School Science Lessons
Appendix G
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Table of contents

Phytochemicals by trivial names
| Acacetin | Acetyldigoxin | N-Acetyltyramine | Acolongifloroside K | Agnuside | Agrimophol | Allamandin | Alvonal
| Amarogentin | Amygdalin | Annonacin | Antirrhinoside | Apiin | Arbutin | Aristolochic acid | Asiaticoside | Asparanin
| Asparanin | Asperuloside | Aucubin | Benzyl benzoate | Bromelain | Calotropin | Canthaxanthin | Carnosol | Carthamin
| Cascarosides | Casticin | Catalpol | Catalposide | Convallatoxin | Curcumin | Cymarine | Cynarin | Deslanoside
| Digitoxigenin | Digitoxin | Digoxin | Didrovaltratum | Dihydroxyflavan | Dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavan | Diindolylmethane
| Disogenin | Docetaxel | Dhurrin | Echinacoside | Emodin | Esculetin | Etoposide | Fisetin | Gentiopicrin | Ginsenoside RG1
| Glaucarubin | Glycyrrhizin | Gossypol | Guanidine | Harpagoside | Herbacetin | Hesperidin | Hyperforin | Hypericin
| Indole-3-carbinol | Iridomyrmecin | Kainic acid | Kawain | Kheltin | Lamiidoside | Lanatoside C | Lapachol
| Levodopa | Linamarin | Loganin | Lotaustrain | Mangiferin | Melatonin | Methyl salicylate | Metildigoxin
| Myricetin | Myricitrin | N-Methylephedrine | Neoandrographolide | Neomatatabiol | Nepetalactone
| Netilmicin | Nipagin | Nordihydroguaiaretic acid | Oleandrin | Oleandrigenin | Oleuropein | Ouabain | Ouabagenin
| Paclitaxel | Phillyrin | Phyllodulcin | Physcion | Picrotoxinin | Pinitol | Plumbagin | Podophyllotoxin
| Proscillaridin | Prunasin | Pseudohypericin | Quinolizidine | Quisqualic acid | Rebaudioside
| Rhamnazin | Rhamnetin | Rhodiolin | Rhododendrol | Rorifone | Rosarin | Salicin
| Santonin | Scillaren | Secologanin | Shatavarin IV | Silymarin | Sinensetin | Sophoricoside | Stevioside | Strophanthin
| Teniposide | Tetrahydrocannabinol | Thymol | Trichanthin | Valtratum | Verbascoside | Verbenalin | Xanthone | Yuanhuacine .|

Acacetin, C16H12O5 Flavone
Acacetin, Linarigenin, O-methylated flavone, 4-methoxy-5, 7-dihydroxyflavone, anti-peroxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-aromatase
(blocks oestrogen synthesis) flavonoid, antiproliferative agent which induces apoptosis of cancer cells, used in traditional Chinese
medicine, used by athletes and body-builders as dietary supplement to maintain testosterone levels and prevent increasing estrogen
levels, relief from menopause symptoms, tumor growth prevention, reduction of estrogen synthesis.
In Damiana, in Black locust, in Silver birch tree, See diagram: Acacetin.

Acetyldigoxin, C43H66O15 Cardiac Glycoside
Acetyldigoxin, in Woolly foxglove , acetyl derivatives of digoxin from Digitalis lanata are better absorbed and longer acting than
digoxin, used to treat congestive heart failure, See diagram: Acetyldigoxin.

Acolongifloroside, K, C29H44O12, Cardiactive Glycoside
Acolongifloroside, used as with digitalis, in Strophanthus gratus seeds.
Acolongifloroside K consists of rhamnose and ouabagenin, used like Digitalis and in cell biological research.
See diagram: Acolongifloroside.

Agnuside, C22H26O11, Iridoid glycoside
Agnuside, ester of aucubin and hydroxybenzoic acid, used to treat premenstrual syndrome, in Chaste tree
See diagram: Agnuside.

Agrimophol, C26H34O8 Phenolic Ketone
Agrimophol, a phloroglucinol, toxic, antibacterial anthelmintic, kills maggots, in Agrimony, used in research on Mycobacterial tuberculosis
(Mtb), in Agrimonia pilosa roots, See diagram: Agrimophol.

Allamandin, C15H16O7, Nonglucosidic Iridoid
Allamandin, terpene lactone, antileukaemic, tumour inhibiting, wound healing, in Allamanda cathartica
See diagram: Allamandin.

Alvonal MR, C30H44O9 Cardiotonic Glycoside
Alvonal, cymarine, cymarin, cardiac glycoside, K-strophanthin-alpha (strophanthin aglycone), cardioprotective,
in Strophanthus gratus , and Dogbane
Apocynum cannabinum, A. venetum, source of fibre, See diagram: Alvonal.

Amarogentin, C29H30O13, Secoiridoid Glycoside
Amarogentin, most bitter sustance, standard of bitterness, in different kinds of bitters, possible use for cancer chemotherapy, in gentian
Gentiana lutea | Swertia chirata, with Gentiopicrin, See diagram: Amarogentin.

Amygdalin, C20H27NO11 Cyanogenic glycoside
Amygdalin, cyanide poisoning, in Rosaceae seeds, e.g. apricot kernels, bitter almonds, apple seeds, peach, plum.
Neither amygdalin nor modified form called "laetrile" are anticancer agents and they are NOT vitamins, so "Vitamin B17" is a misnomer.
Hydrolysis with dilute hydrochloric acid or emulsin
C20H27NO11, + H2O --> C6H6CHO + HCN + 2C6H12O6
amygdalin + water --> benzaldehyde + hydrogen cyanide + D-glucose
Bitter almond:
See diagram: Amygdalin.

