloside, Bacoside A, Cucurbitacin, cytotoxic, Cucurbitane, C30H54, in Curcubitaceae
Eleutheroside, Ginoside, Gynpenoside, 20-hydroxyecdysone, Soyasapogenol B, C30H50O3, Tangshenoside I, Tinosporide,
Steroidal sapogenins
Tigogenin (C27H44O3), steroidal saponin, in Trigonella foenum-graecum, fenugreek
Digitonin (C56H92O29), steroidal saponin, in Digitalis purpurea, foxglove
Dioscin (C45H72O16), steroidal saponin, treat liver injury, potential anticancer, antifungal, in Dioscorea nipponica
Gitonin (C50H82O23), steroidal saponin, in Digitalis purpurea, foxglove
Sarsasapogenin (C27H44O3), in Smilax aspera, Spanish sarsasparilla

Sapogenins are the non-saccharide (aglycone) part of saponin glucosides, e.g. the steroidal sapinigen,
Sapogenins are derivatives of triterpenoids or steroids, oxygenated C27 steroids
Digitogenin, (C27H44O5), sapogenin, hydroxy steroid
Diosgenin, (C27H42O3), steroid sapogenin, in Costus speciosis, Dioscorea species, wild yam
Gitoxygenin, (C23H34O5)
Tiggenin, in Chlorophytum borivilianum
Yamogenin, (C27H42O3), sapogenin, in fenugreek Tests for saponins
Add ground plant material to test-tube of water, heat to boiling, add stopper and shake the test-tube.
Note presence of stable froth. Tetraterpenes, (eight isoprene units), C40H56, carotenoid pigments
Phytoene, C40H64, carotenoid precursor, colourless, in most fruit and vegetables, tomato, carrot, oranges, absorb light in the UV
range, protect skin, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory
Phytofluene, C40H62, carotenoid precursor, coolourless, in most fruit and vegetables, orange colour, tomato, carrot, oranges,
absorb light in the UV range, protect skin, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory
(phytoene --> phytofluene), (phytoene and/or phytofluene --> all carotenoids) Tetraterpenoids, Carotenoids, tetraterpene derivatives
1. Carotines, no oxygen, usually orange pigment
α-carotene, C40H56,carotenoid pigment, vitamin A:
β-carotene, C40H56, carotenoid pigment, vitamin A, Food additive E160a:
γ-carotene, C40H56, carotenoid pigment, from lycopene
δ- carotene, C40H56, carotenoid pigment,
Lycopene, C40H56, carotenoid pigment, in tomatoes, Food additive E160d
Neurosporene, C40H58, carotenoid pigment, (phytoene --> neurosporene --> lycopene)

2. Xanthophylls, contain oxygen, usually yellow pigment
Astaxanthin, C40H52O4, keto-carotenoid pigment, (ketone), red
Bixin, C25H30O4, carotenoid pigment, Food additive E160b, (apocarotenoid from cleavage of carotenoid)
Canthaxanthin, C40H52O2, keto-carotenoid pigment, (ketone), Food additive E161g, paprika
Capsanthin, C40H36O3, keto-carotenoid pigment, (ketone), Food additive E160c
Capsorubin, C40H56O4, keto-carotenoid pigment, (ketone), Food additive E160c, red paprika pigment
Citranaxanthin, C33H44O, carotenoid pigment, yellow food dye, Food additive E161i, (apocarotenoid from cleavage of carotenoid)
Crocetin, C20H24O4, carotenoid pigment, (apocarotenoid from cleavage of carotenoid)
Crocin, C44H64O24, carotenoid pigment, (apocarotenoid from cleavage of carotenoid)
Cryptoxanthin, C40H56O, carotenoid pigment
Flavoxanthin, C40H56O3, carotenoid pigment, golden-yellow, Food additive E161a, (Banned some countries)
Fucoxanthin, C42H56O6, carotenoid pigment, (all-trans-Fucoxanthin), (ester of an alcohol), antioxidant
Lutein, C40H56O2, carotenoid pigment, (ε-carotene), (an alcohol), yellow Food additive E161b, in marigold
Neoxanthin, C40H56O4, carotenoid pigment, green. in spinach leaf, tomato and green vegetables, and in Arabidopsis.
Peridinin, C39H50O7, carotenoid pigment, light sensitive, associated with chlorophyll
Rhodopin, C40H58O, carotenoid pigment, (an alcohol), phototrophic bacteria
Rhodoxanthin, C40H50O2, retro-carotenoid pigment, purple, Taxus baccata, Food additive E161f, (not USA)
Rubixanthin, C40H56O, red-orange, natural yellow 27, Food additive E161d, (Banned some countries), in rosehips, Rosa species.
Staphyloxanthin, C51H78O8, caratenoid pigment, produced by Staphylococcus aureus, "golden staph".
Violaxanthin, C40H56O4, caratenoid pigment, orange, Food additive E161e, (Banned some countries), in Villa tricolor, pansy
Zeaxanthin, C40H56O2, carotenoid pigment, (ester of an alcohol), in paprika, saffron, wolfberries Polyterpenes, (thousands of isoprene units)
Polyterpenes contain a long chain of thousands of C5H8 isoprene subunits in milky latex sap
1. Rubber, natural rubber, (C5H8)n, [n = 4,0005,000], (Hevea brasiliensis), and (Ficus elastica), polyisoprene, cis double bonds
2. Gutta-percha, (Palaquium gutta), polyisoprene, trans double bonds
3.Chicle polyterpene from the sapodilla tree, (Manilkara zapota), used for chewing gums.
Norisoprenoids, C13, Vitis vinifera