School Science Lessons
Plants, Dicotyledons, I to P
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I to P Alphabetic listing of scientific names, (genus and species), and common names of dicotyledons
9.2.1 Plant classification, all plants
Flowering plants, (angiosperms), Dicotyledons, Phylum Magnoliophyta
| I. | J. | K. | L. | M. | N. | O. | P. |
Scientific name, common name, Family, country of origin or where now found, habit, use, botanical interest

I. Dicotyledons
Iberis, candy tuft, ornamental, Brassicaceae
Ibervillea, globe berry, Cucurbitaceae
Ibicella, yellow unicorn plant, Pedaliaceae
Ilex aquifolium, (I. paraguariensis), yerba, mate, European holly, Brazilian holly, Paraguay tea, jesuit's tea, yerba de mate, herbal
medicine, theobromine, caffeine alkaloid, Aquifoliaceae
Ilex verticillata, black alder, Aquifoliaceae
Ilex vomitoria, yaupon, Aquifoliaceae
Iliamna, wild holly hock, Malvaceae
Illecebrum, coral necklace, knot grass, herbal medicine, Caryophyllaceae
Illicium anisatum, Japanese star anise, highly toxic, used in incense, anisatin, shikimin and sikimitoxin, safrole, eugenol, Illiciaceae
Illicium verum, star anise, Chinese star anise, star aniseed, badiane, spice like anise in flavour, in Indian garam masala, Illiciaceae
Imalva, gay mallow, Malvaceae
Impatiens capansis, jewel weed, Balsaminaceae
Impatiens noli-tangere, western touch-me-not, Balsaminaceae
Impatiens walleriana, (I. sultani, I. walleriana), busy lizzie, garden balsam, ornamental, Balsaminaceae
Indigofera enneaphylla, cyanogenetic stock poison, weed, Fabaceae
Indigofera tinctora, indigo, neeli, herbal medicine, indigotin, Indigo blue dye, India, Fabaceae
Inga spp., iga, medium tree, Fruit: fleshy pod, sweet pulp, Used as: fresh, evergreen, fast growing, Propagation from: seeds, cold
sensitive, South America
Inga feuilleei, pacay, ice-cream bean, nitrogen-fixing garden fruit, Fabaceae
Inga edulis, ice cream bean tree, Fabaceae
Inga feuilleei, pacay, ice-cream bean, nitrogen-fixing garden fruit, Fabaceae
Intsia bijuga, (Intsia palembanica), kwila, merbau, Molocccan ironwood, Borneo teak, ipil tree, ifil tree, tough flooring wood, official
tree of Guam, Fabaceae
Inula helenium, (Helentum grandiflorum, Aster officinalis, A. belenium), yellow head, elecampane, wild sunflower, elf wort, ploughman's
spikenard, scab wort, alant, horse heal, yellow stalwart, elf dock, velvet dock, herbal medicine, candied root contains inulin, diabetic
sugar, Asteraceae
Ionactis, aster, Asteraceae
Ipomoea aquatica, kangkong, water spinach, Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea batatas, sweet potato, "potato", kau kau, vegetable, Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea horsfalliae, cardinal creeper, deep red flowers, Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea leari, blue dawn flower, morning glory, purple winder, has purple trumpet-shaped flowers that open at dawn and close at
sunset, Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea lobata, (I. versicolor, Quamoclit lobata, Mina lobata), firecracker vine, Spanish flag, Central America, fast twining annual,
perennial vine, Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea purpura, common morning glory, tall morning glory, Convolvulaceae
Ipomea violacea, beach moon flower, ornamental, Mexico, seeds contain psychedelic drug tlitliltzin "natural LSD", Convolvulaceae
Iresine, blood leaf, Amaranthaceae
Isatis tinctoria, woad, blue dye from leaves, Brassicaceae
Isocarpha, pearl head, Asteraceae
Isocoma, golden bush, Asteraceae
Isodendrion, isodendrion, Violaceae
Isopogon, cone flower, Proteaceae
Iva, marshelder, poverty weed, jesuit's bark, Asteraceae
Ixora coccinea, ixora, jungle flame ixora, prince of orange, herbal medicine, India, Rubiaceae

J. Dicotyledons
Jacaranda mimosifolia, jacaranda, tree, ornamental, Brazil, Bignoniaceae
Jacquemontia, cluster vine, Convolvulaceae
Jacquinia, jacquinia, Theophrastaceae
Jaltomata, false holly, Solanaceae
Jarilla, jarilla, Caricaceae
Jasione, sheep's rampion, sheep's bit scabious, Campanulaceae
Jasminum auriculatum, Indian jasmine, Oleaceae
Jasminum grandiflorum, (J. officinale var. grandiflorum), Catalonian jasmine, royal jasmine, jasmin, Spanish jasmine, Italian jasmine, Oleaceae
Jasminum officinale, jasmine, poet's jessamine, shrubs and climbers, deciduous, evergreen, Himalayas, China, Oleaceae
Jasminum sambac, Arabian jasmine, sambac, (cvs. Grand Duke, Maid of Orleans), Oleaceae
Jateorhiza palmata, (Jateorhiza columba), calumba root, columba, (many alkaloids), herbal medicine, Madagascar, Menispermaceae
Jatropha curcas, Barbados nut, poisonous, semi-evergreen shrub, easy to grow, Used for: biodiesel, propogation by: seed, stem cuttings,
Tropical America, Euphorbiaceae
Juglans cinerea, grey walnut tree, Juglandaceae
Juglans nigra, walnut, black walnut, nut, herbal medicine contains manganese, ornamental tree, North America, Juglandaceae
Juglans regia, walnut tree, common walnut, English walnut, Persian walnut, quinone juglone, tiny walnut shell particles used for paint
thickener, explosives filled, cleaning and polishing, exfoliating soaps abrasives, Juglandaceae
Justicia beddomei, malabar nut, water willow, adusa, herbal medicine, vasicine alkaloid, India, Acanthaceae

K. Dicotyledons
Kalanchoe pinnata, miracle leaf, cathedral bells, invasive in Australia, Crassulaceae
Kalimeris, aster, Asteraceae
Kalmia latifolia, mountain laurel, evergreen shrub, pink flowers open like umbrellas, very popular for landscaping, North America, Epacridaceae
Karwinskia, coyotillo, Rhamnaceae
Kennedia prostrata, running postman, red runner, scarlet pea, prostrate perennial creeper, Australia, liquorice tasting tea substitute, Fabaceae
Kennedia rubicata, (Glycine), dusky coral pea, first Australian species sold in Britain, Australia, Fabaceae
Kerria japonica, yellow bachelor's buttons, Japanese rose, Rosaceae
Kickxia, cancer wort, Scrophulariaceae
Kigelia africana, sausage tree, ornamental tree, Bignoniaceae
Kleinhovia, kleinhovia, Sterculiaceae
Knautia, scabiosa, field scabious, herbal medicine, Dipsacaceae
Kniphofia uvaria, red hot poker, tritoma, torch lily, upright spikes of colourful flowers, Africa, Xanthorrhoeaceae.
Koanophyllon, thorough wort, Asteraceae
Kochia, burning bush, molly, ornamental, Chenopodiaceae
Koeberlinia, all thorn, Capparaceae
Koelreuteria bipinnata, China, Sapindaceae
Koelreuteria paniculata, golden rain tree, landscape tree, Sapindaceae
Kokia, tree cotton, Malvaceae
Kopsia singaporensis, kopsia, white kopsia, Singapore, tropical forest tree, Apocynaceae
Krameria lanceolata, trailing ratany, Krameriaceae
Krascheninnikovia, winter fat, Chenopodiaceae
Krigia, dwarf dandelion, Asteraceae
Kumlienia, false buttercup, Ranunculaceae
Kunzea ambigua, kunzea, Western Australia, Myrtaceae
Kunzea pomifera, muntries, low creeping shrub, in salty coasta areas, commercial bushfood, like dried apple, Australia, Myrtaceae

L. Dicotyledons
Lablab niger, hyacinth bean, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Lablab purpureus, lablab, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Laburnam, laburnam, golden chain tree, ornamental tree, Fabaceae
Lactuca sativa, lettuce, salad lettuce, great wild lettuce, prickly lettuce, herbal medicine, vegetable, Asteraceae
Lactuca virosa, wild lettuce, prickly lettuce, herbal medicine, "lettuce opium", sedative, painkiller, Asteraceae
Laetia americana, laetia, Salicaceae, (Flacourtiaceae)
Lagenaria siceraria, (L. leucantha), bottle gourd, gourd, Cucurbitaceae
Lagerstroema indica rubra, crepe myrtle, crape myrtle, queen of flowers, rose of India, jarool, ornamental tree, Lythraceae
Lagerstroemia speciosa, pride of India, Lythraceae
Lagophylla, hare leaf, Asteraceae
Lagunaria, cow itch tree, Malvaceae
Lamium album, dead nettle, henbit, white dead nettle, looks like a nettle but is not a nettle and does not sting, herbal medicine, Lamiaceae
Lampranthus carcineus, ice plant, pig face, succulent, beach side ground cover, Aizoaceae
Landolphia, landolphia, landolphia rubber tree, woody liane, (was source of wild rubber in the Congo), Apocynaceae
Lansium domesticum, langsat, medium tree, evergreen, Fruit: medium, sweet, Used as: fresh, Propagation from: seeds, airlayering,
grafting, Southeast Asia, Meliaceae
Lantana camara, lantana, big sage, wild sage, red sage, white sage, tickberry, ornamental, invasive weed, natural mosquito repellant,
Americas, Verbenaceae
Laportea, stinging tree, Australian stinging tree, stinging hairs, Lappula, stick seed, Boraginaceae
Lapsana, (Lapsanastrum), nipple wort, Asteraceae
Larix, larx tree, E636, maltol, bark, Lasiospermum, cocoon head, Asteraceae
Lasthenia, goldfields, Asteraceae
Lathraea clandistina, toothworts, root parasites, Lathyrus, grass pea, singletary pea, ornamental, leafy green stipules, Fabaceae
Lathyrus aphaca, yellow vetchling, Fabaceae
Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea, poisonous, Fabaceae
Laurus nobilis, bay tree, Lauraceae
Lavandula angustifolia, lavender, Lamiaceae
Lavandula delphinensis, lavender, Lamiaceae
Lavandula fragrans, lavender, Lamiaceae
Lavandula latifolia, (L. spica), spike lavender, spike, aspic, broad-leaved lavender, lesser lavender, Lamiaceae
Lavandula stoechas, French lavender, stoechas lavender, (noxious weed in Victoria, Australia), Mediterranean, Lamiaceae
Lavandula X intermedia, (L. hybrida, L. hortensis), lavandin, Lamiaceae
Lavatera, tree mallow, Malvaceae
Lawsonia inermis, (L. alba), henna, hina, madayantika, Egyptian privet, Cypress shrub, orange dye for hair and skin artistry, hedge