Annonacin, C35H64O7, Polyketide
Annonacin, neurotoxic acetogenin in Annonaceae, e.g. American pawpaw, soursop, custard apple, cherimoya, Goniothalamus.
Acetogenins, found only in Annonaceae, are linear 32- or 34-carbon chains containing oxygenated functional groups.
Annonacin has been found to caused significant cell death in various cancers, e.g. bladder cancer.
See diagram: Annonacin.

Antirrhinoside, C15H22O10 Iridoid Glucoside
Antirrhinoside, in Antirrhinum, in Linaria, See diagram: Antirrhinoside.

Apiin, C26H28O14 Flavone O-Glycoside
Apiin, apioside, β-D-glucoside, flavonoid (aglycone of apinogen), anti-inflammatory, in parsley, celery
See diagram: Apiin.

Apiose, C5H10O5, monosaccharide, in Appiin of parsley, Petroselenum crispum.
See diagram: Apiose.

Arbutin, C12H16O7, Glycoside
Arbutin, hydroquinone glucopyranoside, glycolsylated hydroquinone, Chinese medicine, inhibits melanin formation by inhibiting
tyrosinase, in bearberry, in pear skin, in wheat, in Bergenia, in Arctostaphylos, See diagram: Arbutin.

Aristolochic acid, C17H11NO7 Aromatic Nitro Derivative
Aristolochic acid A, Chinese medicine, ma dou ling, Dutchman's pipe, carcinogenic, mutagenic, in Aristolochiaceae
toxic to birds, anti-inflammatory, anti-fertility, carcinogenic in animals
Aristolindiquinone, C12H10O4, napthoquinone, in Aristolochia indica root, in Asparagus officinalis, See diagram: Aristolochic acid.

Asiaticoside, C48H78O19 Glycoside
Asiaticoside, oleanane-type triterpene glycoside, O-glucose-glucose-rhamnose, madecassol, fine white and odourless, toxic to birds,
anti-inflammatory, anti-fertility, antibiotic, tumour growth inhibitor, carcinogenic in animals, powder, in green vegetables, in Gotu kola,
(Centella asiatica), Asiatic pennywort, in Aristolochia tagala, antibiotic, used for wound healing tissue repair in "Madecassol" healing
ointment, and anti-depressant, in Aristolochia clematis (Indian birthwort), in Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
See diagram: Asiaticoside.

Asparanin, C39H64O13, Saponin
Asparanin, steroidal saponin, nematocidal, anticancer
Asparanin B, C45H74O17, Chinese medicine, in Asparagus officinalis.
Schidigerasaponin D5 (Asparanin A), in Asparagus racemosus roots, See diagram: Asparanin.

Asperuloside, C18H22O11 Iridoid Glucoside
Asperloside, Rubichloric acid, metabolite, iridoid monoterpenoid, beta-D-glucoside, monosaccharide derivative, acetate ester, gamma-lactone,
laxative, inhibits germination and plant growth, in Asperla, in Gallium verum, in Escallonia, in Daphniphyllum, See diagram: Asperuloside.

Aucubin, C15H22O9, Iridoid Glucoside
Aucubin, Aucubiside, Rhinanthin, metabolite, in Aucuba japonica, Eucommia ulmoides, Plantago species, Galium aparin, used in traditional
Chinese folk medicine, laxative, diuretic, antidote to toxin from Amanita virosa, See diagram: Aucubin.

Bromelain, C39H66N2O29Glycoprotein
Bromelain, bromelin, branched amino hexasaccharide, carbohydrate moiety of bromelain, mixture of compounds in extract from pineapple stem, (fruit bromelain and stem bromelain), (protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymesin fruit juice and stem), lesser in fruit, anti-inflammatory, mixture of proteolytic
enzymes, anti-inflammatory, irritant, used after bruising and surgery, used to treat burn tissue, meat tenderizer, chill-proof beer, in Pineapple.
Stem bromelain is a glycoprotein but fruit bromelain is acidic.
Avoid bromelain if taking aspirin or blood-thinning anticoagulants or if allergic to pineapple.
See diagram: Bromelain.

Benzyl benzoate, C14H12O2, Ester
Benzylbenzoate, Ascabiol, Benylate, Novoscabin, Benzoic acid, C14H12O2
Ester of benzyl alcohol + benzoic acid, acaricide, scabicide, insect repellent, in tuberose, hyacinth,
Formerly used to treat scabies and lice infestation of the head and body, but it has irritant properties.
In Balsam of Peru
C6H5CH2OH + C6H5COOH --> C6H5CH2O2CC6H5+ H2O
benzyl alcohol + benzoic acid --> benzyl benzoate + water
See diagram: Benzyl benzoate.

Calotropin, C29H40O9, Cardiac Glycoside
Calotropin, Pecilocerin, cardenolide, cardioprotective agent, in Sodom apple
See diagram: Calotropin.

Canthaxanthin, C40H52O2 Carotenoid
Canthaxanthin, orobronze, keto-carotenoid, trans-carotenoid pigment, widely distributed in nature, fat soluble, antioxidant, food colouring,
oral suntanning agent, but causes damage to the retina, food and drug colouring agent, E161g , in algae, mushrooms, bacteria, gives farmed
salmon a pink color similar to wild salmon and acts as antibiotic, so used to determine the origin of salmons for food.
See diagram: Canthaxanthin.

Carnosol, C20H26O4 Diterpenoid
Carnosol, antioxidant, phenolic diterpene, may inhibit breast cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial anti-cancer, chemopreventive,
in | Rosemary | Mountain Desert Sage | extract of rosemary leaves contains high antioxidative activity to carnosol and carnosic acid,
easily converted to carnosol by oxidation, possibly neuroprotective effects by promoting synthesis of nerve growth factor in glial cells,
activates enzymes involved in primary metabolism, leading to lower blood levels of fatty acids and glucose, so possibly to be used to
treat type 2 diabetes.
See diagram: Carnosol.

Carthamin, C43H42O22, Hydroxycinnamic acid
Carthamin, food additive Natural Red 26, Safflower Yellow, formerly known as carthamine, red quinonoid glycoside, flavonoid, colouring
matter of Safflower , used as dye and a food colouring, cosmetic, ancient Egypt wool dye, See diagram: Carthamin.

Catalpol, C15H22O10, Iridoid Glucoside
Catalpol, Catalpinoside, De(p-hydroxybenzoyl)catalposide, organic molecular entity, metabolite, diuretic, laxative, in Catalpa, in Veronica,
in Plantago, in Buddleja, See diagram: Catalpol.

Catalposide, C22H26O12, Iridoid Glucoside
Catalposide, Hydroxybenzoyl catalpol, Catalpin, diuretic, laxative, in Catalpa, in Veronica, attracts some moths but deters others
See diagram: Catalposide.

Cascarosides, C27H32O14 Glycosides
Cascaroside A and Cascaroside B, hydroxyanthracene glycosides, laxatives acting on the large intestines, Cascaroside A in Purging buckthorn
Cascaroside B in Cascara sagrada , See diagram: Cascaroside A.

Casticin, C19H18O8, Methyoxylated Flavonol
Casticin, Vitexicarpin, tetramethoxyflavone, methyoxalated flavonol (two attached methyl groups), from quercetagetin, apotosis inducer,
in Vitex trifoliata, Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) seeds, in Eremophila , See diagram: Casticin.

Convallatoxin, C29H42O10, Cardiac Glycoside
Convallatoxin, in Lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis), See diagram: Convallatoxin.

Curcumin, C21H20O6, Phenylpropanoid
Curcumin, diferuloylmethane, Turmeric yellow, Turmeric colour, Natural yellow 3, phenolic compound, phytopolylphenol pigment,
diarylheptanoid phenolic compound, choleretic , anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antioxidant, reduces cholesterol level, controls blood
sugar, yellow-orange dye, tumeric is powdered, in Turmeric, rhizome, causes yellow colour of Curcuma roots, easily penetrates cell
cytoplasm and accumulates in plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope, used to prepare curcuma paper and
the detection of boron, pharmacological properties caused by inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes, inhibits tumor cell proliferation
curcumin, dietary supplements may cause heartburn, used to make curcuma paper for Boron detection, E100 Curcumin,
See diagram: Curcumin.

Cynarin, C25H24O12, Phenylpropanoid
Cynarin, Cynarine, (1, 5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid), phenolic compound, a hydroxycinnamic acid, ester of quinic acid + caffeic acid,
inhibits taste receptors so water tastes sweet, aids digestion, choleretic, antihepatotoxic, lowers serum cholesterol, disorders of liver
and gallbladder, choleretic , aids cholesterol levels, possibly immunosuppressive agent, in Artichoke, and Artichoke thistle
in Cynara scolymus See diagram: Cynarine.

Deslanoside, C47H74O19, Cardiac Glycoside
Deslanoside, Deacetyllanatoside C, Desacetyllanatoside C, , cardiotonic glycoside, in leaves of Digitalis lanata
used to treat heart disorders by increasings intracellular sodium and calcium concentrations, which may promote activation of contractile
proteins (e. g. , actin, myosin), and acts on the electrical activity of the heart.
See diagram: Deslanoside.

Dhurrin, C14H17NO7, Cyanogenic Glycoside
Dhurrin, in leaves, and later stems, of Sorghum bicolor, may cause HCN cattle poisoning
See diagram: Dhurrin.

Didrovaltratum, C22H32O8, Nonglucosidic Iridoid
Didrovaltratum, Didrovaltrate, Dihydroisovaltrate, Dihydroisovaltratum, iridoid monoterpenoid. tranquiliser, sedative, in Valeriana,
in Centrathus, See diagram: Didrovaltratum.

Digitoxin, C41H64O13, Cardiac Glycoside
Digitoxin, a cardenolide, lipid-soluble, in plasma membrane, anti-cancer, odourless powder, mentioned as poison in stage plays, in Foxglove,
it causes 1. increased intracellular sodium and calcium levels and decreased intracellular potassium levels, leading to apoptosis and inhibition
of cancer cell growth, 2. increased intracellular concentrations of calcium to promote activation of contractile proteins, (e.g. actin, myosin), so
acts on the electrical activity of the heart.
Digitoxin has similar toxic effects to digoxin, sometimes used in place of it and has a longer half life, See diagram: Digitoxin
Digitoxigenin, C23H34O4, cardiac glycoside, cardenolide, from hydrolysis of digitoxin.

Digoxin, C41H64O14, Cardiac Glycoside
Digoxin, (12beta-Hydroxydigitoxin), Digoxine, Lanoxicaps, a cardenolide, consists of three sugars and the aglycone digoxigenin, controls
ventricular rate, used to treat congestive heart failure and control ventricular rate, toxic if drug dose is too large, in | Digitalis lanata
| Digitalis purpurea | See diagram: Digoxin.

Dihydroxyflavan, C15H14O3, Hydroxyflavonoid.
Dihydroxyflavan, (7, 4'-Dihydroxyflavan), antifungal, antibacterial, causes diarrhoea, produced in Narcissus and Broussonetia in response
to infection, in Butterfly tree, See diagram: Dihydroxyflavan.