plant, astringent bark, contains the naptha quinone lawsone, natural orange, C10H6O3, north Africa, Lythraceae
Layia, tidy tips, Asteraceae
Leavenworthia, glade cress, Brassicaceae
Lechea, pin weed, Cistaceae
Lecythis ollaria, sapucaia nut, paradise nut, zabucajo, monkey pod, (edible nuts), Lecythidaceae
Ledum palustre, (now called Rhododendron tomentosum), Labrador tea, Ericaceae
Legenere, false Venus' looking glass, Campanulaceae
Leibnitzia lyrata, Seemann's sun bonnet, Asteraceae
Lemairocereus thurberi, organ pipe cactus, Cactaceae
Lemna minor, common duck weed, (tiny plants that float on water), Araceae
Lens, lentil, vegetable, Fabaceae
Leonotis, lion's ear, Lamiaceae
Leontodon, hawk bit, Asteraceae
Leontopodium alpinum, edelweiss, favourite plant, Swiss alps, Asteraceae
Leonurus cardiaca, mother wort, herbal medicine, Lamiaceae
Lepechinia, pitcher sage, Lamiaceae
Lepidium latifolium, broad-leaved pepper weed, cress, garden cress, (not "watercress"!), pepper grass, maca, dittander, damp, coastal
soils, herbal medicine, formerly for treatment for leprosy, Used as: hot condiment like horseradish, Brassicaceae
Lepidium oleraceum, Cook's scurvy grass, (near extinct), Brassicaceae
Lepidospartum, broom sage, Asteraceae
Leptactina senegambica, karo-karounde, Rubiaceae
Leptandra virginica, (Veronica virginica), herbal medicine, USA, Scrophulariaceae
Leptodactylon, prickly phlox. Polemoniaceae
Leptospermum laevigatum, coastal tea tree, Australian tea tree, tea tree, lemon scented tea tree, ornamental tree, Myrtaceae
Leptospermum petersonii, common tea tree, Myrtaceae
Leptospermum scoparium, New Zealand tea tree, tree-like shrub, tiny white flowers, seeds survived voyage of the Endeavour,
New Zealand, Myrtaceae
Lepyrodiclis, false jagged chick weed, Caryophyllaceae
Lesquerella, bladder pod, Brassicaceae
Leucadendron floridum, yellow bush, Proteaceae
Leucadendron laureolum, cultivars, inca gold, safari magic, summer sun, devil's bush, Proteaceae
Leucaena leucocephala, white lead tree, leucaena, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Leucas aspera, thumba, dronapushpa, herbal medicine, India, Lamiaceae
Leucophyllum, barometer bush, Scrophulariaceae
Leucophyta brownii, cushion bush, (has silvery appearance), Australia, Asteraceae
Leucopogon lanceolatus, beard heath, Australia, Ericaceae, (Epacridaceae)
Leucospermum cordifolium, nodding pincushion, South Africa, densely flowering garden plant, Proteaceae
Leucothoe, dog hobble, Epacridaceae
Levisticum mutellina, alpine lovage, Apiaceae
Levisticum officinale, (Ligustrum officinalis, Angelica levisticum, Ligusticum levisticum), lovage, old English lovage, Italian lovage,
maggi herb, smellage, Cornish lovage, herbal medicine, Apiaceae
Liatris, blazing star, Asteraceae
Licania platypus, sunsapote, large tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: large, oval, orange, fibrous, sweet flesh,large seed, Used as: fresh,
Propagation from: seeds, Central America
Ligusticum scoticum, sea lovage, Apiaceae
Ligustrum lucidum, glossy privet, nu zhen zi, herbal medicine, Oleaceae
Ligustrum vulgare, European privet, (common hedge plant), leaf upper and lower surface covered by epidermis and cuticle, Oleaceae
Limnanthes alba, meadow foam, marsh plant, Limnanthaceae
Limnophila, marsh weed, Scrophulariaceae
Limonia acidissima, wood apple, elephant apple, monkey fruit, curd fruit, Rutaceae
Limonium vulgare, Mediterranean sea lavender, salt marsh plant, Europe, Plumbaginaceae
Limosella, mud wort, Scrophulariaceae
Linaria, flax weed, toad flax, herbal medicine, Scrophulariaceae
Lindera benzoin, spice bush, aromatic leaves, dioecious, North America, Lauraceae
Lindera umbellata var. umbellata, kuru-moji, Lauraceae
Lindernia, false pimpernel, Scrophulariaceae
Linnaea, twin flower, Caprifoliaceae
Linum, usitatissimum, flax, linseed oil, frequently mentioned in the Bible, herbal medicine, flax seed, fibres with thick cellulose walls
formed, prickle, herbal medicine, Linaceae
Lipidium sativum, garden cress, pepper grass, Brassicaceae
Lipochaeta, nehe, Asteraceae
Lippia citriodora, lemon verbena, garden herb, Verbenaceae
Lippia graveolens, (L. berlandieri), exican "oregano", Verbenaceae
Lippia micromeria, Spanish thyme, false thyme, South American substitute for thyme, Verbenaceae
Lippia salicifolia, Verbenaceae
Liquidambar formosana, large deciduous tree, star-shaped lef with 3-5 lobes, Hammamelidaceae
Liquidambar orlentalls, oriental sweet gum, Levant styrax, Asiatic styrax, storax, Turkish sweet gum, liquid storax, Hammamelidaceae
Liquidambar styraciflua, sweet gum, American styrax, storax, red gum, deciduous, North America, Hammamelidaceae
Liriodendron tulipifera, tulip tree, large stately tree, showy flowers, North America, Magnoliaceae
Litchi chinensis, litchi, lychee, southern China, fruit eaten fresh and canned, Sapindaceae
Lithophragma, woodland star, Saxifragaceae
Lithops, pebble plant, living stone, Southern Africa, Aizoaceae
Lithospermum, stone seed, Boraginaceae
Litsea cubeba, (L. citrata), may-chang, exotic verbena, tropical verbena, Lauraceae
Lobelia erinus, trailing lobelia, window box ornamental, USA, Campanulaceae
Lobelia inflata, lobelia, ornamental, herbal medicine, USA, Campanulaceae
Lobelia urens, heath lobelia, Europe, Spain
Lobularia, lobularia, alyssum, ornamental, Brassicaceae
Loeflingia, loeflingia, Caryophyllaceae
Loeselia, false calico, Polemoniaceae
Loeseliastrum, calico, Polemoniaceae
Logfia, cotton rose, Asteraceae
Lonchocarpus, lance pod, Fabaceae
Lonicera caprifolium, Dutch honeysuckle, herbal medicine, Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera etrusca, (L. gigantea), honeysuckle, Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera grandiflora, honeysuckle, Bhutan, Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera japonica, honeysuckle, Chinese jin yin hua, Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera periclymenum, honeysuckle, wormwood, woodbine, Southern Europe, China, herbal medicine, Caprifoliaceae
Lophophora williamsii, peyote cactus, mescal buttons, herbal medicine, illegal hallucinogenic drug mescaline, alkaloid, Aztec "sacred
mushroom", Cactaceae
Loranthus, mulberry mistletoe, Christmas mistletoe, leafy parasite distributed by bird beaks, Viscaceae
Lotononis bainesii, lotononis, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Lotus corniculatus, trefoil, bird's foot trefoil, asparagus pea, winged pea, vegetable, cyangenetic stock poison, weed, Fabaceae
Lotus japonica, lotus, Fabaceae
Lotus pedunculatus, greater lotus, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Luculia gratissima, pink flower climber, Himalayan region, Rubiaceae
Lucuma bifera, egg fruit, Peru, Sapotaceae
Luffa cylindrica, (L. acutangula), luffa, loofah, bathroom "sponge", Cucurbitaceae
Luina, silver back, Asteraceae
Lunaria, lunaria, honesty, money plant, ornamental, Brassicaceae
Lupinus arcticus, Arctic lupin, lupinine alkaloid, Fabaceae
Lupinus perennis, sundial lupine, Fabaceae
Lupinus polyphyllus, lupine, lupin, teas blue bonnet, white lupine, herbal medicine, ornamental, hemicellulose cell wall thickening and
aleurone grains, cytoplasm, chief carbohydrate reserve is the polysaccharide hemicellulose, cotyledons, lupinine, Fabaceae
Luvunga scandens, lavang lata, Indian lavanga, Rutaceae
Lychnis floscuculi, crow flower, ragged robin, campion, Caryophyllaceae
Lycium barbarum, (Lycium chinense), gou qi zi, go ji, vine, herbal medicine, Solanaceae
Lycopersicon esculentum, tomato, vegetable, Solanaceae
Lycopersicon pimpinettifolium, (Solanum pimpinettifolium), currant tomato, cherry tomato, Solanaceae
Lycopus, water horehound, Lamiaceae
Lycoris radiata, lycorus, galanthamine alkaloid, Lygodesmia, skeleton plant, Asteraceae
Lyonia, stagger bush, Epacridaceae
Lyrocarpa, lyre pod, Brassicaceae
Lysiloma, false tamarind, Fabaceae
Lysimachia nummularia, (Lysimachia zawadzkii), moneywort, loose strife, yellow willow herb, creeping jenny, bright yellow flowers,
ornamental, ground cover, herbal medicine, Primulaceae

M. Dicotyledons
Macadamia integritfolia, macadamia nut, Queensland nut, Proteaceae
Macadamia jansenii, macadamia nut, Queensland nut, Proteaceae
Macadamia ternifolia, macadamia nut, Queensland nut, ornamental tree, seed contains 70% fa
Macadamia tetraphylla, macadamia nut, rough-shell macadamia, medium attractive tree, Fruit: shell very hard, white kernel, delicious
nut, Used as: fresh, roasted, Propagation from: seeds, grafting, airlayering, Australia, t, Proteaceae
Machaeranthera, tansy aster, Asteraceae
Macleaya, (Cordatae), plume poppy, pink plume poppy, sanguinarine, bocconine alkaloid, Macromeria, giant trumpets, Boraginaceae
Macroptilium atropurpureum, siratro, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Macroptilium bracteatum, Burgundy bean, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Macroptilium gracile, (M. longipedunculatum), maldonado, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Macroptilium lathyroides, phasey bean, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Macrosiphonia, rock trumpet, Apocynaceae
Macrotyloma axillare, axillaris, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Macrotyloma uniflorum, (Dolichos uniflorus), pasture legume, Fabaceae
Madia, tar weed, Asteraceae
Magnolia, ancience genus, beetle-pollinated flowers, Magnoliaceae
Magnolia acuminata, cucumber tree, Magnoliaceae
Magnolia denudata, lily tree, yulan, deciduous, alabaster white flowers, China, Magnoliaceae