Diindolylmethane (3, 3'-diindolylmethane), C17H14N2, Indole
Diindolylmethane, 3, 3-Diindolylmethane (DIM), (3, 3'-Methylenediindole), a bioactive metabolite of indole-3-carbinol, phytochemical
produced by the breakdown of glucosinolate glucobrassicin in Brassicaceae vegetables, inhibits neoplasms, P450 inhibitor, apotosis
inducer, used to treat prostate cancer and abnormal changes in cervix cells caused by human papilloma virus, but effectiveness not clear.
See diagram: Diindolylmethane

Disogenin, C27H42O3, Steroid Sapogenin
Disogenin, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, may cause death of human colon carcinoma cells, in yams, as the isomer yamogenin in the herb
fenugreek, natural derivatives of disogenin are solasodine and solanine, See diagram: Yamogenin.

Docetaxel, C43H53NO14, Diterpene
Docetaxel, Taxotere, a taxane diterpene, anti-cancer, prevents mitosis, microtubule inhibitor, related to Paclitaxel, anhydrous
form used as a common chemotherapy drug as an inhibitor of cellular mitosis to treat solid tumors, e.g. breast and lung cancer.
bark of the rare Pacific yew tree, in Taxus brevifolia (rare Pacific yew tree), or similar chemical in Taxus baccata (common European yew tree).
See diagram: Docetaxel.

Echinacoside, C35H46O20, Glycoside
Echinacoside, caffeic acid glycoside, in herbal medicine, used to treat Parkinson's disease, See diagram: Echinacoside.

Esculetin, C9H6O4, Coumarin
Esculetin, Aesculetin, Coumarin derivative, a hydroxycoumarin, (6, 7-dihydroxycoumarin), a lactone, anticoagulant, its glucoside is
esculetin (aesculetin), used in UV filters, | in Chicory | in barley | See diagram: Esculetin.

Emodin, C15H10O5, Anthroquinone
Emodin, 6-methyl-1, 3, 8-trihydroxyanththraquinone, purgative , laxative, catharctic, excites large intestine
smooth muscle, anticancer, in | Rheum emodi | Buckthorns | in Rhamnus cathartica |.
See diagram: Emodin.

Etoposide, C29H32O13, Glycoside
Etoposide, VP-16, topoisomerase inhibitor, irritant, antitumor agent, derivative of Podophyllotoxin, in Podophyllum peltatum, (mayapple,
American mandrake, ground lemon), Etoposide phosphate, anti-cancer drug.
See diagram: Etoposide.

Fisetin, C15H10O6, Flavonol
Fisetin, flavonoid polyphenol, antioxidant, colouring agent, anticarcinogenic, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, highest concentrations in
strawberry, apple, persimmon, lotus root, onion, grapes, Fisetin.
See diagram: Fisetin.

Ginsenoside RG1, C42H72NO14 Saponin
Ginsenoside, Sanchinoside C1, Panaxoside A, Panaxoside Rg1, Sanchinoside Rg1, root triterpenoid saponin
Ginsenoside RG1 is most abundant in Ginseng (Panax ginseng) (Korean ginseng), Araliaceae, improves spatial learning, estrogen-like
activity, cardioprotective agent.
Ginsenosides are a class of steroid glycosides, and triterpene saponins, found only in Panax (ginseng), appear to affect multiple
physiological pathways.
See diagram: Ginsenoside.

Gentiopicrin, C16H20O9, Iridoid Glycoside
Gentiopicrin, gentiopicrocide, component of secoiridoid glycosides, in gentian, anticonvulsant, anti-addiction, in Gentiana, Gentiana lutea ,
Swertia chirata, with Amarogentin
Geniposidic acid (GA), C16H22O10, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, jaundice, hepatic disorders, in Gardenia jasminoides, See diagram: Gentiopicrin.

Glaucarubin, C25H36O10, Triterpenoid
Glaucarubin, alpha-Kirondrin, amoebicide, cytotoxic, possibly anticancer, in Simarouba glauca (paradise tree).
See diagram: Glaucarubin.

Glycyrrhizin, C42H62O16 Saponin
Glycyrrhizin, saponin or saponin-like compound, glycyrrhizinic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid glycoside, glycyrrhizinic acid, triterpene aglycone,
sweet tasting, used in food and drug industry, used formerly to treat peptic ulcer, causes sweet flavour of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice root),
Abrus precatorius, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, metabolized to glycyrrhetinic acid which inhibits enzymes in metabolism of
corticosteroids, possibly used to treat sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, inflammation, increased blood pressure, growth of
tumor cells, widely used anti-inflammatory agent from licorice root, may suppress growth of tumor cells.
See diagram: Glycyrrhizin.

Gossypol, C30H30O8, Phenolic Compound
Gossypol, toxic, male contraceptive, in Gossypium sp (cotton).
See diagram: Gossypol.

Guaiacol, C6H4(OH)(OCH3), Phenolic Compound
Guaiacol, in gaiac oil, formerly used to treat syphilis, from Guaiacum officinale ("Lignum vitae"), Zygophyllaceae.
See diagram: Guaiacol.

Guanidine, CH5N3, HNC(NH2)2 Polyamine
Guanidine, Iminourea, Aminomethanamidine, Carbamidine, Carbamamidine, crystalline compound, colourless solid, dissolves in polar
solvents, strong base that is used in the production of plastics and explosives, in urine from protein metabolism, isolated from Peruvian
guano, in Goat's rue.
Guanidine is a biguanide, an acetylcholine releasing agent and is used in the manufacture of plastics and explosives
Guanidine is protonated (addition of hydrogen) as guanidinium cation (C(NH2)+, so guanidine is very strong organic base in water.
Guanidinium nitrate is used as a propellant in air bags.
Guanidinium chloride is used to denature proteins.
Guanidinium hydroxide in some hair relaxers.
See diagram: Guanidine.

Harpagoside, C24H30O11, Iridoid Glucoside
Harpagoside, terpene glycoside, bitter taste, analgesic, in Harpagophytum procumbens roots, in Scrophularia buergeriana rhizomes, in Lamium,
See diagram: Harpagoside.

Herbacetin, C15H10O7, Flavonol
Herbacetin, possible cancer therapy, in Rhodiola rosea, golden root, rose root, Crassulaceae.
See diagram: Herbacetin.

Hesperidin, C28H34O15 Flavanone Glycoside
Hesperidin, (aglycone hesperetin), in citrus fruit peels, bitter orange, orange juice, hesperidin, used to treat capillary fragility.
See diagram: Hesperidin.

Hyperforin, C35H52O4.C12H23N, Ketone
Hyperforin, dicylohexylammonium salt, cyclic terpene ketone, sesquarterpenoid, carbobicyclic compound, plant metabolite, anti-inflammatory,
antidepressant, anxiolytic, antibacterial, antineoplastic, apoptosis inducer, in Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort).
See diagram: Hyperforin.

Hypericin, C30H16O8, Glycoside
Hypericin, anthroqinone glycoside, anthroqinone-derivative, anti-bacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative, in Hypericum perforatum.
See diagram: Hypericin.

Indole-3-carbinol, C9H9NO, Alcohol
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), 3-Indolemethanol, natural phytochemical, off-white solid, formed in cabbage family after crushing or during cooking,
produced by action of myrosinase on the glucosinolate glucobrassicin in Brassica species, e.g. cabbage, radishes, cauliflower, broccoli,
Brussels sprouts, daikon, metabolized to 3, 3'-diindolylmethane, natural chemopreventive, anticarcinogenic, antitumorigenic, may prevent
development of estrogen-enhanced cancers including breast, endometrial and cervical cancers.
See diagram: Indole-3-carbinol.

Iridomyrmecin, C10H16O2 Simple Iridoid
Iridomyrmecin, terpene lactone, antibiotic, Plantago lanceolata, used in laxative and diuretic medicins, antidote to Amanita virosa poisoning,
in Actinidia polygama.

Kainic acid, C10H15NO4, Dicarboxylic Acid
Kainic acid, C10H15NO4, amino acid agonist, cause neurotoxicity, ascaricide, in Digenea simplex (algae)
Kainic acid monohydrate, C10H15NO4.H2O, excess induces neurocytosis and eliptic seizures.

Kawain, C14H14O3, Aromatic Ether
Kawain, DL-kawain, Kavain, a 2-pyranone, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sleep-quality enhancing, tranquillizer, kavalactone,
in Piper methysticum (kava kava).

Kheltin, C14H12O5, Pyrone
Kheltin, gamma-pyrone, furanochromone derivative, bronchodilator, smooth muscle relaxant, used to treat vitiligo, kidney stones, in Ammi
visnaga, ( toothpick plant, bishop's weed).

Lamiidoside, C26H32O14, Iridoid Glucoside
Lamiidoside, in Phlomis fructicosa, in Bouchea fluminensis.

Loganin, C17H26O10, Iridoid Glucoside
Loganin, ridoid monoterpenoid, used in bitter tonic folk medicines, laxative, in Strychnos nux-vomica, in Hydrangea species, in Catharanthus
roseus, in Menyanthes, See diagram: Allamandin.

Lanatoside, C49H76O20, Cardiac Glycoside
Lanatoside C, Celadigal, Celanid, Cetosanol, Digilanide C, used to treat heart failure, arrhythmia, in Digitalis lanata, See diagram: Lanatoside.

Lapachol, C15H14O3, Napthoquinone
Lapachol, Tecomin, Bethabarra wood, Greenhartin, a hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic,
anticancer, antitumor, in Tabebuia, See diagram: Lapachol.

Levodopa, C9H11NO4, Amino Acid
Levodopa, L-dopa, dihydroxyphenylalinine, aromatic amino acid, in the brain levodapa is decarboxylated by opaminergic neurons to dopamine,
psychoactive drug, treat stiffness, spasms, poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease, in Mucuna pruriens, (cowhage, velvet bean),
in Vicia faba (broad bean), in Dalbergia, in Mucuna, in Lupinus, See diagram: Levodopa.

Lotaustrain, C11H19NO6, Glycoside
Lotaustrain, cyanogenic glycoside, in Lotus austral;is, in lima bean, in Rhodolia rosea, in white clover, in Cassava.
See diagram: Lotaustrain.

Mangiferin, C19H18O11, Glycoside
Mangiferin, Alpizarin, Aphloid, Aphloiol, Chinomin, Euanthogen, Hedysarid, xanthonoid, hydroxalated xanthone c-glycoside, C-glycosyl
compound, antimicrobial, antioxidant, possibly antidiabetic, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, plant metabolite, a xanthone, xanthonoid,
glucoside of norathyriol, in Mangifera indica, in Anemarrhena asphodeloides rhizomes, in Bombax ceiba leaves, in Salacia, in Cyclopiain Iris
unguicalaris, in Asplenium montanum, See diagram: Mangiferin.

Melatonin, C13H16N2O2 Hormone
Melatonin, Melatonine, (N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), Circadin, produced by animal pineal gland, increases in darkness and decreases
in light, regulates sleep, mood, and reproduction, antioxidant, used to treat insomnia disorders, sleep disorders, jet lag, headaches, in coffee,
in walnuts, in most plants, See diagram: Melatonin.

Methyl salicylate, C8H8O3 Organic Ester
Methyl salicylate, C6H4OHCO.OCH3, 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester, Methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate, oil of wintergreen, in many plants,
colorless / yellow / red liquid, odour and taste of wintergreens, in vanilla, in tea, in clary sage, in red sage, in cherry, in apple, in raspberry,
in papaya, in plum, in Wintergreen Gaultheria procumbens, leaves, used as flavouring agent in beverages, white wine, chewing gums mints,
antiseptic in mouthwash solutions, used as a rubefacient and analgesic in deep heating liniments for acute joint and muscular pain.
Prepare methyl salicylate: 16.5.5
See diagram: Methyl salicylate.