Magnolia grandiflora, southern magnolia, laurel-leaved magnolia, bull bay, fragrant showy flowers, southern USA, Magnoliaceae
Magnolia kobus, kobus magnolia, ancient magnolia, Magnoliaceae
Magnolia liliflora, ancient magnolia, xinyin hus, nigra lily, flowered magnolia, herbal medicine, Magnoliaceae
Magnolia stellata, star magnolia, Magnoliaceae
Magnolia virginica, (Pulmonaria virginica) Virginian bluebells, clump-forming perennial, violet-blue flowers, North America, Magnoliaceae
Mahonia aquifolium, (similar to Berberis), hollyleaved bar berry, Berberidaceae
Mahonia japonica, (similar to Berberis), bar berry, Berberidaceae
Malachra, leaf bract, Malvaceae
Malacothamnus, bush mallow, Malvaceae
Malacothrix, desert dandelion, Asteraceae
Mallotus philippensis, red kamals, dry rainforest, Australia, Euphorbiaceae
Malpighia emarginata, Acerola, Barbados cherry, West Indian cherry, wild crepemyrtle, Malpighiaceae
Malpighia glabra, (M. punicifolia), acerola, West Indian cherry, Barbados cherry, acerola, attractive shrub, Fruit: berry, large red, filler
fruit juice, sweet or tart, very high in Vitamin C, Used as: fresh, Propagation from: airlayers, cuttings, hedge, West Indies, Central and
South America, Malpighiaceae
Malus domestica, apple, common apple, Rosaceae
Malus ioensis, prairie crab apple, USA, Rosaceae
Malus floribunda, ornamental crab apple, Rosaceae
Malus micromalus, Rosaceae
Malus pumila, apple, medium tree, deciduous, lenticels on fruit, Fruit: large, sweet, Used as: fresh, canned preserved, deciduous, Propagation
from: grafting,Europe, Rosaceae
Malus sylvestris, European crab apple, wild tree has thorns, Rosaceae
Malva, mallow, Malvaceae
Malvastrum, false mallow, Malvaceae
Malvaviscus, wax mallow, Malvaceae
Malvella, mallow, Malvaceae
Mammea americana, mamey apple, medium to large tree, evergreen, Fruit: large, round, sweet to subacid, brown, Used as: fresh, cooked,
jam, preseves, Propagation from: seeds, grafting, West Indies, South America, Clusiaceae
Mammillaria, pincushion cactus, globe cactus, Cactaceae
Mandevilla boliviensis, (M. laxa), Chilean jasmine, cultivar "White fantasy", ornamental, Apocynaceae
Mandevilla sanderi, "scarlet pimpernel", Apocynaceae
Mandevilla X amoena, "Alice du Pont", Apocynaceae
Mandragora officinarum, mandrake, satan's apple, hand of glory, herbal medicine, garden herb, tropane alkaloids, atropine, hyoscyamine,
scopolamine, hallucinogenic and narcotic, in Bible Genesis 30:14-22, Solanaceae
Mangifera indica, mango, common mango, Indian mango,large tree, Fruit: medium to large, variable colour, good flavour, Used as: fresh,
preserved, frozen, Propagation from: seeds, grafting, Southeast Asia, Anacardiaceae
Mangifera odorata, kuwini, large tree, evergreen, easy to grow, Fruit: large, oval, green skin, sweet orange aromatic, pulp, Used as: fresh,
Propagation from: seeds, grafting, Southeast Asia, Anacardiaceae
Manihot esculenta, cassava, manioc, tapioca, woody shrub, Euphorbiaceae
Manihot glaziovii, ceara rubber tree, Euphorbiaceae
Manilkara achras, sapodilla, chiku, chicle polyterpene, Mexico, South America, desert fruit, latex chicle used, chewing gum, Sapotaceae
Manilkara bidentata, balata, latex used for non-elastic rubber, sticky pulp eaten, Sapotaceae
Manilkara zapota, (Achras zapota), sapodilla, nispero, chicozapote tree, tree medium, slow growing, Fruit: large, brown, sweet tan pulp,
everal flat black seeds, Used as: fresh, sherbets, Propagation from: seeds, grafting, Southeast Asia, Sapotaceae
Mansoa, garlic vine, Bignoniaceae
Marah, man root, Cucurbitaceae
Marania, arrowroot
Maranta arundinacea, arrowroot, large starchy rhizomes, Marantaceae
Marcgravia, marcgravia, Marcgraviaceae
Marina, false prairie clover, Fabaceae
Marrubium vulgare, white horehound, common horehound, garden herb, herbal medicine, Lamiaceae
Marshallia, Barbara's buttons, Asteraceae
Matelea, milk vine, Asclepiadaceae
Matisia cordata, (Quararibea cordatalarge), South American sapote, chupa-chupa, semi-deciduous, fruit tree, up to 45 m, South America, Malvaceae
Matricaria recutita, (M. chamomilla), camomile, German chamomile, Hungarian chamomile, sweet false chamomile, blue chamomile,
single chamomile, wild chamomile, chamomilla, corn fever few, may weed, maythen, distinctive smell, herbal medicine, sedative, may
cause skin sensitivity, Asteraceae
Matthiola, (Mathiola), stock, stocks, gillyflower, ornamental, Brassicaceae
Medicago denticulata, burr medic, alfalfa, legume fruit spirally coiled, Fabaceae
Medicago echinus, calvary clover, Fabaceae
Medicago polymorpha, common burr medic, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Medicago sativa, lucerne, alfalfa, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Medicago scutellata, snail medic, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Medicago truncatula, barrel medic, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Megaskepasma, Brazilian red cloak, Acanthaceae
Melaleuca alternifolia, (M. linariifolia var. alternifolia), paper bark tree, melaleuca, tea tree, narrow-leaved paper bark, ti-trol, melasol,
tea tree oil, ti-tree oil, cork layers separate into alternate thick and degenerating thin layers, terpinen-4-ol has bactericidal and fungicidal
properties, Myrtaceae
Melaleuca bracteata, tea tree, Myrtaceae
Melaleuca cajeputi, cajuput, cajeput, white tea tree, white wood, swamp tea tree, punk tree, paper bark tree, Myrtaceae
Melaleuca leucadendron, (Myrtus leucodendron), caleput, cajuput, river tea tree, weeping tea tree, herbal medicine, Australia, Myrtaceae
Melaleuca linariifolia, tea tree, claret tops, hedge plant, Myrtaceae
Melaleuca minor, cajuput, cajeput, Myrtaceae
Melaleuca quinquenervia, cajeput, cajuput, Myrtaceae
Melaleuca viridiflora, niaoull, Myrtaceae
Melampodium, black foot, Asteraceae
Melampyrum, cow wheat, Scrophulariaceae
Melanthera, square stem, Asteraceae
Melastoma candidum, Asian melastoma, bright purple flowers, Melastomaceae
Melia azadarah, white cedar, rainforest margin, Australia, Meliaceae
Melicoccus bijugatus, Spanish lime, genipe, limoncillo, mamoncillo, large tree, evergreen, slow growing, male and female, Fruit: medium,
green, whitish pulp, subacid fresh, Propagation, seeds, airlayers, Tropical America, Sapotaceae
Melilotus officinalis, melilot trefoil, white clover, sweet clover, plaster clover, sweet lucerne, wild laburnum, king's clover, new mown hay
smell melilotin, oleoresm, coumarin, Fabaceae
Melissa officinalis, balm, lemon balm, sweet balm, bee herb, heart's delight, honey plant, strong lemon scent, herbal medicine, antidepressant
herbal medicine, Lamiaceae
Melochia, melochia, Sterculiaceae
Melothria, melothria, Cucurbitaceae
Mentha aquatica, water mint, bergamot mint, flavouring and herbal medicine, garden herb, Lamiaceae
Mentha arvensis, Japanese mint, source of menthol, Lamiaceae
Mentha australis, river mint, swamp mint, Australian native ground cover, herbal leaf, peppermint-like flavour, Lamiaceae
Mentha canadensis, (M. arvensis var. villosa, M. arvensis var. glabrata, M. arvensis var. piperascens), American wild mint, corn mint,
Japanese peppermint, North American field mint, Lamiaceae
Mentha longifolia, horse mint. Lamiaceae
Mentha piperita, mint, black peppermint, white peppermint, bowles mint, apple mint, woolly mint, curly mint, eau-de-Cologne mint,
pineapple mint, black and white mint, contains the monoterpene perillyl alcohol, Lamiaceae
Mentha pulegium, pennyroyal, Lamiaceae
Mentha spicata, (M. longifolia, M. viridis, var. viridis), spearmint, mint, garden mint, used for mint sauce, toothpaste, chewing gum, Lamiaceae
Mentha spicata, var. Spicata, Moroccan green mint, green mint, Lamiaceae
Mentha suaveolens, (M. rotundifolia), pineapple mint, Lamiaceae
Mentha X gracilis, (M. gentilis), Scotch spearmint, red mint, Lamiaceae
Mentha X piperita, (M. aquatica X M. spicata), peppermint, peppermint oil, menthol, in Chartreuse and Creme de Menthe, garden herb, Lamiaceae
Mentha X villosa var. alopecuroides, woolly mint, apple mint, bowles' mint, Egyptian mint, Lamiaceae
Mentzelia, blazing star, Loasaceae
Menyanthes trifoliata, bog bean, (monotypic), herbal medicine, Menyanthaceae
Mercurialis perennis, dog's mercury, poisonous French mercury, resembles a cactus, Euphorbiaceae
Merremia, wood rose, Convolvulaceae
Mertensia, blue bells, Boraginaceae
Mesembryanthemum aequilaterale, thick fleshy lamina, for water storage containing with mucilaginous sap containing pentosans, Aizoaceae
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, pig face, ice plant, Aizoaceae
Mespilus germanica, common medlar pear, hard acidic fruit, Rosaceae
Mesua ferrea, mesua, gau-gau, large hardwood tree used for Qing dynasty furniture, Myanmar, Nepal, (Guttiferae), Clusiaceae
Meum athamanticum, broad-leaved spignel, meu, Apiaceae
Michelia alba, China, fragrant white flowers, up to 34 m, Magnoliaceae
Michelia champaca, champaca, Magnoliaceae
Michelia figo, port wine michelia, champak, Magnoliaceae
Micranthemum, mud flower, Scrophulariaceae
Micropus, cottonseed, Asteraceae
Microseris, silver puffs, Asteraceae
Microtea, jumby pepper, Chenopodiaceae
Microthlaspi, penny cress, Brassicaceae
Mikania, climbing hemp vine, bitter vine, guaco Asteraceae
Millettia pinnata, (Pongamia pinnata), Australian biofuel, Fabaceae
Mimosa pudica, sensitive plant, sensitive mimosa, sensitive plant, weed, nastic movement, (mimosa "mimics" the motion of animals), Fabaceae
Mimulus, monkey flower, Scrophulariaceae
Mimusops, mimusops, Sapotaceae
Minuartia, stitch wort, Caryophyllaceae