Metildigoxin, C42H66O14, Cardenolide Glycoside
Metildigoxin, Methyldigoxin, Lanitop, beta-Methyldigoxin, semisynthetic digitalis glycoside, properties similar to Digoxin but more rapid
onset, used to treat congestive heart failure, See diagram: Metildigoxin.

N-Methylephedrine, C11H17NO, Amphetamine
N-Methylephedrine, Methylephedrine, [2-(dimethylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol], (derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine), in Ephedra distachya
See diagram: Methylephedrine.

Myricetin, C15H10O8, Flavonol
Myricetin, Hexahydroxyflavone, Cannabiscetin, Myricetol, Myricitin, (derived from taxifolin, antibacterial, anticarcinogen, antineoplastic,
antioxidant, antiviral, plant metabolite, food component, hypoglycemic, 7-hydroxyflavonol, conjugate acid of a myricetin, in Vaccinium
(cranberry), in Myrica rubra leaves, in grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, walnuts, parsley, red onion, blueberry, in Soymidia
febrifuga heartwood, in Haplopappus canescens, See diagram: Myricetin.

Myricitrin, C21H20O12, Flavonol-O-Glycoside
Myricitrin, Myocetin 3-O-rhamnoside, Myricitroside, Myricetrin, Myricitrine, bioflavonoid, plant metabolite, a pentahydroxyflavone,
a glycosyloxyflavone, an alpha-L-rhamnoside, monosaccharide derivative (derives from a myricetin), anti-allergic, antiatherosclerotic,
antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombic, antiviral, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, protein
kinase C inhibitor, in Myrica rubra bark, in Myrica cerifera, See diagram: Myricitrin.

Neoandrographolide, C26H40O8 Glucopyranoside
Neoandrographolide, Neoandrographiside, used to treat dysentery, shows viricidal activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), important
medicinal plant in Asia diterpenoid, immunosuppressant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiviral, antibacterial, antidiabetic,
anti-oxidative stress, antipyretic, anti-edematogenic, and antinociceptive activities, in Andrographis paniculata.
See diagram: Neoandrographolide.

Neomatatabiol, C10H18O2 Simple Iridoid
Neomatatabiol, in Actinidia polygama, See diagram: Neomatatabiol.

Nepetalactone, C10H14O2 Simple Iridoid
Nepetalactone, Epinepetalactone, repels insects, excites cats, in Nepeta cataria (catnip plant), (oil of catnip).
See diagram: Nepetalactone.

Netilmicin, C21H41N5O7 Aminoglycoside
Netilmicin, Netilmicinum, (1-N-Ethylsisomicin), Netilmicinum, semisynthetic, aminoglycoside antibiotic, antibacterial,
(derivative of sisimycin), action similar to gentamicin, but less ear / kidney toxicity.
See diagram: Netilmicin.

Nipagin, C8H8O3 Ester
Nipagin, Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Methyl paraben, Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate ester, hydroxybenzoic acid
derivative (benzene ring + carboxylic acid, methyl-4-hydroxy-benzoate, antimicrobial, allegen, increases histamine release and
cell-mediated immunity, in alcoholic beverages, cloudberry, yellow passionfruit, white wine.
Nipagin A, propyl paraben, sodium salt, sensitizer (food preservative against fungi).
Nipagin A, Parabens:
Nipagin B, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (anti-fungal agent), Parabens:
See diagram: Nipagin.

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, C18H22O4 Lignan
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, (NDGA), Dihydronorguaiaretic acid, antioxidant, substituted butane, antitumour, antimicrobial, antifungal,
antioxidant, plant metabolite, tetrol, lignan, inhibitor of broad bean lipoxygenase, in Larrea divaricata, (creosote bush, chaparral, resinous
exudates), in Guaiacum sanctum wood resin, formerly used to treat rheumatic diseases, used to detect blood in faeces, herbal medicine but
may be toxic if used in excess, See diagram: Nordihydroguaiaretic acid.

Oleandrin, C32H48O9 Cardiac Glycoside
Oleandrin, Foliandrin, Neriostene, Folinerin, Hongheloside A, steroid saponin, toxic sap, used for suicide, formerly therapeutic uses,
in Nerium oleander
Oleandrigenin, C25H36O6, steroid ester, toxic sap, for suicide, formerly therapeutic uses, in Nerium oleander.
See diagram: Oleandrin.

Oleuropein, C25H32O13, Secoiridoid Glycoside
Oleuropein, glycosylated secoiridoid, methyl ester of (3, 4-dihydro-2H-pyran-5-carboxylic acid), most important phenolic compound in
olive cultivars, plant metabolite, radical scavenger, anti-inflammato, ry, antineoplastic, antihypertensive, NF-kappaB inhibitor, apoptosis
inducer, antioxidant, beta-D-glucoside, a methyl ester, a catechol, diesterhypotensive, coronary dilating, anti-arrhythmic, chemical products
inhibit lactic acid bacteria, in Olea europaea (olive tree) bark, See diagram: Oleuropein.
See diagram: Oleuropein.

Ouabain, C29H24O12 Cardiac Glycoside
Ouabain, G-Strophanthin, toxic, steroidal hormone, arrow poison, low dose used to treat hypertension arrhythmia, dangerous drug,
in Strophanthus gratus, (ouabain tree).
Ouabagenin, C23H34O8 (G-Strophanthidin), cardenolide, cardioactive steroid, steroidal lactone, cardiotonic effects.
See diagram: Ouabain.