Mirabilis jalapa, four o'clock flower, showy four o'clock, marvel-of-Peru, beauty-of-the-night, herbal medicine, opens in mid- to
late-afternoon and closes again the next morning, Nyctaginaceae
Mischarytera lautereriana, Corduroy Tamarind, Australian native fruit tree, Sapindaceae
Mitchella repens, partridge berry, squaw vine, herbal medicine, Rubiaceae
Mitella, miter wort, Saxifragaceae
Mitracarpus, girdle pod, Rubiaceae
Mitragyna speciosa, kratom tree, contains many alkaloids, Rubiaceae
Mitreola, horn pod, Loganiaceae
Modiola, bristle mallow, Malvaceae
Moehringia, sand wort, Caryophyllaceae
Moenchia, upright chick weed, Caryophyllaceae
Mollugo, carpet weed Molluginaceae
Momordica charantia, bitter gourd, bitter melon, herbal medicine, momordicine alkaloid, Cucurbitaceae
Momordica cochinhinensis, gac fruit: sping bitter gourd, Vietnam, Cucurbitaceae
Monarda clinopodia, bee balm, wild bergamot, Lamiaceae
Monarda citriodora, lemon bee balm, lemon bergamot, Lamiaceae
Monarda didyma, scarlet bee balm, Lamiaceae
Monarda fistulosa, wild bergamot, horse mint, bee balm, var. menthifolia, Lamiaceae
Monarda pectinata, pony bee balm, Lamiaceae
Monbretia, Crocosmia X crocosmiiflora, large orange flowers, invasive, noxious weed, Iridaceae
Moneses, single delight, Pyrolaceae
Monolepis, poverty weed, Chenopodiaceae
Monoptilon, desert star, Asteraceae
Monotropa, Indian pipe, Monotropaceae
Monotropsis, pygmy pipes, Monotropaceae
Montia, miners lettuce, Portulacaceae
Montropa uniflora, Indian pipe, ghost plant, corpse plant, white does not contain chlorophyll, parasitic, fungal host, Ericaceae
Morella cerifera, bayberry, small wax myrtle, candle berry, herbal medicine, Myricaceae
Morinda citrifolia, noni, Indian mulberry, beach mulberry, cheese fruit, used in noni soap, Southeast Asia and Pacific region, Rubiaceae
Moringa oleifera, Horse-radish Tree, Drumstick Tree, Ben Tree, oil of ben, forest tree and cultivated tropical tree, drought hardy tree,
avenue tree pruned 4-5 metres, foliage has mustard flavour, used in Indian and Sri Lankan dishes. herbal medicine, Used as: Very nutritious
leaves eaten raw or added at the end of cooking of curries and stir fry dishes, eat fresh flowers. Flavour like asparagus. Eat beans when
small and tender or chop larger pods for curries. Moringaceae
Morus alba, white mulberry, medium to large tree, short-lived, fast-growing, deciduous, Fruit: small, juicy sweet, Used as: fresh, pies,
herbal medicine, ornamental, feeds silkworms, Propagation from: cuttings, grafting, Northern China, Moraceae
Morus nigra, black mulberry, large fruit with staining juice, large tree, East Asia, Moraceae
Mucronea, spine flower, Polygonaceae
Mucuna, mucuna, Fabaceae
Muehlenbeckia, maiden hair vine, Polygonaceae
Muntingia, muntingia, Elaeocarpaceae
Muntingia calabura, capulin, Panama berry, Jamaica cherry, small tree, evergreen, attractive, fast-growing, shade tree, Fruit: small berry,
red or yellow, sweet, aromatic, Used as: fresh, jam, tarts, Propagation from: seeds, suckers, attractive fast-growing shade tree, Tropical America, Muntingiaceae
Murraya koenigii, curry leaf, curry tree, used in curries and marinades, garden herb, Rutaceae
Murraya paniculata, orange jasmine, mock orange, hedge and pastoral weed, Rutaceae
Musa hybrids, banana, large herb, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: large, sweet, yellow, Used as: fresh, Propagation from: suckers, Old
World Tropics,
Musa hybrids, plantain, cooking banana, large herb,evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: large, yellow or red, starchy, Used as: cooked,
Propagation from: suckers, Old World Tropics,
Myagrum, myagrum, Brassicaceae
Myoporum parvifolium, creeping boobialla, prostrate shrub, small white flowers, ornamental, ground cover, Australia, Scrophulariaceae
Myosotidium, giant forget-me-not, Boraginaceae
Myosotis, forget-me-not, mouse ear, Boraginaceae
Myosurus, mouse tail, Ranunculaceae
Myrciaria cauliflora, jaboticaba, shrub or small tree, Fruit: medium, round, black, sweet, Used as: fresh, frozen, wine, Propagation from:
seeds, grafting, Brazil, Myrtaceae
Myrciaria floribunda, guava berry, small tree, attractive ornamental, Fruit: small, yellow, sweet aromatic pulp,or seeds, Used as: fresh,
flavourings, Propagation from: seeds, West Indies, Myrtaceae
Myrciaria glomerata, yellow jaboticaba, small shrub, good ornamental, Fruit: yellow, sweet pulp and seeds, Used as: fresh, Propagation
from: seeds, subject to iron deficiency in limestone soils, Brazil, Myrtaceae
Myrciaria paraensis, camu camu, shrub or small tree, evergreen, slow growing, Fruit: small, red, acid pulp, Used as: fresh, juice, Propagation
from: seeds, South America, Myrtaceae
Myrciaria vexator, blue grape, false jaboticaba, medium shrub, Fruit: small, purple, thin sweet flesh or seeds, Used as fresh, Propagation
from: seeds, Costa Rica, Myrtaceae
Myremecodia, ant plant, epiphyte, symbiosis with ants and fungi, Rubiaceae
Myrianthus arboreus, tropical tree, up to 15m high, oblong fruits, Central Africa, Moraceae
Myrica cerifera, southern bayberry, wax myrtle, herbal medicine, Myricaceae
Myrica gale, sweet gale, gale, herbal medicine, Myricaceae
Myristica fragrans, (M. officinalis, M. moscbana, M. aromatica, M. amboinensis), nutmeg, garden herb, mace, myristicin alkaloid, Myristacaceae
Myrocarpus fastigiatus, cabreuva, cabureicica, Fabaceae
Myrocarpus frondosus, cabreuva, Fabaceae
Myroxylon balsamum, (Balsamum peruvianim), Black balsam, China oil, Honduras balsam, balsum of Peru, beans contain coumarin,
an acrid bitter resin, a resin exudes from the trunk of the tree containing a gum resin and a volatile oil, the flower has a strong fragrance,
Used for: food and drink flavouring (butmay cause allergic reaction), perfume fragrance, medicinal products, Peru balsam mounting
medium for microscope specimens, refractive index of 1.597, Peru, Fabaceae
Myrrhis odorata, sweet cecily, giant chervil, Spanish chervil, herbal medicine, garden herb, Apiaceae
Myroxylon peruiferum, similar to above.
Myrsine, colic wood, Myrsinaceae
Myrtus communis, myrtle tree, herbal medicine, Myrtaceae

N. Dicotyledons
Nama, fiddle leaf, Hydrophyllaceae
Napaea, napaea, Malvaceae
Nardostachys chinensis, Chinese spikenard, Valerianaceae
Nardostachys grandiflora, nard, spikenard, all heal, rose-purple flower, (possibly in Bible, Mark 14:3, ancient perfume), Valerianaceae
Nardostachys jatamansi, nard, spikenard, false Indian valerian root, (possibly in Bible, Mark 14:3), Valerianaceae
Nasturtium officinale, (Rorippa), common watercress, garden herb, Brassicaceae
Nauclea esculenta, nauclea, small tree, evergreen, Fruit: medium, red, firm sweet pulp, many tiny seeds, Used as: fresh, Propagation
from: seeds, West Africa, Rubiaceae
Nauclea orientalis, large tree, globular yellow flowers, Leichhardt tree, yellow cheesewood, Northern Australia, Rubiaceae
Navarretia, pincushion plant, Polemoniaceae
Nectandra coriaceae, lancewood, Lauraceae
Nectandra elaiophora, louro nhamuy, Lauraceae
Neea, salt wood, Nyctaginaceae
Nelumbo nucifera, lotus, sacred lotus, red lily, (water lily, water bean), liensinine alkaloid, Nelumbonaceae
Nemacaulis, cotton heads, Polygonaceae
Nemacladus, thread plant, Campanulaceae
Nematanthus wettsteinii, goldfish plant
Nemophila, baby blue eyes, Hydrophyllaceae
Neobeckia, lake cress, Brassicaceae
Neonotonia wightii, glycine, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Nepenthes, nepenthes, Nepenthaceae
Nepenthes salpouriana, pitcher plants, Indonesia, Malaysia, climbing tendrils on leaf ends may develop into lidded flowers, Nepenthaceae
Nepeta cataria, catnip, herbal medicine, Lamiaceae
Nepeta cataria, cat mint, catnip, contains terpenes, "detestable to all except cats", Lamiaceae
Nephelium lappaceum, rambutan, medium tree, evergreen, male and femal trees or hermaphroditic, Fruit: medium, red, yellow or white
sweet pulp, edible aril, covered with fleshy spines, Used as: fresh, preserved, Propagation from: seeds, grafting, Southeast Asia, Sapindaceae
Nephelium mutabile, pulasan, large tree, evergreen, Fruit: small, oval, leathery red skin, translucent sweet flesh, seed, Used as: fresh,
Propagation from: seeds, grows best in a warm climate, Malaysia, Sapindaceae
Nephrophyllidium, deer cabbage, Menyanthaceae
Neptunia, yellow neptunia, puff, Fabaceae
Nerisyrenia, fan mustard, Brassicaceae
Nerium indicum, Indian oleander, sweet-scented oleander, karaviram, herbal medicine, nerioderin in tuber is cardiac poison, India, Apocynaceae
Nerium oleander, oleander, ornamental shrub, cardiac glycosides, poisonous, Apocynaceae
Nicolletia, hole-in-the-sand plant, Asteraceae
Nicotiana rustica, tobacco plant, (smoked in some countries), Solanaceae
Nicotiana sauveolens, (N. glauca), weed, Solanaceae
Nicotiana, tabacum, tobacco plant, (smoking tobacco is associated with lung cancer and heart disease), nicotine alkaloid, leaf ontogeny
studies, Solanaceae,
Nierembergia, cup flower, Solanaceae
Nigella damascena, nigella, love-in-a-mist, ragged lady, devil-in-a-bush, love-in-a-puzzle, fennel flower, (but not related to fennel),
herbal medicine, Ranunculaceae
Nigella sativa, black cumin, garden herb
Nissolia, yellow hood, Fabaceae
Nitella clavata, protoplasmic streaming can be observed
Nitrophila, niter wort, Chenopodiaceae
Nonea, monks wort, Boraginaceae
Nopalea, cochineal cactus, (female bug Coccus cacti)
Nothocalais, prairie dandelion, Asteraceae
Nothocestrum, aiea, Solanaceae
Nothofagus, beech tree, southern beech tree
Notothixos incanus, var. subaureus, yellow-leafed parasite of Loranthus, Loranthaceae
Nototrichium, rock wort, Amaranthaceae
Nuttallanthus, toad flax, Scrophulariaceae
Nuytsia floribunda, West Australian Christmas tree, Loranthaceae
Nyctaginia, nyctaginia, Nyctaginaceae
Nymphaea macrosperma, water lily, white water lily, herbal medicine, leaf has very thin cuticle and aerenchyma, air chambers, Northern
Australia, Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaea maculata, red tiger lotus, water lily, Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaea violacea, purple lily, Nymphaeaceae
Nymphoides, floating heart, Menyanthaceae
Nyssa sylvatica, black gum, tupelo, moderate size, ornamental shade tree, North America, Cornaceae

O. Dicotyledons
Ochna, ochna, Ochnaceae
Ochroma lagopus, balsa wood, density 0.2, Bombacaceae
Ochrosia, yellow wood, Apocynaceae
Ocimum americanum, hairy basil, Australia, (aromatic leaves, food flavouring), possibley an introduced weed, Lamiaceae
Ocimum basilicum, basil, sweet basil, Thai basel, kapura tulasi, annual, essential oil contains camphor, forms basil camphor crystals,
garden herb, herbal medicine, may have chemopreventative effects against some cancers, India, Lamiaceae
Ocimum basilicum, cv. true sweet basil, Comoran basil, (exotic or Reunion basil), companion plant with tomato, (French, European or
common basil), herbal medicine, Lamiaceae
Ocimum canum, (O. americanum), hoary basil, hairy basil, Lamiaceae
Ocimum gratissimum, (O. viride), East Indian basil, tree basil, shrubby basil, Lamiaceae
Ocimum kilimanjaricum, camphor basil, Lamiaceae
Ocimum tenuiflorum, (O. sanctum), holy basil, tulasi, Indian sacred basil, surasa, herbal medicine, India, Lamiaceae
Ocimum tenuiflorum, bush tea leaf, native basil, "native thyme", "wild marjoram" Australia, anise-like or clove-like flavour, Lamiaceae
Ocimum viride, West African Basil, Fever Plant, 1 metre, aroma like thyme, herbal medicine, antiseptic (contains thymol), fevers including
malaria, eye wash, gargle, poultices, repel insects, general tonic, diarrhea, wound dressing, conjunctivitis. Lamiaceae
Oclemena, aster, Asteraceae
Ocotea caudata, (Licaria guianensis), Cayenne rosewood, Lauraceae
Ocotea cymbarum, (Mespliodaphne sassafras), Amazonian sassafras, Lauraceae
Ocotea pretiosa, Brazilian sassafras, Lauraceae
Odontonema, toothed thread, Acanthaceae
Oenothera biennis, common evening primrose, 50 cm, biennial, yellow flowers open in the evening and lst until following noon. Used as:
leaves eaten in salads, herbal medicine, helps produce prosta-glandins, assists regulating balance in the body, treat eczema but not an
anti-cancer agent. North America, Onagraceae
Evening primrose oil, from seeds containing gamma-linolenic acid
Oenothera deltoides, bird-cage plant, Onagraceae
Olax stricta, small shrub, yellow-green foliage, root hemiparasite, Oldenlandiopsis, creeping-bluet, Rubiaceae
Olea europaea, olive, (olive Greek: elaion, oil), medium tree or shrub, hardy, evergreen, slow growing, requires cold winter, silvery green
leaves, seed called pit, rock or stone, fruit also called olive, green olives picked before the ripening, black olives picked at full maturity,
fresh olives must be cured and fermented to remove bitter phenolic compound oleuropein, herbal medicine, leaves antioxidant-rich, Fruit:
small, green or black, Used as: oily preserved, oil, Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, grafting, Mediterranean region, Used as: fruit
pickled, oil content, leaves as tea, ferrous sulfate used for canned black olives. Mediterranean region, Asia, Oleaceae
Olearia glutinosa, glandular hairs and stalked hairs, some with viscid secretion, Oligomeris, oligomeris, Resedaceae
Olearia argophylla, Asteraceae, a tree, Olearia, daisy bush, Asteraceae
Oligoneuron, golden rod, Asteraceae
Omalotheca, arctic cud weed, Asteraceae
Omphalodes, navel wort, Boraginaceae
Onobrychis, sainfoin, Fabaceae
Ononis, rest harrow, spiny rest harrow, herbal medicine, Fabaceae
Onopordon, thistle, down thistle, cotton thistle, herbal medicine
Onopordum, cotton thistle, Asteraceae
Onopsis, false golden weed, Asteraceae
Onosmodium, marble seed, Boraginaceae
Operculina, lidpod, Convolvulaceae
Ophioglossum, adder's tongue, herbal medicine
Opoponix, opoponix, (incense plant)
Opuntia, prickly pear, cholla, herbal medicine, jointed stem cactus, Cactaceae
Opuntia ficus-indica, Prickly pear, tuna, large shrub, Fruit: medium, red or white, sweet, many small seeds, Used as: fresh, jelly, jam,
cuttings, requires dry cold climate, Mexico, Central America, Cactaceae
Opuntia ficus-indica, (O. vulgaris), Indian Fig Opuntia, Prickly Pear, Indian Fig, hardy, 1-3 metres, frost-tolerant, Used as: thick leaves
when carefully peeled used as cooked vegetable, high fibre, fruit called "tuna" eaten fresh, in jams, in Mexican nopales and propriatory
drink Trivita "Nopalea", herbal medicine, survival food, vitamin C source, reduce inflammation, Mexico, Cactaceae
Orbexilum, leather root, Fabaceae
Oreochrysum, golden rod, Asteraceae
Oreostemma, aster, Asteraceae
Origanum, most species contain carvacrol, cymophenol, C6H3CH3(OH)(C3H7), monoterpenoid phenol,which may provide proection
against prostate cancer
Origanum X applii, oregano, (Berberidaceae), Lamiaceae
Origanum marjorana, (Marjorana hortensis), sweet marjoram, knotted marjoram, pot marjoram, hyssop, thorny caper, herbal medicine, Lamiaceae
Origanum maru, Egyptian marjoram, Lamiaceae
Origanum X majoricum, oregano, marjoram, hard sweet marjoram, high total phenolic content, 11.65 mg of gallic acid / g fresh weight, Lamiaceae
Origanum onites, French marjoram, pot marjoram, perennial, garden herb, Lamiaceae
Origanum syriacum, (O. maru), Syrian oregano, Lamiaceae
Origanum vulgare, subsp. vulgare, wild marjoram, oreganum oil, Lamiaceae
Origanum vulgare, subsp. glandulosum, oregano, marjoram, regano, wild marjoram, dittany of Crete, herbal medicine, contains thymol,
garden herb, Lamiaceae
Origanum vulgare, subsp. gracile, (O. tytthanthum, O. kopetdaghense), Russian oregano, Lamiaceae
Origanum vulgare, subsp. hirtum, (O. hirtum, O. heracleoticum), winter oregano, Greek origin, Italian oregano, Lamiaceae
Origanum vulgare, subsp. virens, (O. virens), wild marjoram, Lamiaceae
Origanum vulgare, subsp. viride, (O. heracleoticum), wild marjoram, Lamiaceae
Ormentis mixta, (Anthemis mixta), Moroccan chamomile, Asteraceae
Ormentis multicaulis, Moroccan chamomile, Asteraceae
Ormosia nobilis, lady bug tree, (black spot on seed, used a jewellery by Indians, Surinam, Fabaceae
Ormosia sp. horse eye bean, Fabaceae
Ormosia howii, ji chimu, chicken wing wood for furniture, now extinct, Hainan, China, Fabaceae
Ornithopus compressus, bird's foot, yellow serradella, pasture legume, Fabaceae
Orobanche, broom rape, choke weed, Orobranchaceae
Orobanche australiana, root parasite of Senecio, shoot herbaceous, stunted, yellow-green scale-like leaves, Orobranchaceae
Orobanche hederae, root parasite of ivy, hedera, Orobranchaceae
Oroxylum indicum, midnight horror tree, to 12 metres, fast-growing pioneer plant, (name from very large pods against skyline), herbal
medicine, astringent root bark used to treat diarrhea and dysentery .Used as: new leaves and seed pods eaten, high in protein, iron and
calcium, Bignoniaceae
Orpheum frutescens, African pink gentian,
Orthocarpus, owl's clover, Scrophulariaceae
Orthosiphon stamineus, (Orthosiphon aristatus), cats whiskers, Java tea, 1 metre, hardy, beautiful mauve to white flowers, garden
shrub, herbal medicine, leaf and flower tea helps maintain normal kidney function, sinensetin is a methylated flavone. South East Asia, Lamiaceae
Osmanthus fragrans, sweet olive, fragrant olive, tea olive, devil wood, Oleaceae
Osteospermum dimorphotheca, African daisy, daisy bush, Asteraceae
Osteospermum, moniliferum, weed, Asteraceae
Otocanthus caeruleous, Caribbean blue, "Peek-a-Blue", blue flowers, ornamental
Oxalis, oxalis, wood sorrel, oxalic acid, herbal medicine, vegetative reproduction by contractile tuberous roots, lamina divided into
leaflets joined at common point, Oxalidaceae
Oxalis tuberosa, oca, New Zealand yam, 30 cm, hardy, edible leaves and tubers. Used as: leaves and pink tubers eaten, fried, boiled,
roasted, soups, herbal medicine, high source of carbohydrate and energy. beta carotene, potassium, vitamin B6, anthocyanins. Andes
mountains, Oxalidaceae
Oxydendrum arboreum, sorrel tree, sourwood, lily-of -the-valley tree, deciduous understory tree, delicate urn-shaped flowers, Ericaceae
Oxyria, mountain sorrel, herbal medicine, Polygonaceae
Oxytropis sericea, loco weed, crazy weed, point vetch, miserotoxin and swainsonine alkaloid, which causes loco weed poisoning, Fabaceae,
Ozothamnus, kerosene bush, kerosine bush

P. Dicotyledons
Pachira aquatica, guiana chestnut, malabar chestnut, North and South America, Malvaceae (Bombacaceae)
Pachira insignis, wild chestnut, Malvaceae (Bombacaceae)
Pachycereus pringlei, pachycereus, cardon cactus, Cactaceae
Pachypodium namaquanum, half-mens, Apocynaceae
Pachyrrhizus erosus, yam bean, jicama, root vegetable, Philippines, Fabaceae
Packera, rag wort, Asteraceae
Paederia, sewer vine, Rubiaceae
Paeonia lactiflora, white peony, bai shao, herbal medicine, Paeoniaceae
Paeonia officinalis, peony, herbal medicine, Paeoniaceae
Paeonia suffruticosa, tree peony, mountain peopny, moutan, mudan, seasonal indoor potted plant, formerly Chinese national flower
known as "king of flowers", China, Paeoniaceae
Palaquium gutta, Gutta-percha, (electricity insulation, golf balls), isoprene sub units, Sapotaceae
Palicourea cappel, Rubiaceae