Paclitaxel, C47H51NO14 Taxane Diterpene
Paclitaxel, (7-Epipaclitaxel), Taxol A, "taxol", taxane, cyclodecane, anticancer, antineoplastic, stabilizes microtubules to cause cell death,
kills B-cell Leukemia 2, prevents carotid artery narrowing, in bark of Taxus brevicola, (Pacific yew), Taxus braccata, (European yew).
See diagram: Paclitaxel.

Phillyrin, C27H34O11, Lignan
Phillyrin, Forsythin, anti-obesity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lignan, in Forsythia suspensa fruit.
See diagram: Phillyrin.

Phyllodulcin, C16H14O5 Coumarin
Phyllodulcin, dihydroisocoumarin, sweetener, in Hydrangea macrophylla (big leaf hydrangea, French hydrangea).
See diagram: Phyllodulcin.

Physcion, C16H12O5 Anthraquinone
Physcion, anthraquinone derivative, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas,
and Escherichia, and antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus, in Rheum species, in Microsporum, in Psorospermum,
in Cassia toroso, in Maesopsis eminii, in Rhamnus, anticancer
See diagram: Physcion.

Picrotoxinin, C30H34O13 Sesquiterpene Lactone
Picrotoxin, Picrotoxinum, Cocculus, Oriental berry, Indian berry, Fish berry, cocculin (two compounds: Picrotoxinin C15H16O6
+ Picrotin, C15H18O7)
Picrotoxin, shiny leaflets or powder, intensely bitter taste, very poisonous, CNS stimulant, barbiturate poisoning antidote, no longer
used as a therapeutic agent, blocks nervous system, convulsant, affects GABA receptor channels, CNS stimulant, poisoning antidote
for CNS depressants, e.g. barbiturates., analeptic, non-medical use illegal, in Anamirta cocculus (fish berry), dried fruit poisonous berry,
See diagram: Picrotoxinin.

Pinitol, C7H14O6 Sugar Alcohol
Pinitol, D-pinitol, (3-O-Methyl-D-chiro-inositol), anti-diabetic, expectorant, salt stress regulator in many plants, in Bougainvillea glabra,
in Sutherlandia frutescens.
in Pinus lambertiana, treat Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.
Plumbagin, C11H8O3 Naphthoquinone Derivative
Plumbagin, Plumbagine, Plumbaein, (5-Hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), genotoxic, mutagenic, from naphthoquinone, yellow
pigment, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, metabolite, immunological adjuvant, anticoagulant, antineoplastic,
( a phenol + hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), possibly anticarcinogenic, possible antituberculosis, in Plumbago europa | in Drosera |
in Nepenthes khasiana | in Juglans nigra black walnut | in Dionaea muscipula, | in Pera ferruginea root bark, in Diospyros anisandra,
See diagram: Plumbagin.

Podophyllotoxin, C22H22O8, Lignan
Podophyllotoxin, (PPT), Podofilox, Condylox, Condyline, acute toxic, podophyllum resin, decreases mitosis, antitumor, anticancer agent,
used to treat genital warts, in Podophyllum peltatum (may apple) roots and rhizomes, in Dysosma pleianthus (Chinese medicine Ba Jiao Lian,
mayapple), but may cause liver injury
See diagram: Podofilox compound.

Proscillaridin, C30H42O8, Cardiac Glycoside
Proscillaridin A, Caradrin, Scillarenin, (3-O-rhamnoside), cytotoxic, anticancer, triggers cell death and blocks cell proliferation, in Scilla
maritima var. alba (squill), in Drimia maritima, (sugar + steroid), in Asclepias curassavica roots, in Hoodia gordonii, See diagram: Proscillaridin.

Prunasin, C14H17NO6, Cyanogenic Glycoside
Prunasin, mandelonitrile glucoside, toxic, in Prunus taxa, in Pteridium aquilinum, in Olinia ventosaleaves and stem.
See Prunasin.

Pseudohypericin, C30H16O9, Quinone
Pseudohypericin, Bianthraquinone, antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiretroviral, in Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort), in Hypericum triquetrifolium.
See Pseudohypericin.

Quinolizidine, C9H17N, Bicyclic Compound
Quinolizidine, Norlupinane, Octahydro-2H-quinolizine, organic heterobicyclic compound, parent of quinolizidines, e.g. Cytisine, Sparteine,
in Lupinus, in Genista hirsuta, in Nymphaea (lotus).
See Quinolizidine.

Quisqualic Acid, C5H7N3O5 Amino Acid
Quisqualic acid, non-protogenic alpha-amino acid, anthelmintic, in Quisqualis indica, (Rangoon creeper, drunken sailor).
See Quisqualic Acid.

Rebaudioside, C44H70O13, Glycoside
Rebaudioside, REBA, molecule structure based only on glucose molecules, sweetener, in Stevia rebaudiana.
See Rebaudioside A

Rhamnazin, C17H14O7, Glycoside
Rhamnazin, flavonol glycoside, O-methylated flavonol, in Rhamnus petiolaris.
See Rhamnazin A

Rhamnetin, C16H12O7, Glycoside
Rhamnetin, flavonol glycoside, O-methylated flavonol, from cloves, in Rhamnus petiolaris.
See Rhamnetin A

Rhodiolin, C25H20O10, See Rhodiolin

Rhodionin, C21H20O11, Flavonolignan
Rhodionin, herbacetin rhamnoside, in Rhodiola rosea rhizome.

Rhododendrol, C10H14O2, Phenol
Rhododendrol, betuligenol, [4-{(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl}phenol], may reduce fat-induced body weight gain, in Rhododendron aureum.
See Rhododendrol

Rhomitoxin, antihypertensive, antitachcardiac, tranquillizer, in Rhododendron molle (rhododendron).