Panax pseudoginseng (Himalayan ginseng), and Panax zingiberensis (ginger ginseng)
Panax quinquefolius, American ginseng, Araliaceae
Panax ginseng, ginseng, Chinese ginseng "ren shen", herbal medicine, energy tonic garden herb, ginsenosides, Araliaceae
Panax quinquefolius, Panax japonicus (Japanese ginseng), Panax notoginseng (Sanqui or Tienqi ginseng), Panax elegantior (Pearl ginseng),
Panax quinquefolius, American ginseng, Araliaceae
Pandorea jasminoides, pandorea, ornamental tree, Australia, Bignoniaceae
Pandorea pandorana, wonga wonga vine, climber, creamy trumpet-shaped flowers, ornamental tree, Australia, Bignoniaceae
Papaver bracteatum, Iranian poppy, thebaine but no opioids, Papaveraceae
Papaver nudicaule, Iceland poppy, short-lived perennials, self-seeding, hairy stems, delicate bowl-shaped flowers, toxic, Russia, Papaveraceae
Papaver orientale, Arctic poppy, vivid coloured perennial, favoured garden plant, Turkey, Papaveraceae
Papaver radicatum, Arctic poppy, Papaveraceae
Papaver somniferum, opium poppy (opium from Greek: opion, poppy juice), white poppy, morphine, codeine and thebane, dangerous
medicine, wild poppy, red poppy, herbal medicine, codeine, morphine alkaloid, Papaveraceae
Papaver somniferum sub horternse, herbal medicine, (poppy seed on bread and cakes, edible oil), Papaveraceae
Parahebe, veronica, Scrophulariaceae
Parasenecio, Indian plantain, Asteraceae
Parentucellia, gland weed, Scrophulariaceae
Parietaria, upright pellitory, pellitory of the wall, herbal medicine, Urticaceae
Parietaria judaica, asthma weed, pellitoty, noxious weed in Australia, Urticaceae
Paris quadrifolia, herb Paris, true lover's knot, single flower and four leaves in cross shape, unbranched stem, paradin glucoside,
poisonous, Melanthiaceae
Parkia speciosa, Stink Bean, eat the immature bean and foliage, tasted like garlic, Fabaceae
Parkinsonia, horse bean, Fabaceae
Parmentaria edulis, cuachilote, fruit tree
Parnassia, Parnassus, Saxifragaceae
Parodia, parodia, ball cactus, Cactaceae
Paronychia, nail wort, Caryophyllaceae
Parthenium hysterophorus, Santa Maria fever few, pasture weed, Asteraceae
Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Virginia creeper, woodbine
Passiflora caerulea, passion fruit
Pastinaca sativa, parsnip, (parsnip from Latin: pastinare, dig the ground), wild parsnip, vegetable, Apiaceae
Paullinia cupana, guarana, yoco yoco, bread and cheese, (seeds and bark used as a beverage), caffeine alkaloid, herbal medicine, Sapindaceae
Paulownia powton, princess tree, Scrophulariaceae
Pavonia, swamp mallow, Malvaceae
Pectis, cinch weed, Asteraceae
Pectocarya, comb seed, Boraginaceae
Pedicularis, louse wort, Scrophulariaceae
Pediocactus, hedgehog cactus, Cactaceae
Peganum harmala, harmal, wild rue, Syrian rue, Mediterranean to India, Nitrariaceae
Pelargonium capitatum, rose geranium, Geraniaceae
Pelargonium graveolens, rose geranium, geranium, (cvs. P. odoratissimum, P. radens, P. capitatum, P. asperum), Geraniaceae
Pelargonium, "pelargoniums", "popular geraniums", rose geranium, ornamental, garden herb, Geraniaceae
Pelargonium peltatum, ivy leaf geranium, Geraniaceae
Pelargonium sidoides, Umckaloabo, South African Geranium, herbal medicine, Geraniaceae
Pelargonium zonale, garden geranium, common garden plant, South Africa, Geraniaceae
Pennellia, mock thelypody, Brassicaceae
Penstemon, beard tongue, Scrophulariaceae
Pentachaeta, pygmy daisy, Asteraceae
Pentadesma, pentadesma, Clusiaceae
Pentapetes, pentapetes, Sterculiaceae
Peperomia humilis, Polynesian peperomia, Piperaceae
Pereskia aculeata, Barbados gooseberry, large vine, evergreen, Fruit small, yellow, juicy subacid pulp fresh, Used as preserves, Propagation
from: seeds, cuttings, Tropical America
Persea americana, avocado, medium to large tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: large, green or purple, flesh yellow, nutty flavour, Used
as: fresh, salads, Propagation from: seeds, grafting, Tropical America
Pereskia aculeata, Barbados gooseberry, large vine, evergreen, Fruit: small, yellow, juicy subacid pulp, Used as: fresh, preserves,
Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, Tropical America
Pericallis cruenta, cineraria, ragwort, popular pot plant, Canary Islands, Asteraceae
Perilla frutescens, (P. ocymoides), perilla, beefsteak plant, Lamiaceae
Perityle, rock daisy, Asteraceae
Persea americana, avocado, ahuactl, bata, agnate, abuacath, alligator pear, (from "ahuacatl", testicle-shaped fruit), medium to large tree,
evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: large, green or purple, flesh yellow, nutty flavour, Used as: fresh, salads, Propagation from: seeds, grafting,
Tropical America, Lauraceae
Persicaria bistorta, (Polygonum), bistort, snake weed, herbal medicine, garden herb, Polygonaceae
Persicaria orientale, prince's feather, garden herb, Polygonaceae
Persicaria odorata, Vietnamese mint, garden herb, Polygonaceae
Persoonia, lamina vertically upwards due to twisting of of petiole through 90o, leaf has few stomates per mm2
Petalonyx, sand paper plant, Loasaceae
Petasites, (Tussilago), butter bur, herbal medicine, Asteraceae
Petiveria, petiveria, Phytolaccaceae
Petradoria, rock golden rod, Asteraceae
Petrea volubilis, petrea, sand paper vine, bluebird vine, queen's wreath, woody vine, leaves rough to touch, Verbenaceae
Petrorhagia prolifera, childing pink, Caryophyllaceae
Petroselinum crispum, parsley, common parsley, curly leaf parsley, vegetable, herbal medicine, garden herb, contains myristicin, Apiaceae
Petroselinum sativum, (P. hortense, Apium petroselinum, Carum petroselinum), parsley, Hamburg parsley, herbal medicine, diuretic
herbal medicine, Apiaceae
Petunia, petunia, Solanaceae
Peucedanum, (Imperatoria), sow's fennel, hog's fennel, master wort, common master wort, rock parsley, milk parsley, herbal medicine
Peucephyllum, pygmy cedar, Asteraceae
Peumus boldus, (Boldu boldus, Boldoa fragrans), boldo, boldus, boldu, herbal medicine, Monimiaceae
Pfaffia, pfaffia, Amaranthaceae
Phalacroseris, mock dandelion, Asteraceae
Phaseolus mutiflorus, runner bean, Fabaceae
Phaseolus angularis, (Vigna angularis), adzuki bean, red bean, (Chinese red bean paste), vegetable, Fabaceae
Phaseolus aureus, (Vigna radiata), mung bean, green bean, green gram, moong dal, Fabaceae
Phaseolus caracalla, snail creeper, climber with lavender spirals of flowers, Fabaceae
Phaseolus coccineus, scarlet runner bean, runner bean, potato bean, white Dutch runner bean, vegetable, Fabaceae
Phaseolus lunatus, (P. limensis), lima bean, vegetable, Fabaceae
Phaseolus mungo, black gram, vegetable, Fabaceae
Phaseolus vulgaris, bean, French bean, haricot bean, field bean, string bean, wax bean, white kidney bean, caraota, poroto, poisonous
if uncooked, phaseolamine alkaloid, Fabaceae
Philadelphus syringia, mock orange
Phlox divaricata, wild sweet william, "clouds of perfume", very fragrant, semi-evergreen perennial, North America, Polemoniaceae
Phlox paniculata, phlox, ornamental, Polemoniaceae
Phoebanthus, false sunflower, Asteraceae
Phoebe nanmu, Lauraceae
Phoenix dactylifera, date, Middle East, medium palm, deciduous, fast growing, evergreen, Fruit: small, brown, sweet, Used as: fresh,
dried, Propagation from: seeds, off-shoots
Phyllanthus acidus Otaheite gooseberry, grosella Madagascar, medium tree, male and female medium, 6-lobed, pale green, Used as
:sour preserves, pies, Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, India
Pholisma pholisma, Lennoaceae
Pholistoma, fiesta flower, Hydrophyllaceae
Phoradendron, oak mistletoe, Viscaceae
Photinia robusta, photinia, garden hedge
Phragmites, reed, true reed, common reed
Phygelius, Cape fuchsia, Scrophulariaceae
Phyla, fog fruit, Verbenaceae
Phyllanthus acidus, Otaheite gooseberry, Grosella Madagascar, medium tree, male and female, Fruit: medium, 6-lobed, pale green, sour
preserves, pies, deciduous, fast growing, seeds, cuttings, India
Phyllanthus amaris, (P.deblis, P. niruli), phyllanthus, bahupathra, herbe due chagrin, herbal medicine, India, Euphorbiaceae
Phyllanthus emblica Emblic, Myrobolan Tropical Asia tree, large, male and female round, smooth green, sour preserves, deciduous, fast
growing, seed, budding,
Phyllanthus emblica, Emblic, Myrobolan, large tree, male and female, Fruit: round, smooth green, sour preserves, deciduous, fast growing,
seed, budding, Tropical Asia
Phyllodoce, mountain heath, Epacridaceae
Phyllostachys, bamboo
Physalis peruviana, Cape gooseberry, Chinese lantern, winter cherry, ground cherry, Solanaceae
Physaria, twin pod, Brassicaceae
Physostigma venenosum, Calabar bean, eserine, poison and anti-CNS depression drug, climber, like runner bean, Africa, Fabaceae
Phytolacca decandra, poke weed, pook root, poisonous, herbal medicine, Phytolaccaceae
Pickeringia, chaparral pea, Fabaceae
Picradeniopsis bahia, Asteraceae
Picrasa excelsa, quassia, Cuba, Simaroubaceae
Picris, (Helminthia), lang de boeuf, bristly ox tongue, pot herb, Asteraceae
Picrothamnus, bud sage brush, Asteraceae
Pieris, fetter bush, Epacridaceae
Pilocarpus jaborandi, (Pernambuco jaborandi, P. pennitifolius), jaborandi, iaborandi, jamborandi, South America, herbal medicine, Rutaceae
Pilosocereus, tree cactus, Cactaceae
Pimenta dioica, (P. officinalis), Allspice, Jamaica Pepper, Pimento, (spice is the dried unripe fruit), hardy, 3m +, tree or trim to bush size,
herbal medicine, essential oils, high nutritional value. Used as: dried unripe fruit the "berry" used in meats, pickles, cookery, use leaves
to make tea. deliciously aromatic, Flavour is combination of nutmeg, cinnamon and cloves.
Pimenta racemosa, (P. acris, Myrcia acris), Bay, West Indian bay, bay rum tree, wild cinnamon, bayberry, myrcia, Myrtaceae
Pimpinella anisum, (Anisum officinalis, A. vulgare), aniseed, anise, sweet cumin, black carraway, great burnet saxifrage, herbal medicine, Apiaceae
Pimpinella major, great burnet saxifrage, Apiaceae
Pimpinella saxafraga, black caraway, burnet saxifrage, (Apiaceae), Apiaceae
Pinaropappus, rock lettuce, Asteraceae
Pinckneya pubens, fevertree, bitter inner bark used to treat fevers, small tree, white or rose sepals become petal-like similar to poinsettias,
North America, Rubiaceae
Pinguicula, butter wort, Lentibulariaceae, carnivorous, Pinzona, pinzona, Dilleniaceae
Piper cubeba, cubeb, tailed pepper, culeb pepper, Piperaceae
Piper betel, betel pepper, Piperaceae
Piper hederaceum, pepper vine, Australian native vine, herbal seed, Piperaceae
Piper methysticum, kava kava, garden herb, kavain alkaloid, Piperaceae
Piper nigrum, pepper, (pepper from Greek: peperi), black pepper, commercial pepper, table pepper, piper, garden herb, climber, woody
perennial, piperine alkaloid, dried drupe called a peppercorn is ground to form "pepper", black pepper, white pepper is from the dried
ripe seeds, Piperaceae
Piper sermentosum, wild leaf pepper, pointed pepper, betel leaves, garden herb, Thailand, Piperaceae
Piptocarpha, ash daisy, Asteraceae
Piptocoma, velvet shrub, Asteraceae
Pipturus argenteus, native mulberry, Urticaceae
Piriqueta, stripe seed, Turneraceae
Piscidia piscipula, Jamaican dogwood, Florida fish, poison tree, fish fuddle, herbal medicine, West Indies, Fabaceae
Pisonia umbellifera, bird lime tree, bird catcher tree, catch bird tree, Australia, Nyctaginaceae
Pistacia atlantica, Persian turpentine, Anacardiaceae
Pistacia chinensis, pistachio, green almond, mastic tree, balm, the Bible, ornamental tree, Anacardiaceae
Pistacia lenticus, (Var. Chia), mastic tree, mastix, lentisk, for gum mastic, mastic resin, Anacardiaceae
Pistacia terebinthus, terebinth, terpentine tree, turpentine oil, Anacardiaceae
Pisum sativum, var. arvense, pea, field pea, pulse used for dal and green manure, vegetable, Fabaceae
Pisum sativum, var. hortense, pea, garden pea, table pea, Austrian winter pea, stipules leaf-like, leaves modified to tendrils, Fabaceae
Pisum sativum, var. macrocarpon, snow pea, Fabaceae
Pithecellobium, black bead, Fabaceae
Pithecoctenium, monkey's comb, Bignoniaceae
Pithecolobrium genisaro, guango, genisaro, rain tree, Fabaceae, ("rain" caused by ejection of fluid by cicadas), Pittosporum tenuifolium,
tawhiwhi, pittosporum, karo, tarata, white bolly, garden hedge
Pittosporum revolutum, yellow pittosporum, busy evergreen, glossy leaves, popular garden plant, Pittosporaceae
Pittosporum undulatum, Australian cheese wood, weed, Pittosporaceae
Pityopsis, silk grass, Asteraceae
Pityopus, pine foot, Monotropaceae
Plagiobothrys, popcorn flower, Boraginaceae
Planchonella australis, Black Apple, Australian native fruit tree, Sapotaceae
Plantago lanceolata, narrow-leafed plantain, rib wort plantago, weed, herbal medicine, (bee stings), Plantaginaceae
Plantago major, greater plantain, common plantain, weed, herbal medicine, Europe, Plantaginaceae
Platanus occidentalis, American sycamore, mottled exfoliating bark, very large tree, North America, Platanaceae
Plantago ovata, psyllium, ispaghula, husks used as a dietary fibre, India, Plantaginaceae
Plantago psyllium, plantain, fleawort, buck's horn, rib wort, herbal medicine, garden herb, Plantaginaceae
Platanus, London plane tree, natural hybrid, Platanus orientalis (oriental plane) X Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore), Platanaceae
Plateilema, cockerell, Asteraceae
Platonia, platonia, Clusiaceae
Platyschkuhria, basin daisy, Asteraceae
Plectranthus amboinicus, Indian borage, Lamiaceae
Plectranthus esculentus, dazo, hause potato, Lamiaceae
Plectritis, sea blush, Valerianaceae
Pleiogynium timoriense, Burdekin plum, Australian native fruit tree, Anacardiaceae
Pleiogynium timorense, P. cerasiferum, Burdekin plum, Australia, medium tree, Fruit: small, purple, oblate, thin subacid pulp, large
irregular seed jelly, deciduous, Propagation from: seeds
Pleiogynium timorense P. cerasiferum Burdekin plum Australia tree, medium small, purple, oblate, thin subacid pulp, large irregular seed
jelly, deciduous, seeds,
Pleuricospora, pine sap, Monotropaceae
Pluchea, camphor weed, Asteraceae
Plumbago auriculata, plumbago, lead wort, garden hedge, Plumbaginaceae
Plumeria acuminate, plumeria, frangipani, temple tree, Central America, (many cultivars), bare blunt branches, Apocynaceae
Podophyllum peltatum, may apple, podophyllotoxin American mandrake, yellow egg shape fruit, roots of May apple, Asteraceae
Podranea ricasoliana, ornamental tree, Bignoniaceae
Pogostemon cablin, (P. patchouli), patchouli, patchouly, puchaput, pogostemon, India, patchoulli oil, aromatherapy oil, garden herb,
perfume fixative, odour to carpets, Lamiaceae
Pogostemon heyneanus, (P. patchouli), false patchouly, Lamiaceae
Poinciana regia, Madagascar, (possibly the finest ornamental tree), Fabaceae
Poitea wattapama, Fabaceae
Polanisia, clammy weed, Capparaceae
Polemonium, Greek valerian, Jacob's ladder, abscess root, Andes mountains, herbal medicine, Polemoniaceae
Poliomintha longiflora, Mexican origano, high total phenolic content, 17.51 mg of gallic acid / g fresh weight, Asteraceae
Polyalthia, Indian mast tree, Asteraceae
Polyaulax cylindrocarpa, (Meiogyne cylindrocarpa), Annonaceae
Polycarpon, many seed, Caryophyllaceae
Polycnemum, polycnemum, Chenopodiaceae
Polyctenium, comb leaf, Brassicaceae
Polygala vulgaris, common milkwort, herbaceous perennial plant, Polygalaceae
Polygonatum X hybridum, Solomon's seal, herbal medicine, jointed stems, perennial herbs and climbers, Polygonaceae
Polygonella articulata, coastal jointweed, North America, Polygonaceae
Polygonum bistorta, bistort, herbal medicine, Polygonaceae
Polygonum cuspidatum, Japanese knot weed, Polygonaceae
Polygonum multiflorum, knot weed, fleece flower tonic herbal medicine, Polygonaceae
Polygonum odoratum, Vietnamese coriander, laksa leaf, mint, Polygonaceae
Polygonum orientale, persicaria, "kiss me over the garden gate, fast-growing annual, hanging pink clusters of flowers, China, a
smartweed, Polygonaceae
Polygonum persicaria, ars-smart, lady's thumb, redshanks, herbal medicine but contain irritant oil, jointed stems, annual perennial herb
and climber, Polygonaceae
Polymnia polymnia, Asteraceae
Polypremum, polypremum, Buddlejaceae
Pometia pinnata, Fijian longan, large tree, evergreen, Fruit: small, brownish, leathery skin, translucent subacid flesh, seed, Used as: fresh,
propagation from: seeds, Tropical Asia
Poncirus trifoliata, hardy orange, trifoliate orange, bitter orange, (citrus rootstock), leaf has 3 leaflets, Rutaceae
Pongamia pinnata, (Millettia pinnata), Australian biofuel, Fabaceae
Populus balsamifera, (P. tacamahacca), poplar, tacamahac, hackmatack, Salicaceae
Populus, European poplar, American cottonwood tree, alamo, balsam poplar, black poplar, herbal medicine, deciduous, Salicaceae
Populus tremuloides, quaking aspen, trembling poplar, white poplar, quaking aspen, common aspen, Salicaceae
Porophyllum, pore leaf, Asteraceae
Portulaca grandiflora rose moss, Portulacaceae
Portulaca oleracea, purslane, pigweed, munyeroo, ornamental, herbal medicine, high omega 3 fatty acids, Portulacaceae
Portulacaria afra, jade plant, Portulacaceae
Potentilla anserina, silver weed, Rosaceae
Potentilla erecta, tormentil, herbal medicine, Rosaceae
Potentilla fruticosa, Shrubby Cinquefoil, Five-fingered Grass, silver weed, tormentil, tannin, herbal medicine, shrub, hardy, tolerate
rought, flooding, cold, transplant easily. Rosaceae
Potentilla reptans, Cinquefoil, Creeping Cinquefoil, European Cinquefoil, 40 cm, dainty yellow flowers, used in love-potions and fish baits,
herbal medicine, fever relief, healing sores. Rosaceae
Pourouma spp., Amazon tree-grape, small tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: small, red, thin skin, sweet flesh,seed, Used as: fresh,
Propagation from: seeds, South America
Pourouma spp. Amazon tree-grape, small tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: small, red, thin skin, sweet flesh, Used as: fresh, propagation
from: seeds, South America
Pouteria caimito, abiu, Amazon basin, medium tree, slow growing, Fruit: medium to large, oval smooth, yellow, sweet, Used as fresh,
Propagation from:, seeds, grafting, Sapotaceae
Pouteria campechiana, canistel,  yellow sapote, small to medium tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: variable in size, shape, yellow, plant
called "egg fruit" because fruit like hard-boiled egg yolk, Used as: fresh, smoothies, cooked, Propagation from: seeds, grafting, fruit flesh
vary from dry to moist, Mexico, Central America, Sapotaceae
Pouteria obovata, lucmo, medium tree, evergreen, slow growing, Fruit: medium, ovate, sweet yellow pulp, similar to canistel, Used as:
fresh, Propagation from: seeds, South America, Sapotaceae
Pouteria sapota, sapote, mamey sapote, mamey colorado large tree, Fruit: large, red-brown, Used as: fresh, ice cream, sherbets,
Propagation from: seeds, grafting, Central America, Sapotaceae