Rorifone, C11H21NO2S
Rorifone, [10-(Methylsulfonyl)decanenitrile], antitussive, in Rorippa indica.
See Rorifone

Rosarin, C20H28O10 Glycoside
Rosarin, cinnamyl alcohol glycoside, a glucopyranoside, used to reduce fatigue, increase endurance and mental performance, in Rhodiola rosea.
See Rosarin

Salicin, C13H18O7, Glucoside
Salicin, water-soluble, analgesic, in Salix alba (white willow).
See Salicin

Santonin, C15H18O3
Santonin, ascaricide, antihelminthic, white crystals, in Artemisia maritma (dried flower heads of wormwood), in Artemisia cima,
(levant wormseed), in Santonica.
See Santonin

Scillaren, C36H52O13, Cardiac Glycosides
Scillaren powder is a very bitter mixture of glycosides, Scillaren A and Scillaren B in the same proportions as in Urginea maritima
(squill) (2 parts of A to 1 part of B).
Scillaren A, (Scillarenin 3-O-glucosylrhamnoside), Glucoproscillaridin A, Transvaalin, a bufadienolide, cariotonic, hair disorders,
anti-cancer, rodenticide
Scillaren B, amorphous, granular powder with a very bitter taste, is an undefined water-sol mixture of glucosides remaining after
extraction of Scillaren A. Glucoscillaren A is Scillaren + rhamnose + glucose + glucose, C42H62O18
See diagram: Glucoscillaren.

Secologanin, C17H24O10, Secoiridoid Glucoside
Secologann, Loniceroside, in Lonicera, in Catharanthus, in many plants, See diagram: Secologanin.

Shatavarin IV, C45H74O17, Glucopyranoside
Shatavarin IV, Asparanin B.
See Shatavarin IV

Silymarin, C25H22O10, Flavonolignan
Silymarin, mixture of flavonoids, plant metabolite, polyphenol, aromatic ether, benzodioxine, secondary alpha-hydroxy ketone, antihepatotoxic, antioxidant,
antineoplastic, aids digestion, disorders of liver and gallbladder, aids cholesterol levels, in Silybum marianum (milk thistle), in artichoke.
See Silymarin

Sinensetin, C20H20O7, Methylated Flavone
Sinensetin, Pentamethoxyflavone, plant metabolite, in Java tea , in Citrus (Orange oil, orange peel).
See Sinensetin

Sophoricoside, C21H20O10 Isoflavone Glycoside
Sophoricoside, Genistein sophoricoside, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, immunosuppressive, traditional Chinese medicine,
Sophora japonica (dried fruit, Japanese pagoda tree).
See Sophoricoside

Stevioside, C38H60O18, Glycoside
Stevioside, steviol diterpene glycoside, Stevia is the calorie-free sweetener in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, sweet leaf
Asteraceae + glucose --> steviocide sweetener, relative sweetness 250 to 300.
See Stevioside

Strophanthin, C36H54O14, Glycoside
Strophanthin, cardioactive glycoside, in Strophanthus
Strophanthus, g-Strophanthin, Ouabain
Strophanthus, k-Strophanthin, Strophanthin K, (beta.-k-Strophanthin), Strophanthin K (crystalline), Alvonal MR.
See Strophanthin

Teniposide, C32H32O13S
Tenisopide, Vehem, ataxane, as podophyllotoxin derivative, antitumor agent, inhibits DNA synthesis, topoisomerase inhibitor, prevents mitosis, causes cell death,
used to treat childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and other types of cancer,
derivative of podophyllotoxin, in Podophyllum peltatum (may apple or mandrake).
See Teniposide

Tetrahydrocannabinol, C21H30O2 Phenol
tetrahydrocannabinol, (THC), dronabinol, a cannabinoid, active principle of marijuana, anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, hallucinogenic,
psychoactive compound, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the most active form, to produce mood and perceptual change
centres in the brain to stimulate appetite and prevent vomiting, decreases ocular tension so used to treat hypotensive glaucoma.
possibly anti-viral activity against herpes simplex complex 1 and 2, in Cannabis sativa (marijuana, hashish) resin and in dried tips of shoots.
See Tetrahydrocannabinol

Trichanthin, C22H27NO7S
Trichanthin B, Trichanthin A, in Glycosmis trichanthera stem and root.
See Trichanthin

Valtratum, C22H30O8, Nonglucosidic Iridoid
Valtratum, Valtrate, Valepotriate, fatty acid ester, in Valeriana roots, in Centranthus roots, See diagram: Valtratum.

Verbascoside, C29H36O15 Glycoside
Verbascoside, Acteoside, Kusaginin, (derived from hydroxytyrosol), antileishmanial, plant metabolite, antibacterial, cinnamate ester,
disaccharide derivative, a catechol, a polyphenol, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, in many species, in Verbascum, in Phlomis, in olives (main hydroxycinnamic derivative), in vervain, in plantago, in bitter gourd.
See Verbascoside

Verbenalin, C17H24O10, Iridoid Glucoside
Verbenalin, Cornin), Verbenaloside, terpene glycoside, a monoterpenene lactone, toxic, very bitter, crystalline glucoside hepato-protective,
sleep inducing, used to treat menstrual cramping, in Crampbark , in Verbena officinalis (common vervain), in Viburnum prunifolium (black
haw), See diagram: Verbenalin, Cornin, See diagram: See diagram: Verbenalin.

Xanthone, C13H8O2
Xanthone, (9H-Xanthen-9-one), (Xanthen-9-one), (9-Xanthenone), xanthonoid compound, insecticide, ovicide, in many plant families,
in Iris, in mangosteen fruit pericarp, See diagram: Xanthone.

Yuanhuacine, C37H44O10, Diterpenoid
Yuanhuacine, Yuanhuacin, Gnidilatidin, Yuanhuatie, Yuanhuacium ester A, daphnane diterpenoid, abortifacient, anti-cancer, diuretic,
expectorant, in Daphne genkwa (lilac).
See diagram: Yuanhuacine.