Prenanthes, rattlesnake root, Asteraceae
Primula elatior, oxslip, Primulaceae
Primula veris, primrose, cowslip, peagle, herbal medicine, Primulaceae
Primula vulgaris, primrose, Primulaceae
Proatriplex, proatriplex, Chenopodiaceae
Proboscidea, unicorn plant, Pedaliaceae
Prockia, prockia, Flacourtiaceae
Prosopos, mesquite, honey mesquite, screw bean, Fabaceae
Prostranthera rotundifolia, native mint, commercial bushfood, Australia, Lamiaceae
Protea, protea, Proteaceae
Proustia, proustia, Asteraceae
Prunella vulgaris, halal, self heal, garden herb, herbal medicine, Lamiaceae
Prunus persica, Peach, Asia, small tree, Fruit: medium, yellow and red, sweet, Used as: fresh, frozen, cooked, deciduous, fast growing,
Propagation from: seeds, grafting
Psacalium, Indian bush, Asteraceae
Psathyrotes, turtle back, Asteraceae
Pseudanamomis umbellulifera, ciruelas, medium shrub, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: small, yellow, juicy sweet pulp, Used as: fresh,
Propagation from: seeds, Venezuela, Puerto Rico
Pseudelephantopus, dog's tongue, Asteraceae
Pseudobahia, sun burst, Asteraceae
Pseudoclappia, false clap daisy, Asteraceae
Pseudognaphalium, cud weed, Asteraceae
Psidium araca, Araca, small tree, evergreen, slow growing, Fruit: small, yellow, firm subacid pulp, many seeds, Used as: fresh, jelly, juice,
Propagation from: seeds, South America
Psidium cattleianum, cattley, strawberry guava, bail, shrub or small tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: small, round, red or yellow, subacid,
Used as: fresh, jelly, Propagation from: seeds, Brazil,
Psidium friedrichsthalianum, Cas, small tree, yellow, soft acid pulp, many seeds, Used as: fresh, jelly, juice, evergreen, Propagation from:
seeds, attractive ornamental, Central America
Psidium guajava, guava, yellow guava, pineapple gauva, small to medium tree, evergreen, fast growing, prolific, Fruit: medium to large,
round, sweet or sour, aromatic, high in vitamin C, few seeds, pear-like flavour, high nutritional value, Used as: fresh, jelly, preserves, juice,
Propagation from: seeds, airlayers, grafting, Mexico, South America, Asteraceae
Punica granatum, pomegranate, small shrub, semi-deciduous, slow growing, Fruit: small to large large, round, juicy pulp, many seeds, Used
as: fresh, juice, jelly, Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, Mexico
Psidium friedrichsthalianum, Cas, small to medium tree, evergreen, attractive ornamental, Fruit: yellow, soft acid pulp, many seeds, Used
as: fresh, jelly, juice, Propagation from: seeds, Central America
Psiguria, pygmy melon, Cucurbitaceae
Psilactis, tansy aster, Asteraceae
Psilocarphus, woolly heads, Asteraceae
Psilocaulon, Aizoaceae
Psilostrophe, paper flower, Asteraceae
Psilotrichum, Amaranthaceae
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, winged bean, Goa bean, "as bean", Fabaceae
Psoralea corylifolia, (Cullen sp.), bu gu zhi, scurf pea, herbal medicine, Fabaceae
Psoralidium, scurf pea, slim flower, Fabaceae
Psorothamnus dalea, Fabaceae
Psychotria, wild coffee, Rubiaceae
Pterocarpus indicus, deciduous, reacher 21 metres, used for furniture, South China, Fabaceae
Pterocarpus santalinus, purple or red sandalwood, purple rosewood, zitan, slow growing, denser than water, zitan wood reserved for
Qing dynasty royalty because of purple colour, South China, Fabaceae
Pterocarya, wing nut, Asteraceae
Pterocaulon, black root, Asteraceae
Pteronia incana, pteronia, blue dog, Asteraceae
Pterospora, pine drops, Monotropaceae
Pterostyrax hispidus, epaulette tree, Japan, China, Styracaceae
Ptychopetalum olacoides, "Muira Puama, potency wood", herbal medicine, Brazil, Olacaceae
Pueraria mirifica, folk medicine, cancer, breast development, Fabaceae
Pueraria montana, var. lobata, (P. lobata), kudzu, (dangerous invasive weed), Fabaceae
Pueraria phaseoloides, (Stizolobium aterrimum), kudzu, pueraria, puero, Fabaceae
Pulicaria, false flea bane, Asteraceae
Pulicaria, fleabane, common flea bane, Asteraceae
Pulmonaria officinalis, lung wort, herbal medicine, Boraginaceae
Punica granatum, Pomegranate, (pome, French: apple, granate, Latin: granatum. many seeds), Dadima, hardy, 2 metres +, frost-tolerant,
herbal medicine, rich in antioxidants, hardy, high nutritional value. Used as: fruit eaten raw, juice, in fruit salad. Iran, India, Punicaceae
Punica granatum, Pomegranate, shrub, to large large, round, juicy pulp, many seeds, Used as: fresh, juice, jelly, semi-deciduous, slow
growing, Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, Asia
Pyrola, winter green, Pyrolaceae
Pyrola, wintergreen, herbal medicine, Asteraceae
Pyrostegia venusta, flame vine, bignonia, orange-flowered Stephanotis, Brazil, ornamental tree, Bignoniaceae
Pyrrhopappus, desert chicory, Asteraceae
Pyrrocoma, golden weed, Asteraceae
Pyrus communis, common pear, (pear from Latin: pirium), Rosaceae
Pyrus cydonia, pear, quince, herbal medicine, Asteraceae
Pyxidanthera, Pyxidanthera, Diapensiacea
Passiflora edulis, Purple Passionfruit: Granadilla, vine, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: medium, purple, subacid, juicy, many seeds, Used
as: fresh, juice, sherbet, Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, grafting, Brazil
Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa, Yellow Passionfruit: Granadilla, Brazil, vine, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: medium, juicy, subacid, yellow,
Used as: fresh, juice, sherbet, Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, grafting,
Passiflora quadrangularis, Giant Granadilla, large vine, Fruit: very large, greenish-yellow, subacid, Used as: juice, cooked, fast growing,
Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, sometimes requires hand pollination, Tropical America
Pereskia aculeata, Barbados gooseberry, large vine, evergreen, Fruit: small, yellow, juicy subacid pulp, Used as: fresh, preserves,
Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, Tropical America
Persea americana, Avocado, medium to large tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: large, green or purple, flesh yellow, nutty flavour,
sed as: fresh, salads, Propagation by: seeds, grafting, Tropical America
Phyllanthus acidus, Otaheite gooseberry, grosella Madagascar, medium tree, male and female, Fruit: medium, 6-lobed, pale green,
sour preserves, pies, deciduous, fast growing, seeds, cuttings, India
Phyllanthus emblica, emblic, myrobolan, large tree, male and female, Fruit: round, smooth green, sour preserves, deciduous, fast growing,
seed, budding, Tropical Asia
Pleiogynium timorense, P. cerasiferum, Burdekin plum, medium tree, Fruit: small, purple, oblate, thin subacid pulp, large irregular seed jelly,
deciduous, Propagation from: seeds, Australia
Pometia pinnata, Fijian longan, large tree, evergreen, Fruit: small, brownish, leathery skin, translucent subacid flesh, seed, Used as: fresh,
Propagation from: seeds, Tropical Asia
Pourouma spp., Amazon tree-grape, small tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: small, red, thin skin, sweet flesh,seed, Used as: fresh,
Propagation from: seeds, South America
Pouteria caimito, abiu, medium tree, Fruit: medium to large, oval smooth, yellow, sweet, Used as: fresh E, slow growing, seeds, grafting,
Amazon basin
Pouteria campechiana, canistel, egg fruit, yellow sapote, small to medium tree, evergreen, Fruit: variable in size, shape, yellow, Used as:
fresh, smoothies, cooked, fast growing, Propagation from: seeds, grafting, fruit flesh characteristics vary from dry to moist, Central and
South America
Pouteria obovata, lucmo, medium tree, evergreen, slow growing, Fruit: medium, ovate, sweet yellow pulp, similar to canistel, Used as:
fresh, Propagation from: seeds, South America
Pouteria sapota, Sapote, Mamey sapote, Mamey colorado, large tree, Fruit: large, reddish brown, Used as: fresh, ice cream, sherbets,
Propagation from: seeds, grafting, Central America
Prunus persica, Peach, Asia, small tree, Fruit: medium, yellow and red, sweet, Used as: fresh, frozen, cooked, deciduous, fast growing,
ropagation from: seeds, grafting
Pseudanamomis umbellulifera, ciruelas, medium shrub, evergreen, Fruit: yellow, juicy sweet pulp,seed, Used as: fresh, Propagation from:
seeds, Venezuela, Puerto Rico
Psidium araca, araca, small tree, evergreen, fast growing, Fruit: small, yellow, firm subacid pulp, many seeds, Used as: fresh, jelly, juice,
ropagation from: seeds, South America
Psidium cattleianum, cattley, strawberry guava, shrub or small tree, evergreen, Fruit: small, round, red or yellow, subacid, Used as: fresh,
jelly, Propagation from: seeds, Brazil,
Psidium friedrichsthalianum, cas, small tree, evergreen, yellow, soft acid pulp, many seeds, Used as: fresh, jelly, juice, Propagation from:
seeds, attractive ornamental, Central America
Psidium guajava, guava, small to medium tree, evergreen, fast growing, prolific fruit, Fruit: medium to large, round sweet or sour, aromatic,
Used as: fresh, jelly, preserves, juice, Propagation from: seeds, airlayers, grafting, fruits high in vitamin C, Mexico, South America
Punica granatum, pomegranate, shrub, to large large, round, juicy pulp, many seeds, Used as: fresh, juice, jelly, semi-deciduous, slow
growing, Propagation from: seeds, cuttings, Asia